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Xin Wu, Huijun He, William L Yang, Jiaping Yu, Chunping Yang
A novel bionanomaterial comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a sodium alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (SA-PVA) matrix was synthesized for the efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions. The effects of the operating parameters, nitrogen source, and glucose and Fe3+ contents on atrazine removal were investigated, and the intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the synthesized Fe3 O4 particles were characterized by XRD, EDX, HR-TEM, FTIR, and hysteresis loops, and the bionanomaterial was characterized by SEM...
June 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
T Sowoidnich, L Gordon, C Naber, F Bellmann, J Neubauer, D Joester
The analysis of the atomic composition of the interface between tricalcium silicate (C3 S), the main compound of Ordinary Portland Cement, and surrounding solution is still a challenging task. At the same time, that knowledge is of profound importance for describing the basic processes during hydration. By means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) we combine modern techniques in order to shed light on this topic in the present study. The results of these methods are compared with conduction calorimetry as a standard technique to study the hydration kinetics of cement...
June 11, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Akram Firouzi-Amandi, Mehdi Dadashpour, Mohammad Nouri, Nosratollah Zarghami, Hamed Serati-Nouri, Davoud Jafari-Gharabaghlou, Bita Hazhir Karzar, Hassan Mellatyar, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Zohreh Babaloo, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a natural flavonoid, Chrysin (Chr), encapsulated in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) for the modulation of macrophage polarity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. The synthetized NPs were characterized using FTIR, DLS and FE-SEM. MTT assay was used to assess the toxicity of different concentration of Chr-encapsulated NPs on LPS/IFN-γ stimulated peritoneal exudate macrophages. To investigate the repolarization efficiency of Chr-encapsulated NPs, real-time PCR was applied to measure M1 (iNOS and SOCS3) and M2 (Arg1 and Fizz) markers expression...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jaime Madrigal-González, Enrique Andivia, Miguel A Zavala, Markus Stoffel, Joaquín Calatayud, Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, Juan Ballesteros-Cánovas
Climate change can impair ecosystem functions and services in extensive dry forests worldwide. However, attribution of climate change impacts on tree growth and forest productivity is challenging due to multiple inter-annual patterns of climatic variability associated with atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Moreover, growth responses to rising atmospheric CO2 , namely carbon fertilization, as well as size ontogenetic changes can obscure the climate change signature as well. Here we apply Structural Equation Models (SEM) to investigate the relative role of climate change on tree growth in an extreme Mediterranean environment (i...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Teresa Balbi, Michele Montagna, Rita Fabbri, Cristina Carbone, Silvia Franzellitti, Elena Fabbri, Laura Canesi
Diclofenac-DCF, one of the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is globally detected in environmental compartments. Due to its occurrence in freshwater and potential impact on aquatic organisms, it has been added to the watch list of chemicals in the EU Water Directive; consequently, research on the impact of DCF in model aquatic organisms has great regulatory implications towards ecosystem health. DCF is also detected in coastal waters at concentrations from ng/L to 1 μg/L, as well as in marine organisms, such as the mussel Mytilus...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yanan Zang, Qinyan Yue, Yujiao Kan, Longlong Zhang, Baoyu Gao
A novel composite, EPIDMA/D301, with high adsorption capacity and particular affinity toward Cr(Ⅵ) was well prepared utilizing cationic polyelectrolyte poly-epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (EPIDMA) impregnated in the networking pores of the styrene macroporous weak basic anion exchange resin D301. The physicochemical characteristics of EPIDMA/D301 were characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), zeta potential, FTIR, SEM-Mapping and XPS. The adsorption properties were researched via the influence of the concentration of EPIDMA, adsorbent dose, pH, the initial concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) solution, contact time and temperature...
June 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sameena N Malik, Prakash C Ghosh, Atul N Vaidya, Sandeep N Mudliar
The study investigates the effect of catalytic ozone pretreatment via Fe2+ and nZVI on biodegradability enhancement of complex textile effluent. The nZVI particles were synthesized and characterized by XRD, TEM and SEM analyses. Results showed that nano catalytic ozone pretreatment led to higher biodegradability index (BOD5 /COD = BI) enhancement up to 0.61 (134.6%) along with COD, color and toxicity removal up to 73.5%, 87%, and 92% respectively. The disappearance of the corresponding GCMS & FTIR spectral peaks during catalyzed ozonation process indicated the cleavage of chromophore group and degradation of organic compounds present in the textile effluent...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hari Madhuri Doss, Snigdha Samarpita, Ramamoorthi Ganesan, Mahaboobkhan Rasool
AIMS: Bone erosion induced by enhanced osteoclast formation is a debilitating pathological phenomenon in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent finding has revealed that ferulic acid is associated with reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone erosion. However, the underlying mechanism through which ferulic acid inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone erosion still remains to be elucidated. This study assessed the therapeutic effects of ferulic acid on osteoclast differentiation and bone erosion by targeting RANKL dependent NF-κB pathway...
