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Plant functional traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907259/spectral-diversity-area-relationships-for-assessing-biodiversity-in-a%C3%A2-wildland-agriculture-matrix
#1
Kyla Marie Dahlin
Species-area relationships have long been used to assess patterns of species diversity across scales. Here, this concept is extended to spectral diversity using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over western Michigan. This mixture of mesic forest and agricultural lands offers two end-points on the local-scale diversity continuum; one set of well-mixed forest patches and one set of highly homogeneous agricultural patches. Using the sum of the first three principal component values and the principal components' convex hull volume, spectral diversity was compared within and among these plots and to null expectations for perfectly random and perfectly patchy landscapes...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902803/alphasim-software-for-breeding-program-simulation
#2
Anne-Michelle Faux, Gregor Gorjanc, R Chris Gaynor, Mara Battagin, Stefan M Edwards, David L Wilson, Sarah J Hearne, Serap Gonen, John M Hickey
This paper describes AlphaSim, a software package for simulating plant and animal breeding programs. AlphaSim enables the simulation of multiple aspects of breeding programs with a high degree of flexibility. AlphaSim simulates breeding programs in a series of steps: (i) simulate haplotype sequences and pedigree; (ii) drop haplotypes into the base generation of the pedigree and select single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN); (iii) assign QTN effects, calculate genetic values, and simulate phenotypes; (iv) drop haplotypes into the burn-in generations; and (v) perform selection and simulate new generations...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900723/small-grain-11-controls-grain-size-grain-number-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#3
Na Fang, Ran Xu, Luojiang Huang, Baolan Zhang, Penggen Duan, Na Li, Yuehua Luo, Yunhai Li
BACKGROUND: Grain size is one of key agronomic traits that determine grain yield in rice. Several regulators of grain size have been identified in rice, but the mechanisms that determine grain size and yield remain largely unknown. RESULTS: Here we characterize a small grain (smg11) mutant in rice, which exhibits small grains, dense panicles and the increased number of grains per panicle. Cloning and sequence analyses of the SMG11 gene reveal that smg11 is a new allele of DWARF2 (D2), which encodes a cytochrome P450 (CYP90D2) involved in brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway...
December 2016: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897247/the-invasive-stoloniferous-clonal-plant-alternanthera-philoxeroides-outperforms-its-co-occurring-non-invasive-functional-counterparts-in-heterogeneous-soil-environments-invasion-implications
#4
Tong Wang, Jiangtao Hu, Linlin Miao, Dan Yu, Chunhua Liu
Environmental heterogeneity is considered to play a defining role in promoting invasion success, and it favours clonal plants. Although clonality has been demonstrated to be correlated with the invasion success of several species of clonal invasive plants in heterogeneous environments, little is known about how the spatial scale of heterogeneity affects their performance. In addition, the factors that distinguish invasive from non-invasive clonal species and that enhance the invasive potential of clonal exotic invaders in heterogeneous environments remain unclear...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896431/functional-natural-allelic-variants-of-flavonoid-3-5-hydroxylase-gene-governing-catechin-traits-in-tea-plant-and-its-relatives
#5
Ji-Qiang Jin, Jian-Qiang Ma, Ming-Zhe Yao, Chun-Lei Ma, Liang Chen
Functional allelic variants of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene provides new information of F3'5'H function of tea plant and its relatives. This insight may serve as the foundation upon which to advance molecular breeding in the tea plant. Catechins are the active components of tea that determine its quality and health attributes. This study established the first integrated genomic strategy for deciphering the genetic basis of catechin traits of tea plant. With the RNA-sequencing analysis of bulked segregants representing the tails of a F1 population segregated for total catechin content, we identified a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene...
