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Physical Chemistry

Matthew Li, Jun Lu, Zhongwei Chen, Khalil Amine
Over the past 30 years, significant commercial and academic progress has been made on Li-based battery technologies. From the early Li-metal anode iterations to the current commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs), the story of the Li-based battery is full of breakthroughs and back tracing steps. This review will discuss the main roles of material science in the development of LIBs. As LIB research progresses and the materials of interest change, different emphases on the different subdisciplines of material science are placed...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sally G Hoskins, Alan J Gottesman
Many science educators agree that 21st century students need to develop mature scientific thinking skills. Unsurprisingly, students' and experts' perceptions about the nature of scientific knowledge differ. Moreover, students' naïve and entrenched epistemologies can preclude their development toward "thinking like scientists." Novel teaching approaches that guide students toward more mature perceptions may be needed to support their development of scientific thinking skills. To address such issues, physics educators developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS), subsequently adapted for chemistry and biology...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Caitlin Burrell, Li Luo, Marieke Kester Jones, Andrea Lee, Elizabeth Freeman, Copper Aitken-Palmer
  Health evaluations were conducted on individuals ( n = 62, age < 1 to 11 yr) from a captive red panda ( Ailurus fulgens styani) population at the Chengdu Research Base for Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Individuals were anesthetized using combinations of ketamine, dexmedetomidine, diazepam, isoflurane, and tiletamine/zolazepam. Whereas physical exams revealed no abnormalities for 40% of red pandas, 24% had dental abnormalities and 18% had orthopedic abnormalities...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Temitope M John, Joke A Badejo, Segun I Popoola, David O Omole, Jonathan A Odukoya, Priscilla O Ajayi, Mary Aboyade, Aderemi A Atayero
This data article presents data of academic performances of undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in Covenant University, Nigeria. The data shows academic performances of Male and Female students who graduated from 2010 to 2014. The total population of samples in the observation is 3046 undergraduates mined from Biochemistry (BCH), Building technology (BLD), Computer Engineering (CEN), Chemical Engineering (CHE), Industrial Chemistry (CHM), Computer Science (CIS), Civil Engineering (CVE), Electrical and Electronics Engineering (EEE), Information and Communication Engineering (ICE), Mathematics (MAT), Microbiology (MCB), Mechanical Engineering (MCE), Management and Information System (MIS), Petroleum Engineering (PET), Industrial Physics-Electronics and IT Applications (PHYE), Industrial Physics-Applied Geophysics (PHYG) and Industrial Physics-Renewable Energy (PHYR)...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Pelin Muhsir, Emrah Çakmakçi, Serap Demir, Ayşe Ogan
The modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via different routes for biomolecule binding is an attractive area of research. Waterborne thiol-ene suspension photopolymerization (TESP) can be a useful method for preparing functional MNPs. In this study, for the very first time waterborne TESP was performed in the presence of MNPs. Neat MNPs were coated and in situ functionalized with amine groups by using thiol-ene chemistry. Engrailed-2 (EN2) protein, a potential biomarker for various cancers such as prostate cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer and ovarian cancer, is known to be a strong binder to a specific DNA sequence (50-TAATTA-30) to regulate transcription...
May 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Kiley M Algya, Tzu-Wen L Cross, Kristen N Leuck, Megan E Kastner, Toshiro Baba, Lynn Lye, Maria R C de Godoy, Kelly S Swanson
Despite their popularity, little research has been performed on lightly cooked and raw diet formats for pets. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility (ATTD); fecal characteristics, metabolites, and microbiota; serum chemistry metabolites; urinalysis; and voluntary physical activity levels of adult dogs fed commercial diets differing in processing type. The diets included: 1) Extruded Dry Kibble (EXT) diet; 2) High-Moisture Roasted Refrigerated (RR) diet; 3) High-Moisture Grain-Free Roasted Refrigerated (GFRR) diet; and 4) Raw (RAW) diet...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jiayu Wang, Yiqun Han, Xiuqing Shi, Qing Li, Pin Zhang, Peng Yuan, Fei Ma, Yang Luo, Ruigang Cai, Ying Fan, Shanshan Chen, Qiao Li, Binghe Xu
BACKGROUND: Cipatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor against both EGFR and HER2/neu. This phase I trial was conducted to assess the safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and maximum-tolerated dose of cipatinib in HER2-positive patients with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: Eligible adults with advanced breast cancer were administered cipatinib 200 mg/day (n = 3) as an initial dose, with escalating dosages of 400 mg (n = 4), 800 mg (n = 2), 1200 mg (n = 3), 1400 mg (n = 3), 1600 mg (n = 3), and 1800 mg (n = 2) in 21 day cycles...