June 14, 2018: Life Sciences
Kursad Aydin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: This study was designed to assess clinical characteristics and nutritional status of pediatric outpatients with cerebral palsy (CP) and to determine prevalence of malnutrition based on physicians' clinical judgment and on anthropometric data in relation to percentile reference values. METHODS: A total of 1108 pediatric neurology outpatients (mean ± SEM age: 7.2 ± 0.1 years, 59.3% were males) diagnosed with CP were included in this cross-sectional, non-interventional multicenter single-visit study conducted between October 2015 and July 2016 at 20 centers across Turkey...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Lihua Zhu, Yanjin Guan, Jun Lin, Jiqiang Zhai, Zhendong Xie
A nanocrystalline-amorphous (NC-A) mixed layer was obtained by ultrasonic shot peening (USP) on pure titanium at room temperature and observed by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The results showed that the amorphization percentage in the NC-A mixed layer increased continuously with the increase of the peening duration, shot diameter and sonotrode amplitude or the decrease of the peening distance. The maximum amorphization percentage achieved in this study was 44...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Olushola S Ayanda, Simphiwe M Nelana, Eliazer B Naidoo
In this study, nano iron (nano-Fe) was successfully synthesized by sodium borohydride reduction of ferric chloride solution to enhance the ultrasonic degradation of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP). The nano-Fe was characterized by scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflection - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area determination...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sevgi Polat, Perviz Sayan
The polymorphic phase transformation of β-glycine to α-glycine was analyzed in the absence and presence of three different intensities of ultrasonic irradiation in a batch system at 25 °C. The experiments were performed to explore the effects of ultrasonic irradiation and its intensity on phase transformation time, morphology, storage stability, and filtration characteristics. The crystals obtained with and without ultrasound were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results showed that the ultrasound tended to reduce the transformation time...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ravi Sakthivel, Dicson Sheeja Malar, Kasi Pandima Devi
In the present study, the antiproliferative activity of phytol and its mechanism of action against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 were studied in detail. Results showed that phytol exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 70.81 ± 0.32 μM and 60.7 ± 0.47 μM at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Phytol showed no adverse toxic effect in normal human lung cells (L-132), but mild toxic effect was observed when treated with maximum dose (67 and 84 μM)...
June 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Maryam Shamsayei, Yadollah Yamini, Hamid Asiabi
In this work, the bio-nanohybrids of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide intercalated with zwitterionic histidine (His-LDH) was synthesized. The crystal phase, morphology, and nanostructure of the as-prepared His-LDH were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption methods. The His-LDHs were used to remove anionic dyes, including Congo red (CR), indigo carmine (IC) and sunset yellow FCF (SY) from aqueous solutions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Durairajan Rubini, Sanaulla Farisa Banu, B Narayanan Vedahari, Durai Ramyadevi, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Paramasivam Nithyanand
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRSA that promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jianrui Niu, Hengli Qian, Jie Liu, Haobin Liu, Peng Zhang, Erhong Duan
To achieve efficient degradation of toluene, a series of Cu1-y Mn2 Cey Ox /sepiolite catalysts (y = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) with different Cu1-y Mn2 Cey Ox loadings (10%, 20%, and 30%) were prepared via the co-precipitation method. The structure-activity and surficial elemental species of Cu1-y Mn2 Cey Ox /sepiolite were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, BET, ICP-MS and XPS. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was tested in the oxidation reaction of toluene, results showed that 20%Cu0.8 Mn2 Ce0.2 Ox /sepiolite remains able to remove toluene completely with high efficiency at a temperature of 289 °C...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qinying Wang, Haihong Chen, Yang Yang, Bo Wang
OBJECTIVE: Adherence of pathogen to nasal mucosa and colonization is the first step of bacterial biofilm(BBF) formation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).Terminal sialic acids presenting on cell surface are potential targets for bacterial binding, thus may partly contribute to the pathogenesis of CRS. However, little has been published in this respect, the purpose of our study aimed to investigate the expression of sialic acids on the nasal mucosa in CRS patients and its possible effect on BBF formation...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Reza Akbari, Mojdeh Hakemi Vala, Ali Hashemi, Hossein Aghazadeh, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
The emergence and dissemination of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are major challenges for antimicrobial chemotherapy of bacterial infections. In this critical condition, cationic antimicrobial peptides are 'novel' promising candidate antibiotics to overcome the issue. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism of new melittin-derived peptides (i.e., MDP1 and MDP2) against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MDP1 was designed with deletion of three amino acid residues, i...
June 15, 2018: Amino Acids
Mehmet Cetin, Hakan Sevik, Nurcan Yigit
This research aimed to determine changes to some micromorphological characteristics of certain landscape plants grown in areas with different dominant climate types. Leaf samples were collected from eight woody plant species in areas with terrestrial, Black Sea, and Mediterranean climate types in Turkey. Then, scaled images of the collected leaf samples were obtained using SEM. StomaLength, StomaWidth, PoreLength, PoreWidth, and StomaDensity were determined using measurements made on the images. Data were statistically evaluated, and the changes to these characteristics by climate type and species were determined...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
P W Stroman, G Ioachim, J M Powers, R Staud, C Pukall
Descending regulation of spinal cord responses to nociceptive signaling has a strong influence on pain perception. Prior studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that in addition to reactive responses to nociceptive signals there is a continuous component to regulation, and that it may vary with differences in pain sensitivity. We hypothesize that this continuous regulation component occurs routinely in fMRI studies prior to noxious stimulation, as well as during, and following stimulation...
June 12, 2018: Pain
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