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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912358/combined-oral-contraceptives-plus-spironolactone-compared-with-metformin-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-one-year-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Macarena Alpañés, Francisco Álvarez-Blasco, Elena Fernández-Durán, Manuel Luque-Ramírez, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare a combined oral contraceptive (COC) plus the antiandrogen spironolactone with the insulin sensitizer metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, parallel, open-label, clinical trial comparing COC (30 μg of ethinylestradiol and 150 μg of desogestrel) plus spironolactone (100 mg/day) with metformin (850 mg b.i.d.) for one year in women with PCOS (EudraCT2008-004531-38). METHODS: The composite primary outcome included efficacy (amelioration of hirsutism, androgen excess and menstrual dysfunction) and cardiometabolic safety (changes in the frequencies of disorders of glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension)...
November 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893661/effect-of-castration-on-social-behavior-and-hormones-in-male-japanese-macaques-macaca-fuscata
#2
Rafaela S C Takeshita, Michael A Huffman, Kodzue Kinoshita, Fred B Bercovitch
Population control is essential for animal welfare and human safety in free-ranging or captive settings, especially when resources are limited. As an alternative to lethal control, contraceptive methods such as castration in males can be a practical solution, because the testicles are a visual cue to determine which males have been sterilized. However, careful analyses should be carried out to ensure no disruption in the social structure of the population. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) live in a society centered around dominance rank and matrilineal kin relationships...
September 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843511/the-relationship-between-reproductive-and-biochemical-ageing-at-the-time-of-the-menopausal-transition
#3
Annamaria Zsakai, Rita Sipos, Krisztina Takacs-Vellai, Attila Szabo, Eva B Bodzsar
The biochemical ageing status of women in the menopausal transition was studied using quantitative analysis of age- and autophagy-related gene activities (CDC42 and MAP1LC3 genes were selected as target genes). Free estradiol and progesterone levels in saliva were estimated. General linear models were used to determine the relationship between lifestyle, health status, socioeconomic factors and CDC42 and MAP1LC3 gene expression levels. Gene expression analysis revealed (1) an increasing expression of CDC42 gene after 45years in women, (2) expression level of CDC42 gene associated with menopausal status, (3) while endocrine status was found to associate with the expression of both of the studied age-related genes, (4) the "never used hormonal contraceptives" and "obese nutritional status" were the strongest factors for increased level of age-related gene expressions, and (5) changes in gene expression levels by ageing should be studied by considering not only chronological, but also biological ages...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842849/temporal-relations-in-hormone-withdrawal-migraines-and-impact-on-prevention-a-diary-based-pilot-study-in-combined-hormonal-contraceptive-users
#4
Gabriele S Merki-Feld, Gina Epple, Nina Caveng, Bruno Imthurn, Burkhardt Seifert, Peter Sandor, Andreas R Gantenbein
BACKGROUND: Menstrually related migraine (MRM) in the hormone-free interval (HFI) of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) are according to the ICHD definition also estrogen withdrawal migraines (EWH). MRMs are less responsive to acute medication. Therefore short-term prevention, initiated 1-2 days before onset of the anticipated bleeding and continued for 6 days, is recommended. Such a long prophylactic triptan use might increase the risk for medication overuse headache in women suffering in addition from non-menstrual migraines...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829842/voice-in-different-phases-of-menstrual-cycle-among-naturally-cycling-women-and-users-of-hormonal-contraceptives
#5
Irena Pavela Banai
Previous studies have shown changes in women's behavior and physical appearance between the non-fertile and fertile phases of the menstrual cycle. It is assumed that these changes are regulated by fluctuations in sex hormone levels across the cycle. Receptors for sex hormones have been found on the vocal folds, suggesting a link between hormone levels and vocal fold function, which might cause changes in voice production. However, attempts to identify changes in voice production across the menstrual cycle have produced mixed results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780893/abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-perimenopause
#6
S R Goldstein, M A Lumsden
Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon...
