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Hormone free contraception

Linda Linton, Monica Taylor, Sheila Dunn, Lisa Martin, Sonia Chavez, Greg Stanitz, Ella Huszti, Salomon Minkin, Norman Boyd
BACKGROUND: In previous work in young women aged 15-30 years we measured breast water and fat using MR and obtained blood for hormone assays on the same day in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Only serum growth hormone levels and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly associated with percent breast water after adjustment for covariates. The sex hormones estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were not associated with percent water in the breast in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle...
2016: PloS One
Rogério Bonassi Machado, Luciano Melo Pompei, Mariangela Badalotti, Rui Ferriani, Achilles M Cruz, Eliana Nahas, Hugo Maia
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy for menstrual-related symptoms of an extended flexible regimen of an oral contraceptive pill containing 20 μg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone in comparison with a 24/4 d cyclical regimen of the same formulation. METHODS: This randomised, non-inferiority, open-label, multicentre study was conducted in women aged 18-39 years. Their menstrual-related symptoms were assessed using the Penn Daily Symptom Rating (DSR17)...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Cassondra Marshall, Sylvia Guendelman, Jane Mauldon, Amani Nuru-Jeter
CONTEXT: Understanding how women's preferences for certain attributes of contraceptive methods relate to their method choice can inform the content of contraceptive counseling. METHODS: Data from 715 women aged 18-29 who had ever used contraceptives were drawn from the 2009 National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine how women's preferences for specific contraceptive attributes were related to their social and demographic characteristics and their current contraceptive choice...
September 2016: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Roberto De Icco, Laura Cucinella, Irene De Paoli, Silvia Martella, Grazia Sances, Vito Bitetto, Giorgio Sandrini, Giuseppe Nappi, Cristina Tassorelli, Rossella E Nappi
BACKGROUND: Menstrually-related headache and headaches associated with oestrogen withdrawal are common conditions, whose pathophysiology has not been completely elucidated. In this study we evaluated the influence of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) on pain threshold in women presenting migraine attacks during hormone-free interval. FINDINGS: Eleven women with migraine attacks recurring exclusively during the oestrogen-withdrawal period were studied with the nociceptive flexion reflex, a neurophysiological assessment of the pain control systems, during the third week of active treatment and during the hormone-free interval...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Mary K Agnew, Cheryl S Asa, Victoria L Clyde, Dominique L Keller, Audra Meinelt
Contraception is an essential tool in reproductive management of captive species. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Reproductive Management Center (RMC) gathers data on contraception use and provides recommendations. Although apes have been given oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for at least 30 years, there have been no published reports with basic information on why the pill is administered, formulations and brands used, and effects on physiology and behavior. Here, we report survey results characterizing OCP use in bonobos (Pan paniscus) housed in North American zoos, as well as information accumulated in the RMC's Contraception Database...
September 2016: Zoo Biology
J D Bergiannaki, P Kostaras
The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women...
April 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Astrid M Kamperman, Yolanda B de Rijke, Cornelis G Kooiman, Steven A Kushner
BACKGROUND: Maladaptive emotional control is a defining feature of personality disorders. Yet little is known about the underlying physiological dynamics of emotional reactivity to psychosocial stress across distinct personality disorders. The current study compared subjective emotional responses with autonomic nervous system and HPA axis physiological responses to psychosocial stress in women with cluster C personality disorder (CPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: Subjective mood ratings, salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR), and skin conductance level (SCL) were assessed before, during, and after exposure to a standardized psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) in 26 women with BPD, 20 women with CPD, and 35 healthy female controls...
October 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Herjan J T Coelingh Bennink, Yvette Zimmerman, Ellen Laan, Hanneke M M Termeer, Nicole Appels, Adelin Albert, Bart C J M Fauser, Jos H H Thijssen, Rik H W van Lunsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to combined oral contraceptives (COCs) maintains physiological levels of free testosterone. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study conducted in 81 healthy women (age range: 20-35 years; BMI range: 18-35 kg/m(2)) using oral contraceptives. Androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) were measured, and free testosterone and the free testosterone index (FTI) were calculated...
July 5, 2016: Contraception
Saga Elise Mariansdatter, Andreas Ernst, Gunnar Toft, Sjurdur Frodi Olsen, Anne Vested, Susanne Lund Kristensen, Mette Lausten Hansen, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen
Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988-1989. In 2008, a follow-up questionnaire was completed for 365 daughters (83 %), while 267 daughters (61 %) participated in a subsequent clinical examination. Main outcome measures were age of menarche, reproductive hormone profile, and ovarian follicle count in daughters...
October 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Daria Lizneva, Larisa Gavrilova-Jordan, Walidah Walker, Ricardo Azziz
Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia...
