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T cells AND metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338677/integrated-metabolism-in-sponge-microbe-symbiosis-revealed-by-genome-centered-metatranscriptomics
#1
Lucas Moitinho-Silva, Cristina Díez-Vives, Giampiero Batani, Ana Is Esteves, Martin T Jahn, Torsten Thomas
Despite an increased understanding of functions in sponge microbiomes, the interactions among the symbionts and between symbionts and host are not well characterized. Here we reconstructed the metabolic interactions within the sponge Cymbastela concentrica microbiome in the context of functional features of symbiotic diatoms and the host. Three genome bins (CcPhy, CcNi and CcThau) were recovered from metagenomic data of C. concentrica, belonging to the proteobacterial family Phyllobacteriaceae, the Nitrospira genus and the thaumarchaeal order Nitrosopumilales...
March 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338335/stress-induced-protein-s-glutathionylation-and-s-trypanothionylation-in-african-trypanosomes-a-quantitative-redox-proteome-and-thiol-analysis
#2
Kathrin Ulrich, Caroline Finkenzeller, Sabine Merker, Federico Rojas, Keith Matthews, Thomas Ruppert, R Luise Krauth-Siegel
AIMS: Trypanosomatids have a unique trypanothione-based thiol redox metabolism. The parasite-specific dithiol is synthesized from glutathione and spermidine, with glutathionylspermidine as intermediate catalyzed by trypanothione synthetase. In this study, we address the oxidative stress response of African trypanosomes with special focus on putative protein S-thiolation. RESULTS: Challenging bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei with diamide, H2O2 or hypochlorite results in distinct levels of reversible overall protein S-thiolation...
March 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337956/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#3
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and associated with poor prognosis. Generally kidneys are assumed to be no direct target of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to two different intensity protocols...
March 23, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337200/metabolic-hallmarks-of-tumor-and-immune-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Kathrin Renner, Katrin Singer, Gudrun E Koehl, Edward K Geissler, Katrin Peter, Peter J Siska, Marina Kreutz
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells play an important role in eliminating malignant tumor cells and the number and activity of tumor-infiltrating T cells represent a good marker for tumor prognosis. Based on these findings, immunotherapy, e.g., checkpoint blockade, has received considerable attention during the last couple of years. However, for the majority of patients, immune control of their tumors is gray theory as malignant cells use effective mechanisms to outsmart the immune system. Increasing evidence suggests that changes in tumor metabolism not only ensure an effective energy supply and generation of building blocks for tumor growth but also contribute to inhibition of the antitumor response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337199/nutrient-and-metabolic-sensing-in-t-cell-responses
#5
REVIEW
Jun Wei, Jana Raynor, Thanh-Long M Nguyen, Hongbo Chi
T cells play pivotal roles in shaping host immune responses in infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer. The activation of T cells requires immune and growth factor-derived signals. However, alterations in nutrients and metabolic signals tune T cell responses by impinging upon T cell fates and immune functions. In this review, we summarize how key nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and lipids, and their sensors and transporters shape T cell responses. We also briefly discuss regulation of T cell responses by oxygen and energy sensing mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336912/fgf21-regulates-t-cell-development-in-the-neonatal-and-juvenile-thymus
#6
Yoshiaki Nakayama, Yuki Masuda, Hiroya Ohta, Tomohiro Tanaka, Miwa Washida, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Ayumi Miyake, Nobuyuki Itoh, Morichika Konishi
We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver. In line with this expression profile, Fgf21 was recently reported to protect against ageing-related thymic senescence by improving the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, the function of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus remained to be elucidated. We investigated the physiological roles of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus and found that young Fgf21 knockout mice, but not β-Klotho knockout mice nor adult Fgf21 knockout mice, showed a significant reduction in the percentage of single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes without obvious alteration in TECs...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336489/current-applications-selection-and-possible-mechanisms-of-actions-of-synbiotics-in-improving-the-growth-and-health-status-in-aquaculture-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Truong-Giang Huynh, Ya-Li Shiu, Thanh-Phuong Nguyen, Quoc-Phu Truong, Jiann-Chu Chen, Chun-Hung Liu
Synbiotics, a conjunction between prebiotics and probiotics, have been used in aquaculture for over 10 years. However, the mechanisms of how synbiotics work as growth and immunity promoters are far from being unraveled. Here, we show that a prebiotic as part of a synbiotic is hydrolyzed to mono- or disaccharides as the sole carbon source with diverse mechanisms, thereby increasing biomass and colonization that is established by specific crosstalk between probiotic bacteria and the surface of intestinal epithelial cells of the host...
