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Total lung denervation

Marie-Luce A Rosseels, Annie G Delaunois, Etienne Hanon, Philippe J-P Guillaume, Frédéric D C Martin, Diels J van den Dobbelsteen
Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is a complexation agent used to enhance drug solubilization and formulation stability. Although its toxicity is well characterized, its cardiovascular effects are less known. To investigate them, HPβCD was infused intravenously over 10 min in anesthetized dogs (10-40% (w/v, i.e. 200-800 mg/kg) in non-denervated animals and at 40% in denervated animals). HPβCD increased renal arteriolar resistance and decreased renal blood flow at all doses, almost immediately after infusion start, more drastically in females...
December 2013: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Luxmi Gahlot, Francis H Y Green, Anita Rigaux, Jennifer M Schneider, Shabih U Hasan
Vagally mediated afferent feedback and compliant lungs (surfactant system) play vital roles in the establishment of adequate alveolar ventilation and pulmonary gas exchange at birth. Although the significance of vagal innervation in the establishment of normal breathing patterns is well recognized, the precise role of lung innervation in the maturation of the surfactant system remains unclear. The specific aim of the present study was to investigate whether vagal denervation compromises the surfactant system during fetal development...
May 2009: Journal of Applied Physiology
B Sokołowska, A Jóźwik
In this study, we examined the usefulness of arterial blood gas variables, as changed by the hypoxic stimulus, in discerning various experimentally-induced conditions of diaphragm weakness in anesthetized cats. We defined three experimental situations (models): (i) intact muscle, statistical Class I, (ii) four degrees of muscle dysfunction (after sequential diaphragm denervation), Classes II-V, and (iii) entirely paralyzed muscle, Class VI. Responses to a hypoxic stimulus in the above-mentioned conditions were evaluated by using the methods of the pattern recognition theory...
September 2004: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
M P Macris, T Nakatani, T J Myers, D E Lammermeier, S R Igo, O H Frazier, D A Cooley
The success of heart-lung transplant experiments in subprimate models has been limited because most techniques include total pulmonary denervation, which causes respiratory problems, blood loss, and subsequent death. Using 20 subprimates (12 domestic swine and 8 mongrel dogs), we tested a heterotopic heart-single lung transplant method intended to preserve unilateral pulmonary innervation and to reduce blood loss. After native right pneumonectomy, the donor heart and right lung were transplanted en bloc. Anastomotic sites included the right primary bronchus, the superior vena cava, and the aorta...
1990: Texas Heart Institute Journal
Long Hao, C Peter Clarke
We report a case of persistent twitching of the latissimus dorsi muscle following a posterolateral thoracotomy, which continued despite several attempts at control including denervation, and was ultimately cured by total resection of the muscle.
September 2002: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Salim Lalani, John E Remmers, Yolanda MacKinnon, Gordon T Ford, Shabih U Hasan
Vagal denervation performed in the intrathoracic region in newborn lambs leads to hypoxemia and decreased respiratory system compliance (Crs), which could result from atelectasis and/or pulmonary edema. The objective of the present study was to quantify the relative roles of alveolar derecruitment and pulmonary edema as underlying cause(s) of respiratory failure. Vagal denervation was performed in the intrathoracic region and below the recurrent laryngeal nerves in six newborn lambs within 24 h of birth, whereas six were sham operated...
August 2002: Journal of Applied Physiology
S Lalani, J E Remmers, F H Green, A Bukhari, G T Ford, S U Hasan
Recently, Wong et al. (Wong KA, Bano A, Rigaux A, Wang B, Bharadwaj B, Schurch S, Green F, Remmers JE, and Hasan SU, J Appl Physiol 85: 849-859, 1998) demonstrated that fetal lambs that have undergone vagal denervation prenatally do not establish adequate alveolar ventilation shortly after birth. In their study, however, vagal denervation was performed prenatally and the deleterious effects of vagal denervation on breathing patterns and gas exchange could have resulted from the prenatal actions of the neurotomy...
November 2001: Journal of Applied Physiology
G H Jenkins, D R Singer
There are many mechanisms underlying the hypertension which occurs after thoracic transplantation. Previous disease, effects of cyclosporin, tacrolimus and steroid immunosuppression and cardiac denervation are major contributory factors. Abnormal sodium and water balance is an important common mediating factor. A new approach is clearly needed for classifying the severity of hypertension in these patients taking into account day-night variation and total blood pressure (BP) load. This would allow improved strategies for investigation and treatment...
December 1998: Journal of Human Hypertension
A J Minisi
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting data regarding whether the primary source of afferent input for the vagal cardiopulmonary reflex emanates from receptors located in the ventricles, atria, and/or lungs. This study evaluated the effects of total cardiac deafferentation on the reflex control of efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in response to a stimulus that affected all vagal receptors in the cardiopulmonary region. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experiments were performed in 14 chloralose-anesthetized dogs with sinoaortic denervation...
December 8, 1998: Circulation
I Mitrouska, Z Bshouty, M Younes, D Georgopoulos
In mechanically ventilated awake and sleeping humans, it has been shown that increasing inspiratory flow rate (V'I) exerted a reflex excitatory effect on respiratory output. Mechanoreceptors located in intercostal muscles or within the lung have been suggested as possible pathways that may mediate the excitatory effect of V'I. To test this, five patients with bilateral lung transplantation (LTP) and eight quadriplegics with spinal cord transection at the level of C6-C7 (QP) were studied. Patients were connected to a volume cycle ventilator in the assist volume-control mode and V'I was randomly changed...