June 12, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Claudius Gros
We point out that the Nobel prize production of the USA, the UK, Germany and France has been in numbers that are large enough to allow for a reliable analysis of the long-term historical developments. Nobel prizes are often split, such that up to three awardees receive a corresponding fractional prize. The historical trends for the fractional number of Nobelists per population are surprisingly robust, indicating in particular that the maximum Nobel productivity peaked in the 1970s for the USA and around 1900 for both France and Germany...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
N Akhmediev, J M Soto-Crespo, Peter Vouzas, N Devine, Wonkeun Chang
Prigogine's ideas of systems far from equilibrium and self-organization (Prigogine & Lefever. 1968 J. Chem. Phys. 48 , 1695-1700 (doi:10.1063/1.1668896); Glansdorff & Prigogine. 1971 Thermodynamic theory of structures, stability and fluctuations New York, NY/London, UK: Wiley) deeply influenced physics, and soliton science in particular. These ideas allowed the notion of solitons to be extended from purely integrable cases to the concept of dissipative solitons. The latter are qualitatively different from the solitons in integrable and Hamiltonian systems...
July 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
René Lefever
In 2017, Ilya Prigogine would have been 100 years of age. As for any human being, this centenary is a notable event. For him, as a scientist, 2017 was also above all the 50th anniversary of dissipative structures It was indeed in 1967 that for the first time he used this denomination at the occasion of an important scientific event and in publications. The attribution of this qualification for self-organized behaviours of matter only possible far from equilibrium coincided with the outcome of a research effort of more than 25 years...
July 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Peter S K Knappett, Yanmei Li, Horacio Hernandez, Rodrigo Rodriguez, Manuel Aviles, Chao Deng, Viri Piña, J Rick Giardino, Jurgen Mahlknecht, Saugata Datta
Fluoride (F), naturally found in aquifers around the world at toxic concentrations, causes disease in millions of people. The long-term stability, however, of those concentrations within intensively pumped aquifers is poorly characterized. We assessed long-term stability in the spatial distribution of F concentrations in an intensively pumped aquifer within the semi-arid, inter-montane Independence Basin in central Mexico between 1999 and 2016. Although stable in 16 re-sampled wells, F concentrations increased in some localities across the basin by as much as 4mg/L...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shencheng Ge, Yunzhe Wang, Nicolas J Deshler, Daniel J Preston, George M Whitesides
This work describes the development of an integrated analytical system that enables high-throughput density measurements of diamagnetic particles (including cells) using magnetic levitation (MagLev), 96-well plates, and a flatbed scanner. MagLev is a simple and useful technique with which to carry out density-based analysis and separation of a broad range of diamagnetic materials with different physical forms (e.g., liquids, solids, gels, pastes, gums, etc.); one major limitation, however, is the capacity to perform high-throughput density measurements...
June 11, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yansheng Li, Xiangyu Jiao, Xin Du, Fang Wang, Qianhui Wei, Yongqiang Wen, Xueji Zhang
Capillarity is an extremely common physical-chemical phenomenon related to wettability in nature, which has wide theoretical and practical interest. Herein, we reported a facile sensing device based on capillary force change in a vertical capillary tube. In this height-based capillary sensor (HCS), the inner surface of the capillary tube was modified with a layer of molecules with wetting responsibility based on the well-known simple surface chemistry. With targets in different concentrations, the wettability of the surface modified with responsive molecules would produce different changes...
