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Physical Chemistry

Chengwu Yang, Xiaojuan Yu, Stefan Heißler, Alexei Nefedov, Sara Colussi, Jordi Llorca, Alessandro Trovarelli, Yuemin Wang, Christof Wöll
The surface atomic arrangement of metal oxides determines their physical and chemical properties, and the ability to control and optimize structural parameters is of crucial importance for many applications, in particular in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. Whereas the structures of macroscopic single crystals can be determined with established methods, for nanoparticles (NPs), this is a challenging task. Herein, we describe the use of CO as a probe molecule to determine the structure of the surfaces exposed by rod-shaped ceria NPs...
December 7, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Hilda Amekyeh, Nashiru Billa, Clive Roberts
Oral delivery of pharmaceuticals requires that they retain their physical and chemical attributes during transit within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, for the manifestation of desired therapeutic profiles. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers to improve the absorption of hydrophobic drugs. In this study, we examine the stability of amphotericin B (AmB) and paracetamol (PAR) SLNs in simulated GI fluids during gastric emptying. On contact with the simulated fluids, the particles increased in size due to ingress of the dissolution media into the particles...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Gokul Paramasivam, Namitharan Kayambu, Arul Maximus Rabel, Ashok K Sundramoorthy, Anandhakumar Sundaramurthy
Anisotropic nanoparticles have fascinated scientists and engineering communities for over a century because of their unique physical and chemical properties. In recent years, continuous advances in design and fabrication of anisotropic nanoparticles have opened new avenues for application in various areas of biology, chemistry and physics. Anisotropic nanoparticles have the plasmon absorption in the visible as well as near-infrared (NIR) region, which enable them to be used for crucial applications such as biological imaging, medical diagnostics and therapy ("theranostics")...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Ahmad Haider, Daniel Potter, Todd A Sulchek
Free-energy landscapes govern the behavior of all interactions in the presence of thermal fluctuations in the fields of physical chemistry, materials sciences, and the biological sciences. From the energy landscape, critical information about an interaction, such as the reaction kinetic rates, bond lifetimes, and the presence of intermediate states, can be determined. Despite the importance of energy landscapes to understanding reaction mechanisms, most experiments do not directly measure energy landscapes, particularly for interactions with steep force gradients that lead to premature jump to contact of the probe and insufficient sampling of transition regions...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Simon Gross, Christoph Barmet, Benjamin E Dietrich, David O Brunner, Thomas Schmid, Klaas P Pruessmann
High-field magnets of up to tens of teslas in strength advance applications in physics, chemistry and the life sciences. However, progress in generating such high fields has not been matched by corresponding advances in magnetic field measurement. Based mostly on nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic high-field magnetometry is currently limited to resolutions in the nanotesla range. Here we report a concerted approach involving tailored materials, magnetostatics and detection electronics to enhance the resolution of nuclear magnetic resonance sensing by three orders of magnitude...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
Guanhai Li, Brendan P Clarke, Jin-Kyu So, Kevin F MacDonald, Nikolay I Zheludev
Recent advances in the physics and technology of light generation via free-electron proximity and impact interactions with nanostructures (gratings, photonic crystals, nano-undulators, metamaterials and antenna arrays) have enabled the development of nanoscale-resolution techniques for such applications as mapping plasmons, studying nanoparticle structural transformations and characterizing luminescent materials (including time-resolved measurements). Here, we introduce a universal approach allowing generation of light with prescribed wavelength, direction, divergence and topological charge via point-excitation of holographic plasmonic metasurfaces...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
Ming-Te Wang, Angela Chow, Jessica Lauren Degol, Jacquelynne Sue Eccles
Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
