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Physical Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730938/stratum-corneum-modulation-by-chemical-enhancers-and-lipid-nanostructures-implications-for-transdermal-drug-delivery
#1
Mudra Saurabh Kapoor, Shruti GuhaSarkar, Rinti Banerjee
Skin is the outermost and largest protective covering of the body. The uppermost layer of the skin, stratum corneum also called the horny layer is composed of keratin-filled cells covered by a lipid matrix which shields the skin from physical and chemical entrants. The lipid lamellar structure comprises of ceramides, cholesterol, fatty acids and proteins. Chemical enhancers that mimic the lamellar chemistry, reversibly fluidize the latter can be utilized for enhancing transport of cargo across the epidermis into the dermis...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730811/atomic-mechanism-of-hybridization-dependent-surface-reconstruction-with-tailored-functionality-in-hexagonal-multiferroics
#2
Shiqing Deng, Shaobo Cheng, Changsong Xu, Binghui Ge, Xuefeng Sun, Rong Yu, Wenhui Duan, Jing Zhu
The broken symmetry along with anomalous defect structures and charging conditions at multiferroics surface can alter both crystal structures and electronic configurations, bringing in emergent physical properties. Extraordinary surface states are induced into original mutually-coupled order parameters in such strongly correlated oxides, which flourish in diverse properties, however remain less explored. Here, we report the peculiar surface ferroelectric states and reconfigurable functionalities driven by the relaxation of surface and consequent changes in O-2p and Y-4d orbital (p-d) hybridization within a representative hexagonal multiferroics YMnO3...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730543/method-for-continuous-monitoring-of-electrospray-ion-formation
#3
Guille Metzler, Susan Crathern, Lorin Bachmann, Carmen Fernández-Metzler, Richard King
A method for continuously monitoring the performance of electrospray ionization without the addition of hardware or chemistry to the system is demonstrated. In the method, which we refer to as SprayDx, cluster ions with solvent vapor natively formed by electrospray are followed throughout the collection of liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring data. The cluster ion extracted ion chromatograms report on the consistency of the ion formation and detection system. The data collected by the SprayDx method resemble the data collected for postcolumn infusion of analyte...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728822/a-microfluidic-approach-for-studying-piezo-channels
#4
M M Maneshi, P A Gottlieb, S Z Hua
Microfluidics is an interdisciplinary field intersecting many areas in engineering. Utilizing a combination of physics, chemistry, biology, and biotechnology, along with practical applications for designing devices that use low volumes of fluids to achieve high-throughput screening, is a major goal in microfluidics. Microfluidic approaches allow the study of cells growth and differentiation using a variety of conditions including control of fluid flow that generates shear stress. Recently, Piezo1 channels were shown to respond to fluid shear stress and are crucial for vascular development...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726825/materials-science-chemistry-and-physics-happily-wed
#5
Gregory A Fiete
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723063/using-cooperatively-folded-peptides-to-measure-interaction-energies-and-conformational-propensities
#6
Maziar S Ardejani, Evan T Powers, Jeffery W Kelly
The rates and equilibria of the folding of biopolymers are determined by the conformational preferences of the subunits that make up the sequence of the biopolymer and by the interactions that are formed in the folded state in aqueous solution. Because of the centrality of these processes to life, quantifying conformational propensities and interaction strengths is vitally important to understanding biology. In this Account, we describe our use of peptide model systems that fold cooperatively yet are small enough to be chemically synthesized to measure such quantities...
July 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722059/nanofluidics-in-two-dimensional-layered-materials-inspirations-from-nature
#7
REVIEW
Jun Gao, Yaping Feng, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials...
July 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714171/controlled-gelation-of-graphene-towards-unprecedented-superstructures
#8
Ling Qiu, Soren Vermehren Petersen, Dan Li
Graphene exhibits a range of exceptional physical properties and holds great promise for development of novel bulk materials for widespread applications. Properly engineering of assembled structures of graphene at multiple length scales is essential to realize its full potential in bulk forms. In this Concept article, we highlight the unique colloidal and gelation behavior of a commonly used precursor for graphene, graphene oxide (GO), and discuss how the colloidal chemistry of GO and reduced GO can enable new scalable and cost-effective approaches to construct graphene-based soft superstructures with excellent properties...
