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Plant functional traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338764/cropping-practices-manipulate-abundance-patterns-of-root-and-soil-microbiome-members-paving-the-way-to-smart-farming
#1
Kyle Hartman, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Raphaël A Wittwer, Samiran Banerjee, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Harnessing beneficial microbes presents a promising strategy to optimize plant growth and agricultural sustainability. Little is known to which extent and how specifically soil and plant microbiomes can be manipulated through different cropping practices. Here, we investigated soil and wheat root microbial communities in a cropping system experiment consisting of conventional and organic managements, both with different tillage intensities. RESULTS: While microbial richness was marginally affected, we found pronounced cropping effects on community composition, which were specific for the respective microbiomes...
January 16, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333264/how-anthropogenic-shifts-in-plant-community-composition-alter-soil-food-webs
#2
REVIEW
Paul Kardol, Jonathan R De Long
There are great concerns about the impacts of soil biodiversity loss on ecosystem functions and services such as nutrient cycling, food production, and carbon storage. A diverse community of soil organisms that together comprise a complex food web mediates such ecosystem functions and services. Recent advances have shed light on the key drivers of soil food web structure, but a conceptual integration is lacking. Here, we explore how human-induced changes in plant community composition influence soil food webs...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329037/phloem-function-a-key-to-understanding-and-manipulating-plant-responses-to-rising-atmospheric-co2
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Pauline Lemonnier
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) directly stimulates photosynthesis and reduces stomatal conductance in C3 plants. Both of these physiological effects have the potential to alter phloem function at elevated [CO2]. Recent research has clearly established that photosynthetic capacity is correlated to vascular traits associated with phloem loading and water transport, but the effects of elevated [CO2] on these relationships are largely unexplored. Plants also employ different strategies for loading sucrose and other sugars into the phloem, and there is potential for species with different phloem loading strategies to respond differently to elevated [CO2]...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325559/pangenome-analyses-of-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici-reveal-the-structural-basis-of-a-highly-plastic-eukaryotic-genome
#4
Clémence Plissonneau, Fanny E Hartmann, Daniel Croll
BACKGROUND: Structural variation contributes substantially to polymorphism within species. Chromosomal rearrangements that impact genes can lead to functional variation among individuals and influence the expression of phenotypic traits. Genomes of fungal pathogens show substantial chromosomal polymorphism that can drive virulence evolution on host plants. Assessing the adaptive significance of structural variation is challenging, because most studies rely on inferences based on a single reference genome sequence...
January 11, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325054/dehydration-survival-of-crop-plants-and-its-measurement
#5
Abraham Blum, Roberto Tuberosa
Dehydration survival under drought stress is defined in this review as the transition from plant activity into a quiescent state of life preservation, which will be terminated by either recovery or death, depending on the stress regime and the plant's resilience. Dehydration survival is a popular phenotype by which functional genomics attempts to test gene function in drought resistance and survival. The available reports on phenotyping and genotyping of dehydration survival in genomic studies indicate that the measurement of this trait is often biased to the extent that misguided interpretations are likely to occur...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322322/functional-traits-can-improve-our-understanding-of-niche-and-dispersal-based-processes
#6
Feng Jiang, Yanhan Xun, Huiying Cai, Guangze Jin
Ecologists often determine the relative importance of niche- and dispersal-based processes via variation partitioning based on species composition. Functional traits and their proxies of phylogeny are expected to increase the detection of niche-based processes and reduce the unexplained variation relative to species identity. We collected eight adult tree traits and phylogenetic data of 41 species and employed a phylogenetic fuzzy weighting method to address this issue in a 9-ha temperate forest dynamics plot...