March 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336214/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-ido1-inhibitors-activate-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#8
Benjamin J Moyer, Itzel Y Rojas, Iain A Murray, Seokwon Lee, Haley F Hazlett, Gary H Perdew, Craig R Tomlinson
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in the immune system by regulating tryptophan levels and T cell differentiation. Several tumor types overexpress IDO1 to avoid immune surveillance making IDO1 of interest as a target for therapeutic intervention. As a result, several IDO1 inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment as well as several other diseases. Many of the IDO1 inhibitors in clinical trials naturally bear structural similarities to the IDO1 substrate tryptophan, as such, they fulfill many of the structural and functional criteria as potential AHR ligands...
March 20, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336093/concurrent-methylation-and-demethylation-of-arsenic-by-fungi-and-their-differential-expression-in-the-protoplasm-proteome
#9
Shiming Su, Xibai Zeng, Lingyu Bai, Yanan Wang, Lili Zhang, Mansheng Li, Cuixia Wu
Microbial methylation and demethylation are central to arsenic's (As) biogeochemical cycling. Here, the transformations of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) (50 mg L(-1)) for 15 days in cells of As-methylating fungi, Fusarium oxysporum CZ-8F1, Penicillium janthinellum SM-12F4, and Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1, were evaluated, and trace concentrations of As(III) and As(V) were observed in fungal cell extracts. Trace amounts of DMA(V) were also detected in MMA(V) and P. janthinellum SM-12F4 incubations. In situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicated that after exposure to MMA(V) (500 mg L(-1)) for 15 days, 28...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331946/-technique-of-proton-and-phosphorous-mr-spectroscopy
#10
M Backens
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an important non-invasive method that can reveal the concentration and spatial distribution of particular biochemically relevant tissue metabolites. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Proton MRS is routinely applicable in the clinical setting providing good quality results even with a moderate magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. Relative values of metabolite concentrations are mostly used for the assessment of metabolic disorders...
March 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331029/the-sac1-domain-in-synaptojanin-is-required-for%C3%A2-autophagosome-maturation-at-presynaptic%C3%A2-terminals
#11
Roeland Vanhauwaert, Sabine Kuenen, Roy Masius, Adekunle Bademosi, Julia Manetsberger, Nils Schoovaerts, Laura Bounti, Serguei Gontcharenko, Jef Swerts, Sven Vilain, Marina Picillo, Paolo Barone, Shashini T Munshi, Femke Ms de Vrij, Steven A Kushner, Natalia V Gounko, Wim Mandemakers, Vincenzo Bonifati, Frederic A Meunier, Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Patrik Verstreken
Presynaptic terminals are metabolically active and accrue damage through continuous vesicle cycling. How synapses locally regulate protein homeostasis is poorly understood. We show that the presynaptic lipid phosphatase synaptojanin is required for macroautophagy, and this role is inhibited by the Parkinson's disease mutation R258Q. Synaptojanin drives synaptic endocytosis by dephosphorylating PI(4,5)P2, but this function appears normal in Synaptojanin(RQ) knock-in flies. Instead, R258Q affects the synaptojanin SAC1 domain that dephosphorylates PI(3)P and PI(3,5)P2, two lipids found in autophagosomal membranes...
March 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330772/erratum-to-cessation-of-biomechanical-stretch-model-of-c2c12-cells-modelsmyocyte-atrophy-and-anaplerotic-changes-in-metabolism-usingnon-targeted-metabolomics-analysisamro-int-j-biochem-cell-biol-2016-80-92
#12
Amro Ilaiwy, Megan T Quintana, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, David I Brown, William E Stansfield, Monte S Willis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330428/toxicity-of-airborne-dust-as-an-indicator-of-moisture-problems-in-school-buildings
#13
Jenni Tirkkonen, Martin Täubel, Hanna Leppänen, Matti Peltonen, William Lindsley, Bean T Chen, Anne Hyvärinen, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Kati Huttunen
Moisture-damaged indoor environments are thought to increase the toxicity of indoor air particulate matter (PM), indicating that a toxicological assay could be used as a method for recognizing buildings with indoor air problems. We aimed to test if our approach of analyzing the toxicity of actively collected indoor air PM in vitro differentiates moisture-damaged from non-damaged school buildings. We collected active air samples with NIOSH Bioaerosol Cyclone Samplers from moisture-damaged (index) and non-damaged (reference) school buildings (4 + 4)...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327087/nt5c2-novel-splicing-variant-expands-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-spastic-paraplegia-spg45-case-report-of-a-new-member-of-thin-corpus-callosum-spg-subgroup
#14
Mahmoud F Elsaid, Khalid Ibrahim, Nader Chalhoub, Ahmed Elsotouhy, Noora El Mudehki, Alice Abdel Aleem
BACKGROUND: Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases. Thin Corpus Callosum (TCC) associated HSP is a distinguished subgroup of complex forms. Purines and pyrimidine, the basic DNA and RNA components, are regulating the cell metabolism, having roles in signal transduction, energy preservation and cellular repair. Genetic defects in nucleotide metabolism related genes have been only recently implicated in brain and neurodegenerative diseases' pathogenesis...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326297/coronary-artery-calcium-score-and-bone-metabolism-a-pilot-study-in-postmenopausal-women