April 1998: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
T Uhlig, J H Wildhaber, E Eber, P D Sly
Eleven open-chest piglets were studied to examine the effects of vascular engorgement on partitioned airway and lung tissue mechanics, and to investigate the role of vagal denervation on lung function during engorgement. Alveolar pressure was measured using alveolar capsules. Pulmonary elastance (EL) and resistance (RL), airway (Raw), and tissue (Vti) resistance were calculated during mechanical ventilation. Acute fluid administration with polygeline (10 mL/kg boluses up to a total of 30 mL/kg) resulted in an increase of RL with increases in both Raw and Vti...
October 1997: Pediatric Research
M Noppen, W Vincken
Bilateral interruption of the upper dorsal sympathetic chain at the D2 and D3 level represents the only permanent cure for essential hyperhidrosis. Following surgical sympathectomy, significant and symptomatic changes in pulmonary function have been observed. Since functional effects of the surgical intervention cannot be excluded, we wondered whether such alterations also occurred after thoracoscopic sympathicolysis; these should then be attributable to the surgical denervation itself. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs), including spirometry and body plethysmographic measurement of lung volumes and airway resistance and conductance, were compared before and 6 weeks after thoracoscopic sympathicolysis in 47 patients...
August 1996: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
S Matsumoto, H Okamura, K Suzuki, N Sugai, T Shimizu
The inhibitory effects of CO2 on slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SARs) were studied before and after administration of acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, in anesthetized, artificially ventilated rabbits after vagus nerve section. CO2 inhalation (maximal tracheal CO2 concentration ranging from 7.2% to 9.5%) for approximately 60 sec decreased the receptor activity during both inflation and deflation. The magnitude of decreased receptor activity during deflation became more pronounced than that seen during inflation...
October 1996: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
R Kinkead, W Milsom
Breathing was monitored during normocarbia, hypercarbia (6% CO2 in air), and the period immediately after the return to normocarbic conditions in intact, olfactory-denervated, and vagotomized bullfrogs. In intact frogs, ventilation increased during hypercarbia, but the breathing pattern remained episodic. Immediately upon return to air, there was a further paradoxical increase in breathing frequency, and breathing became continuous in most frogs. Results obtained from animals after olfactory receptor denervation indicate that tonic stimulation of olfactory receptors by airway CO2 inhibited breathing during hypercarbia...
January 1996: American Journal of Physiology
L Yuan, B S Nail
The present study aimed to compare the reflex bronchoconstrictor effects of upper airway applications of dry airstreams with equivalent cooling produced by cold isotonic and hypertonic saline solutions in anaesthetized rabbits. A method of on-line, breath by breath analysis of lung mechanics was used. The changes in total lung resistance (RL) and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) produced by dry airstreams and by cold hypertonic saline were greater than those induced by cold isotonic saline. Warm isotonic saline and supersaturated airstreams were ineffective...
August 1995: Respiration Physiology
R W Braith, M C Limacher, E D Staples, M L Pollock
One hypothesis to explain the rapid neural component of exercise hyperpnea contends that afferent stimuli originating in the ventricles of the heart act reflexly on the respiratory center at the onset of exercise, ie, "cardiodynamic hyperpnea." Orthotopic cardiac transplantation (Tx) results in the loss of afferent information from the ventricles. Thus, Tx possibly results in transient hypercapnia and hypoxemia in deafferented heart transplant recipients (HTR) at the onset of exercise due to hypoventilation...
June 1993: Chest
A Steib, G Freys, J C Otteni
The increase of non specific surgeries in transplanted patients may be related to the better survival achieved by the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy and improved surgical and intensive care conditions. Therefore, the anaesthetist may be mandated to give anaesthesia in such patients, treated in hospitals which are not involved in transplantation procedures. The ignorance of the main physiologic and pharmacological changes in the new grafted organ as well as the knowledge of high risks of rejection or infection contribute to the anxiety often encountered in front of these patients...
1993: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
D D Thomas, T A Standaert, W R Anton, D R Jones, J D Godwin, G Raghu, W A Hodson, M D Allen
Success in neonatal lung transplantation depends on the growth of the transplanted lung. To study the effects of transplantation and denervation on primate lung growth without rejection or immunosuppression, an autotransplant model was chosen. Eight-week-old baboons underwent left lung autotransplantation (n = 5) or sham operation (n = 1). At age 13 weeks and 9 months, single lung volumes were calculated by nitrogen washout and computed tomography. Results were compared with those of 4 unoperated weight-matched controls (2 per age group)...
December 1993: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
T J Hathaway, T W Higenbottam, J F Morrison, C A Clelland, J Wallwork
We have studied the effects on FEV1 of inhaled capsaicin in concentrations of 3 x 10(-6) to 3 x 10(-1) mg/ml and methacholine (1 to 16 mg/ml) in 15 heart-lung transplant (HLT) patients who had undergone recent transbronchial lung biopsy to determine the relationships in chronically denervated lungs between these different forms of airway hyperreactivity and inflammation. A total of 10 normal subjects and 17 asthmatic subjects were included for comparison. Capsaicin caused bronchodilation in eight HLT patients (FEV1 rising by 6...
November 1993: American Review of Respiratory Disease
A W Smits
Pulmonary hypertension and hyperperfusion were experimentally induced in conscious toads (Bufo marinus) to test whether excessive transcapillary filtration might result in pulmonary edema. Elimination of pulmocutaneous baroreceptor afferent input by bilateral sectioning of recurrent laryngeal nerves caused mean pulmonary arterial pressure to increase by nearly 25 mmHg and pulmonary blood flow to increase fourfold. Left lungs of control (normotensive) and hypertensive toads were isolated by snares at the hilus and excised for compartmental lung fluid analysis...
April 1994: American Journal of Physiology
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