January 10, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321897/nutrient-stoichiometry-and-land-use-rather-than-species-richness-determine-plant-functional-diversity
#7
Verena Busch, Valentin H Klaus, Caterina Penone, Deborah Schäfer, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Jörg Müller, Stephanie A Socher, Ülo Niinemets, Josep Peñuelas, Norbert Hölzel, Markus Fischer, Till Kleinebecker
Plant functional traits reflect individual and community ecological strategies. They allow the detection of directional changes in community dynamics and ecosystemic processes, being an additional tool to assess biodiversity than species richness. Analysis of functional patterns in plant communities provides mechanistic insight into biodiversity alterations due to anthropogenic activity. Although studies have consi-dered of either anthropogenic management or nutrient availability on functional traits in temperate grasslands, studies combining effects of both drivers are scarce...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321883/quantifying-the-effects-of-ecological-constraints-on-trait-expression-using-novel-trait-gradient-analysis-parameters
#8
Gianluigi Ottaviani, James L Tsakalos, Gunnar Keppel, Ladislav Mucina
Complex processes related to biotic and abiotic forces can impose limitations to assembly and composition of plant communities. Quantifying the effects of these constraints on plant functional traits across environmental gradients, and among communities, remains challenging. We define ecological constraint (Ci ) as the combined, limiting effect of biotic interactions and environmental filtering on trait expression (i.e., the mean value and range of functional traits). Here, we propose a set of novel parameters to quantify this constraint by extending the trait-gradient analysis (TGA) methodology...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321872/relative-contribution-of-neutral-and-deterministic-processes-in-shaping-fruit-feeding-butterfly-assemblages-in-afrotropical-forests
#9
Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Freerk Molleman, William Oduro, Samuel K Oppong, David J Lohman, Rampal S Etienne
The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has gained the status of a quantitative null model for explaining patterns in ecological (meta)communities. The theory assumes that individuals of trophically similar species are functionally equivalent. We empirically evaluate the relative contribution of neutral and deterministic processes in shaping fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages in three tropical forests in Africa, using both direct (confronting the neutral model with species abundance data) and indirect approaches (testing the predictions of neutral theory using data other than species abundance distributions)...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321859/habitat-related-seed-germination-traits-in-alpine-habitats
#10
Maria Tudela-Isanta, Eduardo Fernández-Pascual, Malaka Wijayasinghe, Simone Orsenigo, Graziano Rossi, Hugh W Pritchard, Andrea Mondoni
Understanding the key aspects of plant regeneration from seeds is crucial in assessing species assembly to their habitats. However, the regenerative traits of seed dormancy and germination are underrepresented in this context. In the alpine zone, the large species and microhabitat diversity provide an ideal context to assess habitat-related regenerative strategies. To this end, seeds of 53 species growing in alpine siliceous and calcareous habitats (6230 and 6170 of EU Directive 92/43, respectively) were exposed to different temperature treatments under controlled laboratory conditions...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321858/how-do-steppe-plants-follow-their-optimal-environmental-conditions-or-persist-under-suboptimal-conditions-the-differing-strategies-of-annuals-and-perennials
#11
Hocine Ait Mouheb, Leila Kadik, Cécile Hélène Albert, Rachda Berrached, Andreas Prinzing
For a species to be able to respond to environmental change, it must either succeed in following its optimal environmental conditions or in persisting under suboptimal conditions, but we know very little about what controls these capacities. We parameterized species distribution models (SDMs) for 135 plant species from the Algerian steppes. We interpreted low false-positive rates as reflecting a high capacity to follow optimal environmental conditions and high false-negative rates as a high capacity to persist under suboptimal environmental conditions...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321846/weak-whole-plant-trait-coordination-in-a-seasonally-dry-south-american-stressful-environment
#12
José L A Silva, Alexandre F Souza, Adriano Caliman, Eduardo L Voigt, Juliana E Lichston
A core question involving both plant physiology and community ecology is whether traits from different organs are coordinated across species, beyond pairwise trait correlations. The strength of within-community trait coordination has been hypothesized to increase along gradients of environmental harshness, due to the cost of adopting ecological strategies out of the viable niche space supported by the abiotic conditions. We evaluated the strength of trait relationship and coordination in a stressful environment using 21 leaf and stem traits of 21 deciduous and evergreen woody species from a heath vegetation growing on coastal sandy plain in northeastern South America...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321479/contrasting-patterns-of-leaf-trait-variation-among-and-within-species-during-tropical-dry-forest-succession-in-costa-rica
#13
Géraldine Derroire, Jennifer S Powers, Catherine M Hulshof, Luis E Cárdenas Varela, John R Healey