#15
Pooneh Salari, Abbasali Keshtkar, Shapour Shirani, Leila Mounesan
BACKGROUND: Since 1991 many studies evaluated the link between cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis, two age-related conditions, but the main common pathologic pathway has not been determined yet. The histological similarity between arterial calcified plaque and bone matrix and involvement of similar cells and mediators provide a special field of research. Therefore in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium score (CACS) as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and bone mediators and parameters in postmenopausal women...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326039/estrone-sulfate-transport-and-steroid-sulfatase-activity-in-colorectal-cancer-implications-for-hormone-replacement-therapy
#16
Lorna C Gilligan, Ali Gondal, Vivien Tang, Maryam T Hussain, Anastasia Arvaniti, Anne-Marie Hewitt, Paul A Foster
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) affects the incidence and potential progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). As HRT primarily consists of estrone sulfate (E1S), understanding whether this conjugated estrogen is transported and metabolized in CRC will define its potential effect in this malignancy. Here, we show that a panel of CRC cell lines (Colo205, Caco2, HCT116, HT-29) have steroid sulfatase (STS) activity, and thus can hydrolyze E1S. STS activity is significantly higher in CRC cell lysate, suggesting the importance of E1S transport in intracellular STS substrate availability...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324510/analysis-of-telomere-homologous-dna-with-different-conformations-using-2d-agarose-electrophoresis-and-in-gel-hybridization
#17
Zepeng Zhang, Qian Hu, Yong Zhao
In mammalian cells, in addition to double-stranded telomeric DNA at chromosome ends, extra telomere-homologous DNA is present that adopts different conformations, including single-stranded G- or C-rich DNA, extrachromosomal circular DNA (T-circle), and telomeric complex (T-complex) with an unidentified structure. The formation of such telomere-homologous DNA is closely related to telomeric DNA metabolism and chromosome end protection by telomeres. Conventional agarose gel electrophoresis is unable to separate DNA based on conformation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323636/ultrasmall-water-dispersible-tween80-modified-yb-er-nagd-wo-sub-4-sub-sub-2-sub-nanoparticles-with-record-upconversion-ratiometric-thermal-sensitivity-and-their-internalization-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Concepcion Cascales, Carlos Paino, Eulalia Bazán, Carlos Zaldo
This work presents the synthesis by coprecipitation of diamond shaped Yb:Er:NaGd(WO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) with diagonal dimensions in the 5-7 nm × 10-12 nm range which have been modified with TWEEN80 for their dispersion in water, and their interaction with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proposed as cellular NP vehicles. These NPs belong to a large family of tetragonal Yb:Er:NaT(XO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> (T=Y, La, Gd, Lu; X= Mo, W) compounds with green (<sup>2</sup>H<sub>11/2</sub>+<sup>4</sup>S<sub>3/2</sub>→<sup>4</sup>I<sub>15/2</sub>) Er-related upconversion (UC) efficiency comparable to that of Yb:Er:β-NaYF<sub>4</sub> reference compound, but with a ratiometric thermal sensitivity (S) 2...
March 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323244/itraq-based-differential-proteomic-analysis-in-mongolian-gerbil-brains-chronically-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#19
Lin Lv, Yapei Wang, Weili Feng, Jorge A Hernandez, Wanyi Huang, Yuxiang Zheng, Xue Zhou, Shumei Lv, Yajun Chen, Zi-Guo Yuan
The aim of our study was to detect differentially regulated proteins and specific signaling pathways in Mongolian gerbil brains during chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) PRU strain infection. We use a iTRAQ-based strategy to detecte 4935 proteins, out of which 110 proteins were differentially expressed (>/=2.0-fold, p value <0.05) when the brain of gerbils infected with T.gondii was compared to control brain tissues. We confirmed the authenticity and the accuracy of iTRAQ results through quantitative real-time PCR and western blot (WB), which was consistent with mass spectrometry analysis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323211/metabolic-pathway-of-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1%C3%AE-d-ribonucleoside-and-its-effects-on-cellular-energetics
#20
Iwona Pelikant-Malecka, Ewa Kaniewska-Bednarczuk, Sylwia Szrok, Alicja Sielicka, Maciej Śledziński, Czesława Orlewska, Ryszard T Smolenski, Ewa M Słomińska
4-Pirydone-3-carboxamide-1β-D-ribonucleoside (4PYR) is an endogenous nucleoside that could be converted to triphosphates, diphosphates, monophosphates and an analogue of NAD - 4PYRAD. Elevated level of these compounds were observed in chronic renal failure, cancer and active HIV infection. However, little is known about the effect on cell functionality and the metabolic pathways. This study tested effects of 4PYR in different cell types on nucleotide and energy metabolism and clarified enzymes that are involved in conversions of 4PYR...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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