July 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708381/microfabrication-of-monolithic-microfluidic-platforms-using-low-temperature-co-fired-ceramics-suitable-for-fluorescence-imaging
#9
Pedro Couceiro, Julián Alonso-Chamarro
In this work, the influence of laser ablation and lamination parameters in the fabrication of embedded microstructures using Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics, have been studied. First, the influence of laser ablation parameters in the dimensions of fabricated microchannels in Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics substrates was characterized and strategies for tailoring the microchannels aspect ratios are described. The influence of lamination conditions on the fabrication of monolithically embedded microstructures is presented...
July 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707900/aerosol-fragmentation-driven-by-coupling-of-acid-base-and-free-radical-chemistry-in-the-heterogeneous-oxidation-of-aqueous-citric-acid-by-oh-radicals
#10
Matthew J Liu, Aaron A Wiegel, Kevin R Wilson, Frances A Houle
A key uncertainty in the heterogeneous oxidation of carboxylic acids by hydroxyl radicals (OH) in aqueous phase aerosol is how the free radical reaction pathways might be altered by acid-base chemistry. In particular, if acid-base reactions occur concurrently with acyloxy radical formation and unimolecular decomposition of alkoxy radicals, there is a possibility that differences in reaction pathways impact the partitioning of organic carbon between the gas and aqueous phases. To examine these questions, a kinetic model is developed for the OH initiated oxidation of citric acid aerosol at high relative humidity...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707136/the-formation-of-a-functional-retinal-pigment-epithelium-occurs-on-porous-polytetrafluoroethylene-substrates-independently-of-the-surface-chemistry
#11
Victoria R Kearns, Jack Tasker, Zhuola, Riaz Akhtar, Akash Bachhuka, Krasimir Vasilev, Carl M Sheridan, Rachel L Williams
Subretinal transplantation of functioning retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells may have the potential to preserve or restore vision in patients affected by blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). One of the critical steps in achieving this is the ability to grow a functioning retinal pigment epithelium, which may need a substrate on which to grow and to aid transplantation. Tailoring the physical and chemical properties of the substrate should help the engineered tissue to function in the long term...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704457/the-theory-direction-and-magnitude-of-ecosystem-fire-probability-as-constrained-by-precipitation-and-temperature
#12
Richard Guyette, Michael C Stambaugh, Daniel Dey, Rose Marie Muzika
The effects of climate on wildland fire confronts society across a range of different ecosystems. Water and temperature affect the combustion dynamics, irrespective of whether those are associated with carbon fueled motors or ecosystems, but through different chemical, physical, and biological processes. We use an ecosystem combustion equation developed with the physical chemistry of atmospheric variables to estimate and simulate fire probability and mean fire interval (MFI). The calibration of ecosystem fire probability with basic combustion chemistry and physics offers a quantitative method to address wildland fire in addition to the well-studied forcing factors such as topography, ignition, and vegetation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703877/biochemical-and-hematological-evaluations-of-black-howler-monkeys-alouatta-pigra-in-highly-degraded-landscapes-in-mexico
#13
Luis M García-Feria, Colin A Chapman, Rosalía Pastor-Nieto, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva
BACKGROUND: Loss and fragmentation of Neotropical primates' habitat can alter the health and individual adaptation. Physiological parameters reflect health status and individuals responses to the habitat conditions. METHODS: We captured six wild adult females and six adult males of Alouatta pigra to evaluate their physical condition (body mass, respiratory and heart rate, and rectal temperature), hematology and blood chemistry on fragmentation habitat condition at southeastern Mexico...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702571/chemical-functionalization-and-characterization-of-graphene-based-materials
#14
REVIEW
Giovanni Bottari, Ma Ángeles Herranz, Leonie Wibmer, Michel Volland, Laura Rodríguez-Pérez, Dirk M Guldi, Andreas Hirsch, Nazario Martín, Francis D'Souza, Tomás Torres
Graphene-based materials (GBMs), with graphene, their most known member, at the head, constitute a large family of materials which has aroused the interest of scientists working in different research fields such as chemistry, physics, or materials science, to mention a few, arguably as no other material before. In this review, we offer a general overview on the most relevant synthetic approaches for the covalent and non-covalent functionalization and characterization of GBMs. Moreover, some representative examples of the incorporation into GBMs of electroactive units such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, or ferrocene, among others, affording electron donor-acceptor (D-A) hybrids are presented...