June 11, 2018: Analyst
Gisela Ibáñez-Redín, Tiago Almeida Silva, Fernando Campanhã Vicentini, Orlando Fatibello-Filho
Carbon Black (CB) has acquired a prominent position as a carbon nanomaterial for the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors due to its low price and extraordinary electrochemical and physical properties. These properties are highly dependent on the surface chemistry and thus, the effect of functionalization has been widely studied for different applications. Meanwhile, the influence of CB functionalization over its properties for electroanalytical applications is still being poorly explored. In this study, we describe the use of chemically functionalized CB Vulcan XC 72R for the development of sensitive electrochemical biosensors...
September 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Sry D Hujaya, Gabriela S Lorite, Seppo J Vainio, Henrikki Liimatainen
Herein, we report the fabrication of a polyion complex hydrogel from two oppositely charged derivatives of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). CNF was produced from dissolving pulp through subsequent periodate oxidation, chemical modification, and microfluidization. Three different durations for periodate oxidation (30 min, 120 min, and 180 min) resulted in three different aldehyde contents. Further, two types of chemical modifications were introduced to react with the resulting aldehydes: chlorite oxidation to yield anionic CNF with carboxylic acid groups (DCC) and imination with Girard's reagent T to yield cationic CNF containing quaternary ammonium groups (CDAC)...
June 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ignacio Colomer, Sarah M Morrow, Stephen P Fletcher
Developing physical models of complex dynamic systems showing emergent behaviour is key to informing on persistence and replication in biology, how living matter emerges from chemistry, and how to design systems with new properties. Herein we report a fully synthetic small molecule system in which a surfactant replicator is formed from two phase-separated reactants using an alkene metathesis catalyst. The replicator self-assembles into aggregates, which catalyse their own formation, and is thermodynamically unstable...
June 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Dori R Germolec, Kelly A Shipkowski, Rachel P Frawley, Ellen Evans
Inflammation is a complex and necessary component of the response to biological, chemical, or physical stimuli, and the cellular and molecular events that initiate and regulate the interactions between the various players in the inflammatory process remain a source of ongoing investigation. In the acute phase of the inflammatory response, cells of the immune system migrate to the site of injury in a carefully orchestrated sequence of events that is facilitated by soluble mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, and acute-phase proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Keming Mao, Duo Lu, Dazhi E, Zhenhua Tan
Heated metal mark is an important trace to identify the cause of fire. However, traditional methods mainly focus on the knowledge of physics and chemistry for qualitative analysis and make it still a challenging problem. This paper presents a case study on attribute recognition of the heated metal mark image using computer vision and machine learning technologies. The proposed work is composed of three parts. Material is first generated. According to national standards, actual needs and feasibility, seven attributes are selected for research...
June 7, 2018: Sensors
Shuxing Wu, Kwan San Hui, Kwun Nam Hui
Black phosphorus (BP) is rediscovered as a 2D layered material. Since its first isolation in 2014, 2D BP has triggered tremendous interest in the fields of condensed matter physics, chemistry, and materials science. Given its unique puckered monolayer geometry, 2D BP displays many unprecedented properties and is being explored for use in numerous applications. The flexibility, large surface area, and good electric conductivity of 2D BP make it a promising electrode material for electrochemical energy storage devices (EESDs)...
May 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Elbert Branscomb, Michael J Russell
Origin of life models based on "energized assemblages of building blocks" are untenable in principle. This is fundamentally a consequence of the fact that any living system is in a physical state that is extremely far from equilibrium, a condition it must itself build and sustain. This in turn requires that it carries out all of its molecular transformations-obligatorily those that convert, and thereby create, disequilibria-using case-specific mechanochemical macromolecular machines. Mass-action solution chemistry is quite unable to do this...
June 5, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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