A coordinated response to environmental drivers amongst individual functional traits is central to the plant strategy concept. However, whether the trait co-ordination observed at the global scale occurs at other ecological scales (especially within species) remains an open question. Here, for sapling communities of two tropical dry forest types in Costa Rica, we show large differences amongst traits in the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variation to their directional changes in response to environmental changes along a successional gradient...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321239/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-pseudofungus-hyphochytrium-catenoides
#14
Guy Leonard, Aurélie Labarre, David S Milner, Adam Monier, Darren Soanes, Jeremy G Wideman, Finlay Maguire, Sam Stevens, Divya Sain, Xavier Grau-Bové, Arnau Sebé-Pedrós, Jason E Stajich, Konrad Paszkiewicz, Matthew W Brown, Neil Hall, Bill Wickstead, Thomas A Richards
Eukaryotic microbes have three primary mechanisms for obtaining nutrients and energy: phagotrophy, photosynthesis and osmotrophy. Traits associated with the latter two functions arose independently multiple times in the eukaryotes. The Fungi successfully coupled osmotrophy with filamentous growth, and similar traits are also manifested in the Pseudofungi (oomycetes and hyphochytriomycetes). Both the Fungi and the Pseudofungi encompass a diversity of plant and animal parasites. Genome-sequencing efforts have focused on host-associated microbes (mutualistic symbionts or parasites), providing limited comparisons with free-living relatives...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320458/community-characteristics-and-leaf-stoichiometric-traits-of-desert-ecosystems-regulated-by-precipitation-and-soil-in-an-arid-area-of-china
#15
Xiaolong Zhang, Tianyu Guan, Jihua Zhou, Wentao Cai, Nannan Gao, Hui Du, Lianhe Jiang, Liming Lai, Yuanrun Zheng
Precipitation is a key environmental factor determining plant community structure and function. Knowledge of how community characteristics and leaf stoichiometric traits respond to variation in precipitation is crucial for assessing the effects of global changes on terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we measured community characteristics, leaf stoichiometric traits, and soil properties along a precipitation gradient (35-209 mm) in a desert ecosystem of Northwest China to explore the drivers of these factors...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316275/functional-trait-ecology-of-the-plateau-pika-ochotona-curzoniae-hodgson-1858-in-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-ecosystem
#16
Andrew T Smith, Badingqiuying, Maxwell C Wilson, Brigitte W Hogan
Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314083/tree-hydraulic-traits-are-co-ordinated-and-strongly-linked-to-climate-of-origin-across-a-rainfall-gradient
#17
Ximeng Li, Chris J Blackman, Brendan Choat, Remko A Duursma, Paul D Rymer, Belinda E Medlyn, David T Tissue
Plant hydraulic traits capture the impacts of drought stress on plant function, yet vegetation models lack sufficient information regarding trait coordination and variation with climate-of-origin across species. Here, we investigated key hydraulic and carbon economy traits of 12 woody species in Australia from a broad climatic gradient, with the aim of identifying the coordination among these traits and the role of climate in shaping cross-species trait variation. The influence of environmental variation was minimized by a common garden approach, allowing us to factor out the influence of environment on phenotypic variation across species...
January 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305657/keystone-mutualism-strengthens-top-down-effects-by-recruiting-large-bodied-ants
#18
Robert E Clark, Michael S Singer
Determining the impacts of mutualistic interactions and predator diversity on food webs are two important goals in community ecology. In this study, we examined how predator community variation mediates the strength of top-down effects in the presence and absence of mutualistic interactions. We examined the impacts of predatory ant species that simultaneously prey on leaf-chewing herbivores (Lepidoptera) and engage in food-for-protection mutualisms with sap-feeding herbivores (Hemiptera) in the lower canopy of Connecticut forests...
January 6, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302802/decoupled-dimensions-of-leaf-economic-and-anti-herbivore-defense-strategies-in-a-tropical-canopy-tree-community
#19
K McManus Chauvin, G P Asner, R E Martin, W J Kress, S J Wright, C B Field
Trade-offs among plant functional traits indicate diversity in plant strategies of growth and survival. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) reflects a trade-off between short-term carbon gain and long-term leaf persistence. A related trade-off, between foliar growth and anti-herbivore defense, occurs among plants growing in contrasting resource regimes, but it is unclear whether this trade-off is maintained within plant communities, where resource gradients are minimized. The LES and the growth-defense trade-off involve related traits, but the extent to which these trade-off dimensions are correlated is poorly understood...
January 4, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300824/winter-is-coming-plant-freezing-resistance-as-a-key-functional-trait-for-the-assembly-of-annual-mediterranean-communities
#20
David S Pescador, Ana M Sánchez, Arantzazu L Luzuriaga, Angela Sierra-Almeida, Adrián Escudero
Background and Aims: In Mediterranean annual plants, germination mainly occurs during the autumn and only those seedlings that survive winter freezing can flower and produce seedlings in spring. Surprisingly, the effect of freezing events as an abiotic determinant of these communities remains unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate how freezing events affect annual Mediterranean communities and whether their functional structure as related to freezing resistance is linked to the main biotic and abiotic determinants of these communities...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
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