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Hormone free contraception

Kristien Winckers, Stella Thomassen, Hugo Ten Cate, Tilman M Hackeng
BACKGROUND: Only 10% of plasma TFPIα (TFPI) exists in the full length form, the rest circulates as a C-terminally truncated form. However, blood platelets exclusively contain full length TFPI, which is released at the site of injury upon platelet activation, and which could play an important local regulatory role in thrombin generation and prevention of thrombosis. METHODS: The anticoagulant activities of full length and truncated TFPI were investigated using thrombin generation assays...
2017: PloS One
Gabriele S Merki-Feld, Bruno Imthurn, Raghvendran Dubey, Peter S Sándor, Andreas R Gantenbein
Migraine is a disabling headache disorder, which affects up to 17% of the female population. Oestrogen withdrawal during the menstrual cycle or the hormone-free interval in users of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) plays a pivotal role. Two diary-based studies demonstrated a positive impact of the progestin-only pill (POP) desogestrel 75 μg on the frequency of the migraine attacks and pain intensity. In both studies, CHC users as well as nonusers were included, which makes it difficult to distinguish between the effect of taking women off the CHC and the benefit of the POP itself...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Kasra Maasumi, Stewart J Tepper, Jennifer S Kriegler
OBJECTIVE: A review of treatment options for menstrual migraine. BACKGROUND: Migraine affects ∼30 million people in the US. A subset of female migraineurs have migraines that are mainly associated with menstruation. Menstrual migraine (MM) is divided into pure MM and menstrually related migraine. Pure MM attacks occur only with menstruation and have a prevalence of 1%. Menstrually related migraine has a prevalence of 6-7%, and occurs both during menstruation as well as during the rest of the cycle...
February 2017: Headache
K Bork, K Wulff, G Witzke, J Hardt
Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 esterase inhibitor and mutations in the F12 gene (HAE-FXII) is associated with skin swellings, abdominal pain attacks, and the risk of asphyxiation due to upper airway obstruction. It occurs nearly exclusively in women. We report our experience treating HAE-FXII with discontinuation of potential trigger factors and drug therapies. The study included 72 patients with HAE-FXII. Potential triggers included estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (eOC), hormonal replacement therapy, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors...
November 6, 2016: Allergy
Linda Rhodes
Over the last 40 years, researchers have explored methods to non-surgically suppress fertility in animals. Immunocontraception has been used to control wildlife populations but does not confer long-term immunity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist deslorelin, formulated as an implant to provide 6-month to 1-year suppression of fertility in male dogs, is available commercially in some countries. Neither of these approaches provide permanent sterility. A single-dose, permanent treatment would be a valuable tool in dog and cat population control...
November 28, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
L M Vansandt, M A Kutzler, A E Fischer, K N Morris, W F Swanson
Sterilization is a key strategy to reduce the number of domestic cats entering and killed in shelters each year. However, surgical sterilization is expensive and labour-intensive and cannot fully address the 70 million free-roaming cats estimated to exist in the United States. GonaCon™ is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine originally developed for use as a wildlife immunocontraceptive. An earlier formulation was tested in domestic cats and found to be safe and effective for long-term contraception. However, the current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered formulation consists of a different antigen-carrier protein and increased antigen concentration and has never been tested in cats...
November 15, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Linda Linton, Monica Taylor, Sheila Dunn, Lisa Martin, Sonia Chavez, Greg Stanitz, Ella Huszti, Salomon Minkin, Norman Boyd
BACKGROUND: In previous work in young women aged 15-30 years we measured breast water and fat using MR and obtained blood for hormone assays on the same day in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Only serum growth hormone levels and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly associated with percent breast water after adjustment for covariates. The sex hormones estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were not associated with percent water in the breast in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle...
2016: PloS One
Rogério Bonassi Machado, Luciano Melo Pompei, Mariangela Badalotti, Rui Ferriani, Achilles M Cruz, Eliana Nahas, Hugo Maia
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy for menstrual-related symptoms of an extended flexible regimen of an oral contraceptive pill containing 20 μg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone in comparison with a 24/4 d cyclical regimen of the same formulation. METHODS: This randomised, non-inferiority, open-label, multicentre study was conducted in women aged 18-39 years. Their menstrual-related symptoms were assessed using the Penn Daily Symptom Rating (DSR17)...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Cassondra Marshall, Sylvia Guendelman, Jane Mauldon, Amani Nuru-Jeter
CONTEXT: Understanding how women's preferences for certain attributes of contraceptive methods relate to their method choice can inform the content of contraceptive counseling. METHODS: Data from 715 women aged 18-29 who had ever used contraceptives were drawn from the 2009 National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine how women's preferences for specific contraceptive attributes were related to their social and demographic characteristics and their current contraceptive choice...