May 19, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
S Topuz, H Sozen, D Vatansever, A C Iyibozkurt, B Y Ozgor, E Bastu, V Salihoglu, S Berkman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis, demographic characteristics, and pathological features of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer, specifically before menopause. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients that were diagnosed with endometrial cancer before menopause, were screened retrospectively. Between 1999 and 2011, 163 patients were identified while 40 were excluded. Patients were classified into three groups according to age (under 40 years, between 40-45 years, more than 45 years) and BMI (normal weight group, overweight group, and obese weight group)...
2016: European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology
K Peters, N Gordon, N Ricciotti, J Hsieh, B Howard, H Weiss
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To compare the effects of desogestrel (DSG) 150 mcg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 mcg for 21 days followed by either seven days of EE ten mcg (21/7-active) or no treatment (DSG/EE+no Tx) on hemostatic markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, multicenter, open-label study that enrolled healthy premenopausal women. Non-inferiority of 21/7-active to DSG/EE+no Tx was determined if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% CI of the mean treatment difference in prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) over 24 weeks between groups was < 130 pmol/L...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Pelin Batur, Lisa N Kransdorf, Petra M Casey
Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception...
June 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Tobias Kurth, Anke C Winter, A Heather Eliassen, Rimma Dushkes, Kenneth J Mukamal, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson, Kathryn M Rexrode
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the association between migraine and incident cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality in women. DESIGN:  Prospective cohort study among Nurses' Health Study II participants, with follow-up from 1989 and through June 2011. SETTING:  Cohort of female nurses in United States. PARTICIPANTS:  115 541 women aged 25-42 years at baseline and free of angina and cardiovascular disease...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Susanne Diekelmann, Jan Born, Björn Rasch
Sleep consolidates newly acquired memories. Beyond stabilizing memories, sleep is thought to reorganize memory representations such that invariant structures, statistical regularities and even new explicit knowledge are extracted. Whereas increasing evidence suggests that the stabilization of memories during sleep can be facilitated by cueing with learning-associated stimuli, the effect of cueing on memory reorganization is less well understood. Here we asked whether olfactory cueing during sleep enhances the generation of explicit knowledge about an implicitly learned procedural memory task...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Christian Zurth, Barbara Schuett, Manuela Casjens, Matthias Ludwig, Katrin Waellnitz
In this open-label, randomized study, 36 women (18-45 years) applied an ethinyl estradiol/gestodene contraceptive patch once-weekly for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week, patch-free interval, in 3 treatment periods. The primary objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and gestodene under conditions of heat, humidity, and exercise. The secondary objective was to evaluate patch adhesion under the same conditions. Weeks 1 and 2 of each period comprised "standardized normal activity" (SNA); in week 3, SNA continued or women used a sauna, whirlpool, swimming pool, or performed an exercise combination...
July 2015: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Susanne Lund Kristensen, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Erik Ernst, Sjurdur Frodi Olsen, Jens Peter Bonde, Anne Vested, Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Gunnar Toft
BACKGROUND: The biopersistent organochlorine pollutants dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be detected in humans worldwide. The chemicals can cross the placenta and may interfere with endogenous hormonal homeostasis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects on female reproduction following intrauterine exposure to selected biopersistent organochlorines. METHODS: We used data from a Danish pregnancy cohort with follow-up on 436 eligible daughters at approximately 20years of age...
July 2016: Environment International
Andrew London, Jeffrey T Jensen
BACKGROUND: Although most low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COCs) include 7-day hormone-free intervals (HFIs), these COCs could incompletely suppress ovarian activity. OBJECTIVES: To review the impact of HFIs on ovarian suppression and tolerability, and evaluate the utility of COCs without traditional 7-day HFIs. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed was searched for clinical studies published in English between January 1980 and April 2015 on the impact of HFIs and HFI modifications in COCs...
July 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
H W R Li, S S T Lo, E H Y Ng, P C Ho
STUDY QUESTION: Does ulipristal acetate (UPA) have similar efficacy as emergency contraception (EC) when administered before and after ovulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: The efficacy of UPA-EC was significantly better when administered before than after ovulation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Levonorgestrel (LNG) is effective as EC only when administered before, but not after ovulation. LNG EC taken in the pre-ovulatory and post-ovulatory phase results in shortening and lengthening of the index menstrual cycle, respectively...
June 2016: Human Reproduction
Sina Radke, Birgit Derntl
Despite the widespread use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), little is known about their impact on psychological processes and emotional competencies. Recent data indicate impaired emotion recognition in OC users compared to naturally cycling females. Building upon these findings, the current study investigated the influence of OC use on three components of empathy, i.e., emotion recognition, perspective-taking, and affective responsiveness. We compared naturally cycling women to two groups of OC users, one being tested in their pill-free week and one in the phase of active intake...
June 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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