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Plant functional traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428860/complex-trait-relationships-between-leaves-and-absorptive-roots-coordination-in-tissue-n-concentration-but-divergence-in-morphology
#1
Ruili Wang, Qiufeng Wang, Ning Zhao, Guirui Yu, Nianpeng He
Leaves and absorptive roots (i.e., first-order root) are above- and belowground plant organs related to resource acquisition; however, it is controversy over whether these two sets of functional traits vary in a coordinated manner. Here, we examined the relationships between analogous above- and belowground traits, including chemical (tissue C and N concentrations) and morphological traits (thickness and diameter, specific leaf area and root length, and tissue density) of 154 species sampling from eight subtropical and temperate forests...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427326/no-evidence-for-strong-cytonuclear-conflict-over-sex-allocation-in-a-simultaneously-hermaphroditic-flatworm
#2
Nikolas Vellnow, Dita B Vizoso, Gudrun Viktorin, Lukas Schärer
BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic sex allocation distorters, which arise from cytonuclear conflict over the optimal investment into male versus female reproductive function, are some of the best-researched examples for genomic conflict. Among hermaphrodites, many such distorters have been found in plants, while, to our knowledge, none have been clearly documented in animals. METHODS: Here we provide a quantitative test for cytonuclear conflict over sex allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano...
April 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426175/differences-in-xylem-and-leaf-hydraulic-traits-explain-differences-in-drought-tolerance-among-mature-amazon-rainforest-trees
#3
Thomas L Powell, James K Wheeler, Alex A R de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Scott R Saleska, Patrick Meir, Paul R Moorcroft
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure Amazon forests. Two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others; and therefore, the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses were investigated. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (πo ) and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites...
April 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424726/size-mediated-interaction-between-a-cushion-species-and-other-non-cushion-species-at-high-elevations-of-the-hengduan-mountains-sw-china
#4
Yang Yang, Jian-Guo Chen, Christian Schöb, Hang Sun
Arenaria polytrichoides (Caryophyllaceae) is a common cushion plant occurring at high elevations in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, SW China. It frequently has other non-cushion species growing within its canopy, forming a contrast with the surrounding areas because it creates patches of higher diversity and greater biomass. In this study, we examined the relationship between the cushions and associated non-cushion species along a gradient of cushion size. A total of 200 A. polytrichoides individuals were selected to fit four size classes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424715/temporal-petal-closure-benefits-reproductive-development-of-magnolia-denudata-magnoliaceae-in-early-spring
#5
Liya Liu, Chulan Zhang, Xiangyu Ji, Zhixiang Zhang, Ruohan Wang
The Magnoliaceae shows strong phylogenetic niche conservatism, in which temporal petal closure has been extensively reported. However, it is yet elusive whether temporal petal closure is an idle floral character inherited from their ancestors or an adaptive trait to their habitats. Here, we monitored the process of temporal floral closure and re-opening in a thermogenic plant, Magnolia denudata (Magnoliaceae). Furthermore, we artificially interrupted temporal petal closure and investigated its effects on development of female and male gametophytes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424372/effects-of-drought-stress-on-global-gene-expression-profile-in-leaf-and-root-samples-of-dongxiang-wild-rice-oryza-rufipogon
#6
Fantao Zhang, Yi Zhou, Meng Zhang, Xiangdong Luo, Jiankun Xie
Drought is a serious constraint to rice production throughout the world, and although Dongxiang wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon , DXWR) possesses a high degree of drought resistance, the underlying mechanisms of this trait remains unclear. In the present study, cDNA libraries were constructed from the leaf and root tissues of drought-stressed and untreated DXWR seedlings, and transcriptome sequencing was performed with the goal of elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in drought stress response. The results indicated that 11,231 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (4,040 up-regulated and 7,191 down-regulated) and 7,025 transcripts were differentially expressed in the roots (3,097 up-regulated and 3,928 down-regulated)...
April 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424214/functional-conservation-and-divergence-among-homoeologs-of-taspl20-and-taspl21-two-sbp-box-genes-governing-yield-related-traits-in-hexaploid-wheat
#7
Bin Zhang, Weina Xu, Xia Liu, Xinguo Mao, Ang Li, Jingyi Wang, Xiaoping Chang, Xueyong Zhang, Ruilian Jing
Maintaining high and stable yields has become an increasing challenge in wheat breeding due to climate change. Although Squamosa-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes have important roles in plant development, very little is known about the actual biological functions of wheat SBP-box family members. Here, we dissect the functional conservation, divergence and exploitation of homoeologs of two paralogous TaSPL wheat loci during domestication and breeding. TaSPL20 and TaSPL21 were highly expressed in the lemma and palea...
