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Plant functional traits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815886/disentangling-the-role-of-management-vegetation-structure-and-plant-quality-for-orthoptera-in-lowland-meadows
#1
Jens Schirmel, Rebekka Gerlach, Constanze Buhk
Semi-natural grasslands provide habitats for various species and are important for biodiversity conservation. The understanding of the diverse responses of species and traits to different grassland management methods is therefore urgently needed. We disentangled the role of grassland management (fertilization and irrigation), vegetation structure (biomass, sward height) and plant quality (protein and fiber content) for Orthoptera communities in lowland hay meadows in Germany. We found vegetation structure to be the most important environmental category in explaining community structure of Orthoptera (species richness, total individuals, functional diversity and species composition)...
August 17, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814642/an-indel-in-the-promoter-of-al-activated-malate-transporter-9-selected-during-tomato-domestication-determines-fruit-malate-contents-and-aluminum-tolerance
#2
Jie Ye, Xin Wang, Ti Xu Hu, Feng Xia Zhang, Bing Wang, Chang Xin Li, Tian Xia Yang, Han Xia Li, Yong En Lu, James J Giovannoni, Yuyang Zhang, Zhibiao Ye
Deciphering the mechanism of malate accumulation in plants would contribute to a greater understanding of plant chemistry, which has implications for improving flavor quality in crop species and enhancing human health benefits. However, the regulation of malate metabolism is poorly understood in crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we integrated a metabolite-based genome-wide association study (mGWAS) with linkage mapping and gene functional studies to characterize the genetics of malate accumulation in a global collection of tomato accessions with broad genetic diversity...
August 16, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814406/comparative-epigenetic-and-genetic-spatial-structure-of-the-perennial-herb-helleborus-foetidus-isolation-by-environment-isolation-by-distance-and-functional-trait-divergence
#3
Carlos M Herrera, Mónica Medrano, Pilar Bazaga
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Epigenetic variation can play a role in local adaptation; thus, there should be associations among epigenetic variation, environmental variation, and functional trait variation across populations. This study examines these relationships in the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). METHODS: Plants from 10 subpopulations were characterized genetically (AFLP, SSR markers), epigenetically (MSAP markers), and phenotypically (20 functional traits)...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813469/phytoplasma-infection-of-a-tropical-root-crop-triggers-bottom-up-cascades-by-favoring-generalist-over-specialist-herbivores
#4
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter
Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches' broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812705/functional-trait-diversity-maximizes-ecosystem-multifunctionality
#5
Nicolas Gross, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Pierre Liancourt, Miguel Berdugo, Nicholas J Gotelli, Fernando T Maestre
Understanding the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has been a core ecological research topic over the past decades. Although a key hypothesis is that the diversity of functional traits determines ecosystem functioning, we do not know how much trait diversity is needed to maintain multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously (multifunctionality). Here, we uncovered a scaling relationship between the abundance distribution of two key plant functional traits (specific leaf area, maximum plant height) and multifunctionality in 124 dryland plant communities spread over all continents except Antarctica...
April 18, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811544/mutations-in-the-promoter-intron-and-cds-of-two-fad2-generate-multiple-alleles-modulating-linoleic-acid-level-in-yellow-mustard
#6
Fangqin Zeng, Vicky Roslinsky, Bifang Cheng
Linoleic acid (C18:2) is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid in the seed oil of many crops. Here, we report that mutations in the promoter, intron and CDS of the FAD2 genes SalFAD2.LIA1 and SalFAD2.LIA2 generate three alleles LIA (1a) , LIA (1b) and lia (1) and two alleles LIA (2) and lia (2), respectively, controlling the C18:2 variation (4.4-32.7%) in yellow mustard. The allelic effect on increasing C18:2 content is LIA (1a)  > LIA (1b)  > lia (1) , LIA (2) > lia (2), and LIA (1a)  > LIA (2)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811339/heritable-bovine-rumen-bacteria-are-phylogenetically-related-and-correlated-with-the-cow-s-capacity-to-harvest-energy-from-its-feed
#7
Goor Sasson, Sheerli Kruger Ben-Shabat, Eyal Seroussi, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Naama Shterzer, Shamay Yaacoby, Margret E Berg Miller, Bryan A White, Eran Halperin, Itzhak Mizrahi
Ruminants sustain a long-lasting obligatory relationship with their rumen microbiome dating back 50 million years. In this unique host-microbiome relationship, the host's ability to digest its feed is completely dependent on its coevolved microbiome. This extraordinary alliance raises questions regarding the dependent relationship between ruminants' genetics and physiology and the rumen microbiome structure, composition, and metabolism. To elucidate this relationship, we examined the association of host genetics with the phylogenetic and functional composition of the rumen microbiome...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809835/rgb-and-spectral-root-imaging-for-plant-phenotyping-and-physiological-research-experimental-setup-and-imaging-protocols
#8
Gernot Bodner, Mouhannad Alsalem, Alireza Nakhforoosh, Thomas Arnold, Daniel Leitner
Better understanding of plant root dynamics is essential to improve resource use efficiency of agricultural systems and increase the resistance of crop cultivars against environmental stresses. An experimental protocol is presented for RGB and hyperspectral imaging of root systems. The approach uses rhizoboxes where plants grow in natural soil over a longer time to observe fully developed root systems. Experimental settings are exemplified for assessing rhizobox plants under water stress and studying the role of roots...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808102/recruitment-of-pre-existing-networks-during-the-evolution-of-c4-photosynthesis
#9
REVIEW