2016: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Roberto De Icco, Laura Cucinella, Irene De Paoli, Silvia Martella, Grazia Sances, Vito Bitetto, Giorgio Sandrini, Giuseppe Nappi, Cristina Tassorelli, Rossella E Nappi
BACKGROUND: Menstrually-related headache and headaches associated with oestrogen withdrawal are common conditions, whose pathophysiology has not been completely elucidated. In this study we evaluated the influence of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) on pain threshold in women presenting migraine attacks during hormone-free interval. FINDINGS: Eleven women with migraine attacks recurring exclusively during the oestrogen-withdrawal period were studied with the nociceptive flexion reflex, a neurophysiological assessment of the pain control systems, during the third week of active treatment and during the hormone-free interval...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Mary K Agnew, Cheryl S Asa, Victoria L Clyde, Dominique L Keller, Audra Meinelt
Contraception is an essential tool in reproductive management of captive species. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Reproductive Management Center (RMC) gathers data on contraception use and provides recommendations. Although apes have been given oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for at least 30 years, there have been no published reports with basic information on why the pill is administered, formulations and brands used, and effects on physiology and behavior. Here, we report survey results characterizing OCP use in bonobos (Pan paniscus) housed in North American zoos, as well as information accumulated in the RMC's Contraception Database...
September 2016: Zoo Biology
J D Bergiannaki, P Kostaras
The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women...
April 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Astrid M Kamperman, Yolanda B de Rijke, Cornelis G Kooiman, Steven A Kushner
BACKGROUND: Maladaptive emotional control is a defining feature of personality disorders. Yet little is known about the underlying physiological dynamics of emotional reactivity to psychosocial stress across distinct personality disorders. The current study compared subjective emotional responses with autonomic nervous system and HPA axis physiological responses to psychosocial stress in women with cluster C personality disorder (CPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: Subjective mood ratings, salivary cortisol, heart rate (HR), and skin conductance level (SCL) were assessed before, during, and after exposure to a standardized psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) in 26 women with BPD, 20 women with CPD, and 35 healthy female controls...
October 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Herjan J T Coelingh Bennink, Yvette Zimmerman, Ellen Laan, Hanneke M M Termeer, Nicole Appels, Adelin Albert, Bart C J M Fauser, Jos H H Thijssen, Rik H W van Lunsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding dehydroepiandrosterone to combined oral contraceptives (COCs) maintains physiological levels of free testosterone. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study conducted in 81 healthy women (age range: 20-35 years; Body mass index (BMI) range: 18-35 kg/m(2)) using oral contraceptives. Androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were measured, and free testosterone and the free testosterone index were calculated...
July 5, 2016: Contraception
Saga Elise Mariansdatter, Andreas Ernst, Gunnar Toft, Sjurdur Frodi Olsen, Anne Vested, Susanne Lund Kristensen, Mette Lausten Hansen, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen
Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988-1989. In 2008, a follow-up questionnaire was completed for 365 daughters (83 %), while 267 daughters (61 %) participated in a subsequent clinical examination. Main outcome measures were age of menarche, reproductive hormone profile, and ovarian follicle count in daughters...
October 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Daria Lizneva, Larisa Gavrilova-Jordan, Walidah Walker, Ricardo Azziz
Androgen excess (AE) is a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and results in, or contributes to, the clinical phenotype of these patients. Although AE will contribute to the ovulatory and menstrual dysfunction of these patients, the most recognizable sign of AE includes hirsutism, acne, and androgenic alopecia or female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Evaluation includes not only scoring facial and body terminal hair growth using the modified Ferriman-Gallwey method but also recording and possibly scoring acne and alopecia...
November 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
S Topuz, H Sozen, D Vatansever, A C Iyibozkurt, B Y Ozgor, E Bastu, V Salihoglu, S Berkman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis, demographic characteristics, and pathological features of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer, specifically before menopause. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients that were diagnosed with endometrial cancer before menopause, were screened retrospectively. Between 1999 and 2011, 163 patients were identified while 40 were excluded. Patients were classified into three groups according to age (under 40 years, between 40-45 years, more than 45 years) and BMI (normal weight group, overweight group, and obese weight group)...
2016: European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology
K Peters, N Gordon, N Ricciotti, J Hsieh, B Howard, H Weiss
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To compare the effects of desogestrel (DSG) 150 mcg/ethinyl estradiol (EE) 20 mcg for 21 days followed by either seven days of EE ten mcg (21/7-active) or no treatment (DSG/EE+no Tx) on hemostatic markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, multicenter, open-label study that enrolled healthy premenopausal women. Non-inferiority of 21/7-active to DSG/EE+no Tx was determined if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% CI of the mean treatment difference in prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) over 24 weeks between groups was < 130 pmol/L...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Pelin Batur, Lisa N Kransdorf, Petra M Casey
Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception...
June 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Tobias Kurth, Anke C Winter, A Heather Eliassen, Rimma Dushkes, Kenneth J Mukamal, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson, Kathryn M Rexrode
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the association between migraine and incident cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality in women. DESIGN:  Prospective cohort study among Nurses' Health Study II participants, with follow-up from 1989 and through June 2011. SETTING:  Cohort of female nurses in United States. PARTICIPANTS:  115 541 women aged 25-42 years at baseline and free of angina and cardiovascular disease...
May 31, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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