November 28, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886144/cuticular-lipids-as-a-cross-talk-among-ants-plants-and-butterflies
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Barbero
Even though insects and plants are distantly related organisms, they developed an integument which is functionally and structurally similar. Besides functioning as a physical barrier to cope with abiotic and biotic stress, this interface, called cuticle, is also a source of chemical signaling. Crucial compounds with this respect are surface lipids and especially cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). This review is focused on the role of CHCs in fostering multilevel relationships among ants, plants and Lepidoptera (primarily butterflies)...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881992/molecular-mapping-and-qtl-for-expression-profiles-of-flavonoid-genes-in-brassica-napus
#7
Cunmin Qu, Huiyan Zhao, Fuyou Fu, Kai Zhang, Jianglian Yuan, Liezhao Liu, Rui Wang, Xinfu Xu, Kun Lu, Jia-Na Li
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that are extensively distributed in the plant kingdom and contribute to seed coat color formation in rapeseed. To decipher the genetic networks underlying flavonoid biosynthesis in rapeseed, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map with 1089 polymorphic loci (including 464 SSR loci, 97 RAPD loci, 451 SRAP loci, and 75 IBP loci) using recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The map consists of 19 linkage groups and covers 2775 cM of the B. napus genome with an average distance of 2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881798/acclimation-of-leaf-water-status-and-stem-hydraulics-to-drought-and-tree-neighbourhood-alternative-strategies-among-the-saplings-of-five-temperate-deciduous-tree-species
#8
Torben Lübbe, Bernhard Schuldt, Christoph Leuschner
Adjustment in leaf water status parameters and modification in xylem structure and functioning can be important elements of a tree's response to continued water limitation. In a growth trial with saplings of five co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) conducted in moist or dry soil, we compared the drought acclimation in several leaf water status and stem hydraulic parameters. Considering the extremes in the species responses, Fraxinus excelsior L...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880018/drought-related-secondary-metabolites-of-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l-leaves-and-their-mqtls
#9
Anna Piasecka, Aneta Sawikowska, Anetta Kuczyńska, Piotr Ogrodowicz, Krzysztof Mikołajczak, Karolina Krystkowiak, Kornelia Gudyś, Justyna Guzy-Wróbelska, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Kachlicki
Determination of the role of plant secondary metabolites in stress conditions is problematic due to diversity of their structures and complexity of interdependence with different biological pathways. Correlation of the metabolomic data with the genetic background provides essential information on the features of metabolites. LC-MS analysis of leaf metabolites from 100 barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) revealed that 98 traits among 135 detected phenolic and terpenoid compounds significantly changed the level as a result of drought stress...
November 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879048/coordinated-protein-co-expression-in-plants-by-harnessing-the-synergy-between-an-intein-and-a-viral-2a-peptide
#10
Bei Zhang, Madhusudhan Rapolu, Sandeep Kumar, Manju Gupta, Zhibin Liang, Zhenlin Han, Philip Williams, Wei Wen Su
A novel approach is developed for coordinated expression of multiple proteins from a single transgene in plants. An Ssp DnaE mini-intein variant engineered for hyper N-terminal autocleavage is covalently linked to the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A) peptide with unique ribosome skipping property, via a peptide linker, to create an "IntF2A" self-excising fusion protein domain. This IntF2A domain acts, in cis, to direct highly effective release of its flanking proteins of interest (POI) from a "polyprotein" precursor in plants...
November 23, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874081/the-response-of-the-soil-microbial-food-web-to-extreme-rainfall-under-different-plant-systems
#11
Feng Sun, Kaiwen Pan, Akash Tariq, Lin Zhang, Xiaoming Sun, Zilong Li, Sizhong Wang, Qinli Xiong, Dagang Song, Olusanya Abiodun Olatunji
An agroforestry experiment was conducted that involved four planting systems: monoculture of the focal species Zanthoxylum bungeanum and mixed cultures of Z. bungeanum and Capsicum annuum, Z. bungeanum and Medicago sativa and Z. bungeanum and Glycine max. Soil microbial food web (microorganisms and nematodes) was investigated under manipulated extreme rainfall in the four planting systems to assess whether presence of neighbor species alleviated the magnitude of extreme rainfall on nutrient uptake of the focal species by increasing the stability of soil food web...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870885/a-negative-relationship-between-foliar-carbon-isotope-composition-and-mass-based-nitrogen-concentration-on-the-eastern-slope-of-mount-gongga-china
#12
Jiazhu Li, Guoan Wang, Runan Zhang, Li Li
Plants adopt ecological strategy to resist environmental changes and increase their resource-use efficiency. The ecological strategy includes changes in physiological traits and leaf morphology, which may result in simultaneous variations in foliar N concentration and the ratio of intercellular CO2 concentration to ambient CO2 concentration (ci/ca). This in turn links to foliar carbon isotope discrimination, and thus, a relationship between foliar N concentration and foliar carbon isotope composition (δ13C) is expected...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870051/chemical-similarity-and-local-community-assembly-in-the-species-rich-tropical-genus-piper