July 12, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701978/academic-achievement-in-physics-chemistry-the-predictive-effect-of-attitudes-and-reasoning-abilities
#15
Paulo N Vilia, Adelinda A Candeias, António S Neto, Maria Da Glória S Franco, Madalena Melo
Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students' attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student's attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701044/-new-physical-chemistry-insight-in-experimental-bio-physical-chemistry
#16
Kankan Bhattacharyya, Gang-Yu Liu, Martin T Zanni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699065/n-protonated-isomers-and-coulombic-barriers-to-dissociation-of-doubly-protonated-ala8arg
#17
Fredrik Haeffner, Karl K Irikura
Collision-induced dissociation (or tandem mass spectrometry, MS/MS) of a protonated peptide results in a spectrum of fragment ions that is useful for inferring amino acid sequence. This is now commonplace and a foundation of proteomics. The underlying chemical and physical processes are believed to be those familiar from physical organic chemistry and chemical kinetics. However, first-principles predictions remain intractable because of the conflicting necessities for high accuracy (to achieve qualitatively correct kinetics) and computational speed (to compensate for the high cost of reliable calculations on such large molecules)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698652/electrical-properties-of-graphene-metal-contacts
#18
Teresa Cusati, Gianluca Fiori, Amit Gahoi, Vikram Passi, Max C Lemme, Alessandro Fortunelli, Giuseppe Iannaccone
The performance of devices and systems based on two-dimensional material systems depends critically on the quality of the contacts between 2D material and metal. A low contact resistance is an imperative requirement to consider graphene as a candidate material for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unfortunately, measurements of contact resistance in the literature do not provide a consistent picture, due to limitations of current graphene technology, and to incomplete understanding of influencing factors...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697934/quantitative-characterization-of-gold-nanoparticles-by-size-exclusion-and-hydrodynamic-chromatography-coupled-to-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-sec-icp-ms-and-hdc-icp-ms-and-quasi-elastic-light-scattering-hdc-qels
#19
Leena Pitkänen, Antonio R Montoro Bustos, Karen E Murphy, Michael R Winchester, André M Striegel
The physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles (NPs) is of paramount importance for tailoring and optimizing the properties of these materials as well as for evaluating the environmental fate and impact of the NPs. Characterizing the size and chemical identity of disperse NP sample populations can be accomplished by coupling size-based separation methods to physical and chemical detection methods. Informed decisions regarding the NPs can only be made, however, if the separations themselves are quantitative, i...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697382/bacterial-mobilization-and-transport-through-manure-enriched-soils-experiment-and-modeling
#20
N Sepehrnia, L Memarianfard, A A Moosavi, J Bachmann, G Guggenberger, F Rezanezhad
A precise evaluation of bacteria transport and mathematical investigations are useful for best management practices in agroecosystems. In this study, using laboratory experiments and modeling approaches, we assess the transport of bacteria released from three types of manure (cow, sheep, and poultry) to find the importance of the common manures in agricultural activities in soil and water pollution. Thirty six intact soil columns with different textures (sandy, loamy, and silty clay loam) were sampled. Fecal coliform leaching from layers of the manures on the soil surface was conducted under steady-state saturated flow conditions at 20 °C for up to four Pore Volumes (PVs)...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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