Ivan Reyna-Llorens, Julian M Hibberd
During C4 photosynthesis, CO2 is concentrated around the enzyme RuBisCO. The net effect is to reduce photorespiration while increasing water and nitrogen use efficiencies. Species that use C4 photosynthesis have evolved independently from their C3 ancestors on more than 60 occasions. Along with mimicry and the camera-like eye, the C4 pathway therefore represents a remarkable example of the repeated evolution of a highly complex trait. In this review, we provide evidence that the polyphyletic evolution of C4 photosynthesis is built upon pre-existing metabolic and genetic networks...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803364/volatile-terpenoids-multiple-functions-biosynthesis-modulation-and-manipulation-by-genetic-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Farhat Abbas, Yanguo Ke, Rangcai Yu, Yuechong Yue, Sikandar Amanullah, Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir, Yanping Fan
Terpenoids play several physiological and ecological functions in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses and also in human society because of their enormous applications in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Through the aid of genetic engineering its role can by magnified to broad spectrum by improving genetic ability of crop plants, enhancing the aroma quality of fruits and flowers and the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids contents in medicinal plants. Terpenoids are structurally diverse and the most abundant plant secondary metabolites, playing an important role in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses, by attracting pollinators and through different interactions between the plants and their environment...
August 12, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800607/rna-sequencing-based-transcriptome-and-biochemical-analyses-of-steroidal-saponin-pathway-in-a-complete-set-of-allium-fistulosum-a-cepa-monosomic-addition-lines
#11
Mostafa Abdelrahman, Magdi El-Sayed, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Shin-Ichi Ito, Keisuke Tanaka, Yoko Mine, Nobuo Sugiyama, Minoru Suzuki, Naoki Yamauchi, Masayoshi Shigyo
The genus Allium is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and its medicinal properties have been attributed to these bioactive compounds. The saponin compounds with diverse structures play a pivotal role in Allium's defense mechanism. Despite numerous studies on the occurrence and chemical structure of steroidal saponins, their biosynthetic pathway in Allium species is poorly understood. The monosomic addition lines (MALs) of the Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum, FF) with an extra chromosome from the shallot (A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800419/genome-editing-and-plant-transformation-of-solanaceous-food-crops
#12
REVIEW
Joyce Van Eck
During the past decade, the ability to alter plant genomes in a DNA site-specific manner was realized through availability of sequenced genomes and emergence of editing technologies based on complexes that guide endonucleases. Generation of targeted DNA breaks by ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9, then mending by repair mechanisms, provides a valuable foundation for studies of gene function and trait modification. Genome editing has been successful in several food crops, including those belonging to the Solanaceae, which contains some of the most widely used, economically important ones such as tomato and potato...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798764/root-transcriptomic-analysis-revealing-the-importance-of-energy-metabolism-to-the-development-of-deep-roots-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#13
Qiaojun Lou, Liang Chen, Hanwei Mei, Kai Xu, Haibin Wei, Fangjun Feng, Tiemei Li, Xiaomeng Pang, Caiping Shi, Lijun Luo, Yang Zhong
Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L) were enriched in the pathway of genetic information processing and metabolism, while the 1,052 DEGs between the deep roots and shallow roots from each of the plants (D vs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798754/isoprene-responses-and-functions-in-plants-challenged-by-environmental-pressures-associated-to-climate-change
#14
REVIEW
Alessio Fini, Cecilia Brunetti, Francesco Loreto, Mauro Centritto, Francesco Ferrini, Massimiliano Tattini
The functional reasons for isoprene emission are still a matter of hot debate. It was hypothesized that isoprene biosynthesis evolved as an ancestral mechanism in plants adapted to high water availability, to cope with transient and recurrent oxidative stresses during their water-to-land transition. There is a tight association between isoprene emission and species hygrophily, suggesting that isoprene emission may be a favorable trait to cope with occasional exposure to stresses in mesic environments. The suite of morpho-anatomical traits does not allow a conservative water use in hygrophilic mesophytes challenged by the environmental pressures imposed or exacerbated by drought and heat stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797052/similarities-between-plant-traits-based-on-their-connection-to-underlying-gene-functions
#15
Jan-Peter Nap, Gabino F Sanchez-Perez, Aalt D J van Dijk
Understanding of phenotypes and their genetic basis is a major focus in current plant biology. Large amounts of phenotype data are being generated, both for macroscopic phenotypes such as size or yield, and for molecular phenotypes such as expression levels and metabolite levels. More insight in the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms that influence phenotypes will enable a better understanding of how various phenotypes are related to each other. This will be a major step forward in understanding plant biology, with immediate value for plant breeding and academic plant research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794258/genetic-architecture-and-molecular-networks-underlying-leaf-thickness-in-desert-adapted-tomato
#16
Viktoriya Coneva, Margaret Frank, Maria A de Luis Balaguer, Mao Li, Rosangela Sozzani, Daniel H Chitwood
Thicker leaves allow plants to grow in water-limited conditions. However, our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of this highly functional leaf shape trait is poor. We used a custom-built confocal profilometer to directly measure leaf thickness in a set of introgression lines (ILs) derived from the desert tomato species Solanum pennellii, and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL). We report evidence of a complex genetic architecture of this trait and roles for both genetic and environmental factors...