August 7, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780215/knowledge-of-and-interest-in-the-copper-intrauterine-device-among-women-seeking-emergency-contraception
#7
Christine Edwards, Dilzayn Panjwani, Ciara Pendrith, Anna Ly, Sheila Dunn
OBJECTIVE: Emergency contraception (EC) includes hormonal pills (levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate) and the copper IUD (Cu-IUD). The Cu-IUD is more effective for EC than hormonal pills but remains underused, possibly because of lack of knowledge or interest. The objective of this study was to examine knowledge of and interest in the Cu-IUD for EC among Canadian women seeking EC. METHODS: The study used a cross-sectional convenience survey of English-speaking women presenting for EC at two sexual health clinics in Toronto...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715852/treatment-of-premenstrual-dysphoria-with-continuous-versus-intermittent-dosing-of-oral-contraceptives-results-of-a-three-arm-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Tory A Eisenlohr-Moul, Susan S Girdler, Jacqueline L Johnson, Peter J Schmidt, David R Rubinow
BACKGROUND: Although traditionally dosed combined oral contraceptives (COCs) (21 days of active pills, 7 days of inactive pills) have not been demonstrated as superior to placebo for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria (PMD), some randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that oral contraceptives administered with a shortened or eliminated hormone-free interval are superior to placebo. However, results of such trials are mixed, and no existing studies have directly compared continuous and intermittent dosing schedules of the same oral contraceptive...
July 17, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711501/comparing-the-androgenic-and-estrogenic-properties-of-progestins-used-in-contraception-and-hormone-therapy
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Renate Louw-du Toit, Meghan S Perkins, Janet P Hapgood, Donita Africander
Progestins used in endocrine therapies bind to multiple steroid receptors and are associated with several side-effects. It is thus important to understand the relationship between steroid receptor cross-reactivity and the side-effect profile of progestins. In cell lines that express negligible levels of steroid receptors, we report for the first time the binding affinities, potencies and efficacies of selected progestins from different generations determined in parallel. We show that the progestins bind to the androgen receptor (AR) with similar affinities to each other and progesterone, while none bind estrogen receptor (ER)-β, and only norethisterone acetate, levonorgestrel and gestodene bind ERα...
September 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704597/are-incident-gallstones-associated-to-sex-dependent-changes-with-age-a-cohort-study
#10
D M Shabanzadeh, S A Holmboe, L T Sørensen, A Linneberg, A-M Andersson, T Jørgensen
Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort study of a general population random sample (N = 2366) aged 30-60 years was performed. Participants were ultrasound screened for gallstones in 1982-84 and again in 1993-94. Lifestyle data and blood samples were obtained and re-analyzed in 2004...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698329/a-cross-sectional-study-using-freedom-of-information-requests-to-evaluate-variation-in-local-authority-commissioning-of-community-pharmacy-public-health-services-in-england
#11
Adam John Mackridge, Nicola Jane Gray, Janet Krska
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to provide a national picture of the extent and nature of public health services commissioned by local authorities (LAs) from community pharmacies across England in financial year 2014/15. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of public health services commissioned in community pharmacies by LAs, gathered via freedom of information requests and documentary analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All 152 LAs in England. RESULTS: A total of 833 commissioned services were reported across England (range 3-10 per LA)...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676251/the-not-so-bitter-pill-effects-of-combined-oral-contraceptives-on-peripheral-physiological-indicators-of-emotional-reactivity
#12
Diana Armbruster, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alexander Strobel
Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are used by millions of women worldwide. Although findings are not entirely consistent, COC have been found to impact on brain function and, thus, to modulate affective processes. Here, we investigated electro-physiological responses to emotional stimuli in free cycling women in both the early follicular and late luteal phase as well as in COC users. Skin conductance response (SCR), startle reflex, corrugator and zygomaticus activity were assessed. COC users showed reduced overall startle magnitude and SCR amplitude, but heightened overall zygomaticus activity, although effect sizes were small...