David Gauthier, Enrico Allaria, Marcello Coreno, Ivan Cudin, Hugo Dacasa, Miltcho Boyanov Danailov, Alexander Demidovich, Simone Di Mitri, Bruno Diviacco, Eugenio Ferrari, Paola Finetti, Fabio Frassetto, David Garzella, Swen Künzel, Vincent Leroux, Benoît Mahieu, Nicola Mahne, Michael Meyer, Tommaso Mazza, Paolo Miotti, Giuseppe Penco, Lorenzo Raimondi, Primož Rebernik Ribič, Robert Richter, Eléonore Roussel, Sebastian Schulz, Luca Sturari, Cristian Svetina, Mauro Trovò, Paul Andreas Walker, Marco Zangrando, Carlo Callegari, Marta Fajardo, Luca Poletto, Philippe Zeitoun, Luca Giannessi, Giovanni De Ninno
Chirped pulse amplification in optical lasers is a revolutionary technique, which allows the generation of extremely powerful femtosecond pulses in the infrared and visible spectral ranges. Such pulses are nowadays an indispensable tool for a myriad of applications, both in fundamental and applied research. In recent years, a strong need emerged for light sources producing ultra-short and intense laser-like X-ray pulses, to be used for experiments in a variety of disciplines, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and material sciences...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
Ashley M Smith, Kathryn A Johnston, Scott E Crawford, Lauren E Marbella, Jill E Millstone
Colloidal inorganic nanoparticles are being used in an increasingly large number of applications ranging from biological imaging to television displays. In all cases, nanoparticle surface chemistry can significantly impact particle physical properties, processing, and performance. The first step in leveraging this tunability is to develop analytical approaches to describe surface chemical features. Some of the most basic descriptors of particle surface chemistry include the quantity, identity, and arrangement of ligands appended to the particle core...
November 30, 2016: Analyst
Silvia Viciani, Stefano Gherardini, Manuela Lima, Marco Bellini, Filippo Caruso
Transport phenomena represent a very interdisciplinary topic with applications in many fields of science, such as physics, chemistry, and biology. In this context, the possibility to design a perfectly controllable experimental setup, where to tune and optimize its dynamics parameters, is a challenging but very relevant task to emulate, for instance, the transmission of energy in light harvesting processes. Here, we experimentally build a scalable and controllable transport emulator based on optical fiber cavity networks where the system noise parameters can be finely tuned while maximizing the transfer efficiency...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Francisco Socola, Giovanni Insuasti-Beltran, Rodolfo Henrich Lobo, Shebli Atrash, Appalanaidu Sasapu
We report the case of a young African American male with no significant past medical history presenting with low back and bilateral leg pain; presenting CBC and chemistries revealed elevated white blood cell count of 250,000, with anemia (Hb 6.8 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia (platelets 9 K/μL), and elevated LDH, 1008. Physical examination findings were notable for diffuse lymphadenopathy and lower extremity skin nodules. Interestingly the bone marrow biopsy revealed involvement by CLL/SLL with translocation (2;14)(p16;q32) and trisomy 12...
2016: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
David Patrick O'Neill, Peter A Robbins
A number of mathematical models have been produced that, given the Pco2 and Po2 of blood, will calculate the total concentrations for CO2 and O2 in blood. However, all these models contain at least some empirical features, and thus do not represent all of the underlying physicochemical processes in an entirely mechanistic manner. The aim of this study was to develop a physicochemical model of CO2 carriage by the blood to determine whether our understanding of the physical chemistry of the major chemical components of blood together with their interactions is sufficiently strong to predict the physiological properties of CO2 carriage by whole blood...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Kellye A Cupp-Sutton, Michael T Ashby
There are no two main-group elements that exhibit more similar physical and chemical properties than sulfur and selenium. Nonetheless, Nature has deemed both essential for life and has found a way to exploit the subtle unique properties of selenium to include it in biochemistry despite its congener sulfur being 10,000 times more abundant. Selenium is more easily oxidized and it is kinetically more labile, so all selenium compounds could be considered to be "Reactive Selenium Compounds" relative to their sulfur analogues...