August 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794058/floristic-response-to-urbanization-filtering-of-the-bioregional-flora-in-indianapolis-indiana-usa
#17
Rebecca W Dolan, Myla F J Aronson, Andrew L Hipp
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Globally, urban plant populations are becoming increasingly important, as these plants play a vital role in ameliorating effects of ecosystem disturbance and climate change. Urban environments act as filters to bioregional flora, presenting survival challenges to spontaneous plants. Yet, because of the paucity of inventory data on plants in landscapes both before and after urbanization, few studies have directly investigated this effect of urbanization. METHODS: We used historical, contemporary, and regional plant species inventories for Indianapolis, Indiana USA to evaluate how urbanization filters the bioregional flora based on species diversity, functional traits, and phylogenetic community structure...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792680/transcriptomic-basis-of-genome-by-genome-variation-in-a-legume-rhizobia-mutualism
#18
Liana T Burghardt, Joseph Guhlin, Chan Lan Chun, Junqi Liu, Michael J Sadowsky, Robert M Stupar, Nevin D Young, Peter Tiffin
In the legume-rhizobia mutualism, the benefit each partner derives from the other depends on the genetic identity of both host and rhizobial symbiont. To gain insight into the extent of genome x genome interactions on hosts at the molecular level and to identify potential mechanisms responsible for the variation, we examined host gene expression within nodules (the plant organ where the symbiosis occurs) of four genotypes of Medicago truncatula grown with either Ensifer meliloti or E. medicae symbionts. These host x symbiont combinations show significant variation in nodule and biomass phenotypes...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790991/bacteria-associated-to-plants-naturally-selected-in-a-historical-pcb-polluted-soil-show-potential-to-sustain-natural-attenuation
#19
Lorenzo Vergani, Francesca Mapelli, Ramona Marasco, Elena Crotti, Marco Fusi, Antonio Di Guardo, Stefano Armiraglio, Daniele Daffonchio, Sara Borin
The exploitation of the association between plants and microorganisms is a promising approach able to boost natural attenuation processes for soil clean-up in vast polluted areas characterized by mixed chemical contamination. We aimed to explore the selection of root-associated bacterial communities driven by different plant species spontaneously established in abandoned agricultural soils within a historical polluted site in north Italy. The site is highly contaminated by chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, mainly constituted by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), together with heavy metals and metalloids, in variable concentrations and uneven distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776570/non-canonical-regulation-of-spl-transcription-factors-by-a-human-otub1-like-deubiquitinase-defines-a-new-plant-type-rice-associated-with-higher-grain-yield
#20
Shuansuo Wang, Kun Wu, Qian Qian, Qian Liu, Qi Li, Yajun Pan, Yafeng Ye, Xueying Liu, Jing Wang, Jianqing Zhang, Shan Li, Yuejin Wu, Xiangdong Fu
Achieving increased grain productivity has long been the overriding focus of cereal breeding programs. The ideotype approach has been used to improve rice yield potential at the International Rice Research Institute and in China. However, the genetic basis of yield-related traits in rice remains unclear. Here, we show that a major quantitative trait locus, qNPT1, acts through the determination of a 'new plant type' (NPT) architecture characterized by fewer tillers, sturdier culms and larger panicles, and it encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme with homology to human OTUB1...
August 4, 2017: Cell Research
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