July 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619391/pharmacists-attitudes-regarding-provision-of-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services
#13
Austin T Hilverding, Natalie A DiPietro Mager
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess attitudes from Ohio pharmacists about contraceptive authority. Secondary objectives included determining pharmacists' perceptions of benefits, barriers, and preparedness for offering such services and examining attitudes about and experiences with other reproductive health topics to inform future research. METHODS: An anonymous 26-question Institutional Review Board-approved electronic survey was developed and distributed via Qualtrics to a random sample of 500 licensed pharmacists in Ohio...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571724/premenstrual-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Kimberly Ann Yonkers, Michael K Simoni
Premenstrual disorders include premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and premenstrual worsening of another medical condition. While the underlying causes of these conditions continue to be explored, an aberrant response to hormonal fluctuations that occurs with the natural menstrual cycle and serotonin deficits have both been implicated. A careful medical history and daily symptom monitoring across 2 menstrual cycles is important in establishing a diagnosis. Many treatments have been evaluated for the management of premenstrual disorders...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553144/transdermal-delivery-of-combined-hormonal-contraception-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#15
REVIEW
Rosanna M Galzote, Sally Rafie, Rachel Teal, Sheila K Mody
The transdermal patch provides an effective and convenient option for hormonal contraception. The patch currently on the US market contains 150 µg norelgestromin and 35 µg ethinylestradiol (EE). The 20 cm(2) patch is applied once weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a patch-free week, for a 21-7 cycle. Typical failure rates are similar to that of combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Transdermal delivery results in less peaks and troughs of estrogen, but a higher total estrogen exposure compared with COCs. Though studies show mixed results, the risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) is about twice as high with the patch as with COCs; however, the absolute risk of VTE remains low...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527064/treating-migraine-with-contraceptives
#16
Gianni Allais, Giulia Chiarle, Silvia Sinigaglia, Gisella Airola, Paola Schiapparelli, Fabiola Bergandi, Chiara Benedetto
At least 18% of women suffers from migraine. Clinically, there are two main forms of migraine: migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) and more than 50% of MO is strongly correlated to the menstrual cycle. The high prevalence of migraine in females, its correlation with the menstrual cycle and with the use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) suggest that the estrogen drop is implicated in the pathogenesis of the attacks. Although CHCs may trigger or worsen migraine, their correct use may even prevent or reduce some forms of migraine, like estrogen withdrawal headache...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511371/study-of-serum-total-psa-and-free-psa-as-an-oncological-marker-in-breast-tumour
#17
Elteza Tahjiba Jahir, Runi Devi, Bibhuti Bhushan Borthakur
INTRODUCTION: Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501551/contribution-of-stress-and-sex-hormones-to-memory-encoding
#18
Christian J Merz
Distinct stages of the menstrual cycle and the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels, stress responses, and memory processes critically involved in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. To characterize the interaction of sex and stress hormones on memory encoding, 30 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women were exposed to either a stress (socially evaluated cold-pressor test) or a control condition prior to memory encoding and immediate recall of neutral, positive, and negative words...
May 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410124/wildlife-population-management-are-contraceptive-vaccines-a-feasible-proposition
#19
REVIEW
Satish Kumar Gupta, Vidisha Minhas
To minimize human-animal conflicts for habitation and burden of zoonotic diseases, it is imperative to develop new strategies for wildlife population management. In this direction, contraceptive vaccines eliciting immune response against hormones/proteins critical for reproduction have emerged as one of the promising options. Contraceptive vaccines based on neutralization of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) have been used for inhibition of fertility in various species such as wild horses, white-tailed deer, pigs, cats, dogs etc...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343555/provoked-vestibulodynia-diagnosis-self-reported-pain-and-presentation-during-gynaecological-examinations
#20
Emma E Dargie, Susan M Chamberlain, Caroline F Pukall
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors associated with the diagnosis of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) through (1) self-reported pain characteristics and (2) Friedrich's criteria (vestibular pain during sexual activity/gynaecological examination). We also identified cases in which incorrect diagnoses were assigned and explored group differences in gynaecological examination presentation and associations with self-reported pain. METHODS: Data were extracted from nine studies conducted in our research laboratory...
March 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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