#13
Diego Salazar, M Alejandra Jaramillo, Robert J Marquis
Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870049/experimental-reduction-in-interaction-intensity-strongly-affects-biotic-selection
#14
Nina Sletvold, Jon Ågren
The link between biotic interaction intensity and strength of selection is of fundamental interest for understanding biotically driven diversification and predicting the consequences of environmental change. The strength of selection resulting from biotic interactions is determined by the strength of the interaction and by the covariance between fitness and the trait under selection. When the relationship between trait and absolute fitness is constant, selection strength should be a direct function of mean population interaction intensity...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870009/photosynthetic-rates-influence-the-population-dynamics-of-understory-herbs-in-stochastic-light-environments
#15
Andrea C Westerband, Carol C Horvitz
Temporal variability in light from gaps in the tree canopy strongly influences the vital rates of understory plants. From 2012-2015, we estimated the size-specific vital rates of two herbs, Calathea crotalifera and Heliconia tortuosa, over a range of light environments. We estimated maximum photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) for a subset of individuals each year during three annual censuses, and modelled future size as a linear function of current size (a plant trait that changes ontogenetically), canopy openness (an environmental variable), and Amax (a potentially plastic physiological trait)...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869799/transcript-protein-and-metabolite-temporal-dynamics-in-the-cam-plant-agave
#16
Paul E Abraham, Hengfu Yin, Anne M Borland, Deborah Weighill, Sung Don Lim, Henrique Cestari De Paoli, Nancy Engle, Piet C Jones, Ryan Agh, David J Weston, Stan D Wullschleger, Timothy Tschaplinski, Daniel Jacobson, John C Cushman, Robert L Hettich, Gerald A Tuskan, Xiaohan Yang
Already a proven mechanism for drought resilience, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized type of photosynthesis that maximizes water-use efficiency by means of an inverse (compared to C3 and C4 photosynthesis) day/night pattern of stomatal closure/opening to shift CO2 uptake to the night, when evapotranspiration rates are low. A systems-level understanding of temporal molecular and metabolic controls is needed to define the cellular behaviour underpinning CAM. Here, we report high-resolution temporal behaviours of transcript, protein and metabolite abundances across a CAM diel cycle and, where applicable, compare the observations to the well-established C3 model plant Arabidopsis...
November 21, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868235/trait-space-of-rare-plants-in-a-fire-dependent-ecosystem
#17
Gregory M Ames, Wade A Wall, Matthew G Hohmann, Justin P Wright
The causes of species rarity are of critical concern because of the high extinction risk associated with rarity. Studies examining individual rare species have limited generality, whereas trait-based approaches offer a means to identify functional causes of rarity that can be applied to communities with disparate species pools. Differences in functional traits between rare and common species may be indicative of the functional causes of species rarity and may therefore be useful in crafting species conservation strategies...
November 21, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867421/dedicated-biomass-crops-can-enhance-biodiversity-in-the-arable-landscape
#18
Alison J Haughton, David A Bohan, Suzanne J Clark, Mark D Mallott, Victoria Mallott, Rufus Sage, Angela Karp
Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping...
November 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866151/genotyping-by-sequencing-based-investigation-of-the-genetic-architecture-responsible-for-a-7-fold-increase-in-soybean-seed-stearic-acid
#19
Crystal B Heim, Jason D Gillman
Soybean oil is highly unsaturated but oxidatively unstable, rendering it non-ideal for food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fats and most saturated fats are conclusively linked to negative impacts on cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health. Two major soybean oil breeding targets are : 1) to reduce or eliminate the need for chemical hydrogenation, and 2) to replace the functional properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil...
November 18, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864943/-hummingbird-floral-traits-interact-synergistically-to-discourage-visitation-by-bumblebee-foragers
#20
Robert J Gegear, Rebecca Burns, Katharine A Swoboda-Bhattarai
Pollination syndromes are suites of floral traits presumed to reflect adaptations to attract and utilize a 'primary' type of animal pollinator. However, syndrome traits may also function to deter 'secondary' flower visitors that reduce plant fitness through their foraging activities. Here we use the hummingbird-pollinated plant species Mimulus cardinalis as a model to investigate the potential deterrent effects of classic bird syndrome traits on bumblebee foragers. To establish that M. cardinalis flowers elicit an avoidance response in bees, we assessed the choice behavior of individual foragers on a mixed experimental array of M...
November 19, 2016: Ecology
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