November 22, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Zhanjun Li, Yuanwei Zhang, Ling Huang, Yuchen Yang, Yang Zhao, Ghida El-Banna, Gang Han
Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) based luminescent nanoparticles exhibit unique, outstanding luminescent properties, and represent promising candidates as nanoplatforms for theranostic applications. There is an urgent need to facilitate their further development and applications in diagnostics and therapeutics as a novel class of nanotools. Here, in this critical review, we outlined the recent significant progresses made in CaF2-related nanoparticles: Firstly, their physical chemical properties, synthesis chemistry, and nanostructure fabrication are summarized...
2016: Theranostics
Francisca Guzmán-Lastra, Andreas Kaiser, Hartmut Löwen
Fission and fusion processes of particle clusters occur in many areas of physics and chemistry from subnuclear to astronomic length scales. Here we study fission and fusion of magnetic microswimmer clusters as governed by their hydrodynamic and dipolar interactions. Rich scenarios are found that depend crucially on whether the swimmer is a pusher or a puller. In particular a linear magnetic chain of pullers is stable while a pusher chain shows a cascade of fission (or disassembly) processes as the self-propulsion velocity is increased...
November 22, 2016: Nature Communications
Hiroshi Akamine, So Okumura, Sahar Farjami, Yasukazu Murakami, Minoru Nishida
Direct observation of magnetic microstructures is vital for advancing spintronics and other technologies. Here we report a method for imaging surface domain structures on bulk samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Complex magnetic domains, referred to as the maze state in CoPt/FePt alloys, were observed at a spatial resolution of less than 100 nm by using an in-lens annular detector. The method allows for imaging almost all the domain walls in the mazy structure, whereas the visualisation of the domain walls with the classical SEM method was limited...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Samuel K Kumahor, Pavel Hron, George Metreveli, Gabriele E Schaumann, Sondra Klitzke, Friederike Lang, Hans-Jörg Vogel
Engineered nanoparticles released into soils may be coated with humic substances, potentially modifying their surface properties. Due to their amphiphilic nature, humic coating is expected to affect interaction of nanoparticle at the air-water interface. In this study, we explored the roles of the air-water interface and solid-water interface as potential sites for nanoparticle attachment and the importance of hydrophobic interactions for nanoparticle attachment at the air-water interface. By exposing Ag nanoparticles to soil solution extracted from the upper soil horizon of a floodplain soil, the mobility of the resulting "soil-aged" Ag nanoparticles was investigated and compared with the mobility of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles as investigated in an earlier study...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Abraham Yosipof, Klimentiy Shimanovich, Hanoch Senderowitz
Material informatics is engaged with the application of informatic principles to materials science in order to assist in the discovery and development of new materials. Central to the field is the application of data mining techniques and in particular machine learning approaches, often referred to as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling, to derive predictive models for a variety of materials-related "activities". Such models can accelerate the development of new materials with favorable properties and provide insight into the factors governing these properties...
December 2016: Molecular Informatics
Kate E Horner, Mark A Miller, Jonathan W Steed, Paul M Sutcliffe
Knot theory is a branch of pure mathematics, but it is increasingly being applied in a variety of sciences. Knots appear in chemistry, not only in synthetic molecular design, but also in an array of materials and media, including some not traditionally associated with knots. Mathematics and chemistry can now be used synergistically to identify, characterise and create knots, as well as to understand and predict their physical properties. This tutorial review provides a brief introduction to the mathematics of knots and related topological concepts in the context of the chemical sciences...
November 21, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Sarena D Horava, Katie J Moy, Nicholas A Peppas
Current protein replacement therapies for hemophilia B, a genetic bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in coagulation factor IX, rely on IV injections and infusions. Oral delivery of factor IX is a desirable needle-free option, especially for prophylaxis. We have developed a biodegradable, pH-responsive hydrogel microcarrier system based on the poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) [P(MAA-g-EG)]. Incorporation of an enzymatically degradable peptide crosslinking agent allows for site-specific degradation by trypsin in the small intestine...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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