April 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424203/relationships-between-the-timing-of-budburst-plant-traits-and-distribution-of-24-coexisting-woody-species-in-a-warm-temperate-forest-in-japan
#8
Noriyuki Osada
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Timing of budburst (DBB) may be related to the functional traits and distributions of woody species in temperate regions. Although many previous studies have investigated DBB in a number of temperate species, it has seldom been linked to multiple plant trait relationships. METHODS: DBB and plant traits were investigated for 24 woody species for 2 years in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Particular attention was paid to differences in trait relationships between coexisting deciduous and evergreen broad-leaved species...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419169/decomposing-functional-trait-associations-in-a-chinese-subtropical-forest
#9
Xuefei Li, Kequan Pei, Marc Kéry, Pascal A Niklaus, Bernhard Schmid
Functional traits, properties of organisms correlated with ecological performance, play a central role in plant community assembly and functioning. To some extents, functional traits vary in concert, reflecting fundamental ecological strategies. While "trait syndromes" characteristic of e.g. fast-growing, early-successional vs. competitive, late-successional species are recognized in principle, less is known about the environmental and genetic factors at the source of trait variation and covariation within plant communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418033/a-genome-wide-snp-based-genetic-map-and-qtl-mapping-for-agronomic-traits-in-chinese-cabbage
#10
Li Huang, Yafei Yang, Fang Zhang, Jiashu Cao
The aim of this work was to construct a high-resolution genetic map for the dissection of complex morphological and agronomic traits in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. syn. B. campestris). Chinese cabbage, an economically important vegetable, is a good model plant for studies on the evolution of morphologic variation. Herein, two high-generation inbred Chinese cabbage lines, 'Huangxiaoza' and 'Bqq094-11', were crossed. Then restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was performed on the parents and 120 F2 individuals...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410019/mating-system-evolution-under-strong-pollen-limitation-evidence-of-disruptive-selection-through-male-and-female-fitness-in-clarkia-xantiana
#11
Ryan D Briscoe Runquist, Monica A Geber, Michael Pickett-Leonard, David A Moeller
Selection on floral traits in hermaphroditic plants is determined by both male and female reproductive success. However, predictions regarding floral trait and mating system evolution are often based solely on female fitness. Selection via male fitness has the potential to affect the outcomes of floral evolution. In this study, we used paternity analysis to assess individual selfing rates and selection on floral traits via male and female fitness in an experimental population of Clarkia xantiana where pollen limitation of seed set was strong...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405714/recessive-male-sterility-in-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-var-capitata-caused-by-loss-of-function-of-bocyp704b1-due-to-the-insertion-of-a-ltr-retrotransposon
#12
Jia-Lei Ji, Li-Mei Yang, Zhi-Yuan Fang, Mu Zhuang, Yang-Yong Zhang, Hong-Hao Lv, Yu-Mei Liu, Zhan-Sheng Li
The LTR-retrotransposon insertion in BoCYP704B1 is proved to be the primary cause of the male sterility in cabbage. Effective allele-specific markers were developed for marker-assisted selection of male sterile gene. 83121A is a spontaneous male sterile mutant identified from cabbage. Genetic analysis indicated that male sterility is controlled by a single recessive gene. Pollen wall formation in the 83121A mutant was severely defective, with a lack of sporopollenin or exine. To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in 83121A, transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the buds of the male sterile line 83121A and the male fertile line 83121B, which are near-isogenic lines differing only in the fertility trait...
April 12, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405306/new-aspects-of-grassland-recovery-in-old-fields-revealed-by-trait-based-analyses-of-perennial-crop-mediated-succession
#13
András Kelemen, Béla Tóthmérész, Orsolya Valkó, Tamás Miglécz, Balázs Deák, Péter Török
Classical old-field succession studies focused on vegetation changes after the abandonment of annual croplands or on succession after the elimination of cultivated crops. Perennial-crop-mediated succession, where fields are initially covered by perennial crops, reveals alternative aspects of old-field succession theories. We tested the validity of classical theories of old-field succession for perennial-crop-mediated succession. We formulated the following hypotheses: (1) functional diversity increases with increasing field age; (2) resource acquisition versus conservation trade-off shifts toward conservation at community level during the succession; (3) the importance of spatial and temporal seed dispersal decreases during the succession; and (4) competitiveness and stress-tolerance increases and ruderality decreases at community level during the succession...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405296/consumptive-and-nonconsumptive-effect-ratios-depend-on-interaction-between-plant-quality-and-hunting-behavior-of-omnivorous-predators
#14
Jörg G Stephan, Johan A Stenberg, Christer Björkman
Predators not only consume prey but exert nonconsumptive effects in form of scaring, consequently disturbing feeding or reproduction. However, how alternative food sources and hunting mode interactively affect consumptive and nonconsumptive effects with implications for prey fitness have not been addressed, impending functional understanding of such tritrophic interactions. With a herbivorous beetle, two omnivorous predatory bugs (plant sap as alternative food, contrasting hunting modes), and four willow genotypes (contrasting suitability for beetle/omnivore), we investigated direct and indirect effects of plant quality on the beetles key reproductive traits (oviposition rate, clutch size)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405291/trait-dimensionality-and-population-choice-alter-estimates-of-phenotypic-dissimilarity
#15
Kelly A Carscadden, Marc W Cadotte, Benjamin Gilbert
The ecological niche is a multi-dimensional concept including aspects of resource use, environmental tolerance, and interspecific interactions, and the degree to which niches overlap is central to many ecological questions. Plant phenotypic traits are increasingly used as surrogates of species niches, but we lack an understanding of how key sampling decisions affect our ability to capture phenotypic differences among species. Using trait data of ecologically distinct monkeyflower (Mimulus) congeners, we employed linear discriminant analysis to determine how (1) dimensionality (the number and type of traits) and (2) variation within species influence how well measured traits reflect phenotypic differences among species...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405282/ecological-application-of-biotic-resistance-to-control-the-invasion-of-an-invasive-plant-ageratina-altissima
#16
Chaeho Byun, Eun Ju Lee
Biotic resistance is the ability of species in a community to limit the invasion of other species. However, biotic resistance is not widely used to control invasive plants. Experimental, functional, and modeling approaches were combined to investigate the processes of invasion by Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot), a model invasive species in South Korea. We hypothesized that (1) functional group identity would be a good predictor of biotic resistance to A. altissima, whereas a species identity effect would be redundant within a functional group, and (2) mixtures of species would be more resistant to invasion than monocultures...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402719/ospra2-fine-tunes-rice-brassinosteroid-receptor
#17
Xiaoguang Song, Hongyan Guo, Ge Zhang, Yao Wu, Guiling Wang, Xiaoying Chen, Rongxiang Fang
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a kind of plant hormones that regulate many important agronomic traits. Although the framework of the BR signaling pathway has been outlined, detailed working mechanisms at several steps of this pathway, especially at the BR receptor level, need to be further elucidated. Recently we have reported that a rice small G protein, OsPRA2, bound to the BR receptor OsBRI1 at the plasma membrane (PM) and inhibited its kinase activity and its interaction with the co-receptor OsBAK1, leading to a lower sensitivity to BR treatment and dephosphorylation of OsBZR1...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401322/biomass-and-nutrient-allocation-strategies-in-a-desert-ecosystem-in-the-hexi-corridor-northwest-china
#18
Ke Zhang, YongZhong Su, Rong Yang
The allocation of biomass and nutrients in plants is a crucial factor in understanding the process of plant structures and dynamics to different environmental conditions. In this study, we present a comprehensive scaling analysis of data from a desert ecosystem to determine biomass and nutrient (carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)) allocation strategies of desert plants from 40 sites in the Hexi Corridor. We found that the biomass and levels of C, N, and P storage were higher in shoots than in roots...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400779/making-plants-break-a-sweat-the-structure-function-and-evolution-of-plant-salt-glands
#19
REVIEW
Maheshi Dassanayake, John C Larkin
Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400774/elite-haplotypes-of-a-protein-kinase-gene-tasnrk2-3-associated-with-important-agronomic-traits-in-common-wheat
#20
Lili Miao, Xinguo Mao, Jingyi Wang, Zicheng Liu, Bin Zhang, Weiyu Li, Xiaoping Chang, Matthew Reynolds, Zhenhua Wang, Ruilian Jing
Plant-specific protein kinase SnRK2s play crucial roles in response to various environmental stimuli. TaSnRK2.3, a SnRK2 member, was involved in the response to multiple abiotic stresses in wheat. To facilitate the use of TaSnRK2.3 in wheat breeding, the three genomic sequences of TaSnRK2.3, originating from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, were obtained. Sequence polymorphism assays showing 4 and 10 variations were detected at TaSnRK2.3-1A and at TaSnRK2.3-1B, respectively, yet no variation was identified at TaSnRK2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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