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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727296/croi-2018-advances-in-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Hong-Van Tieu, Barbara S Taylor, Joyce Jones, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2018 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) showcased exciting data on new investigational agents including MK-8591 and tri-specific antibody targeting 3 highly conserved epitopes on HIV-1 in a single antibody. Clinical trials of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and switch studies involving bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide were presented. Intensification of initial ART with integrase strand transfer inhibitors did not increase the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697830/menstrual-dysfunction-in-girls-from-the-treatment-options-for-type-2-diabetes-in-adolescents-and-youth-today-study
#2
Megan M Kelsey, Barbara H Braffett, Mitchell E Geffner, Lynne L Levitsky, Sonia Caprio, Siripoom V McKay, Rachana Shah, Jennifer E Sprague, Silva A Arslanian
Context: Little is known about reproductive function in girls with youth-onset type 2 diabetes. Objectives: To characterize girls with irregular menses, and effects of glycemic treatments on menses and sex steroids in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Youth (TODAY) study. Design: Differences in demographic, metabolic, and hormonal characteristics between regular vs. irregular menses groups were tested; treatment group (metformin +/- rosiglitazone, metformin + lifestyle) effect on menses and sex steroids over time in the study was assessed...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672719/title-hormonal-contraceptive-use-is-associated-with-higher-total-but-unaltered-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-serum-concentrations
#3
Stefan Pilz, Rima Obeid, Verena Schwetz, Christian Trummer, Marlene Pandis, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Thomas R Pieber, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Manfred Wilhelm, Andreas Hahn, Christiane Schön
Context: Hormonal contraceptive (HC) intake is associated with higher total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations but the effect of HC on free 25(OH)D is unclear. Objective: We investigated whether free 25(OH)D concentrations differ according to use of HC. Design: This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized open trial. Setting: This study was conducted from 13th January to 9th May 2016 at a clinical research organization in Esslingen, Germany...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526116/menopausal-hormone-therapy-a-better-and-safer-future
#4
D A Davey
Major advances in menopause hormone therapy (MHT) hold promise in the future of better and safer care for women at and after the menopause. The principal advances are: (1) the critical window or 'window of opportunity' in the 10 years or so after the menopause, during which the benefits of MHT in healthy women exceed any risks; (2) use of transdermal instead of oral administration of estrogen to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism; (c) investigation of the use of oral micronized progesterone (MP) and vaginal MP to prevent endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma without any increased risk of breast cancer and venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens; vaginal MP prevents endometrial proliferation in the short term but the long-term effects in MHT remain to be established; (4) investigation into the use of intrauterine levonorgestrel-releasing devices (LNG-IUDs), which are an attractive form of MHT in perimenopausal women, providing contraception and reducing uterine bleeding, although the risk of breast cancer with LNG-IUDs requires clarification...
March 11, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523633/management-of-endocrine-disease-management-of-cushing-s-syndrome-during-pregnancy-solved-and-unsolved-questions
#5
REVIEW
Thierry Brue, Vincent Amodru, Frederic Castinetti
With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2- to 3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. Apart from gestational hypertension, differential diagnosis includes pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism...
June 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507393/plasma-steroids-body-composition-and-fat-distribution-effects-of-age-sex-and-exercise-training
#6
Zihong He, Tuomo Rankinen, Arthur S Leon, James S Skinner, André Tchernof, Claude Bouchard
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Plasma steroid hormone levels vary between men and women, but their associations with BMI and adiposity are controversial. Furthermore, little is known about the role of exercise programs on the relationship between steroid hormones and adiposity. This report evaluates these relationships for plasma levels of adrenal, gonadal, and conjugated steroids with body composition and fat distribution in sedentary men and women, aged 17-65 years, and their responses to an exercise program...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505773/impact-of-contraceptive-initiation-on-vaginal-microbiota
#7
Sharon L Achilles, Michele N Austin, Leslie A Meyn, Felix Mhlanga, Zvavahera M Chirenje, Sharon L Hillier
BACKGROUND: Data evaluating the impact of contraceptives on the vaginal microbiome are limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that women initiating copper intrauterine device use would have increased bacterial vaginosis and bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes with use compared to women initiating and using hormonal contraceptive methods. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal swabs (N = 1047 from 266 participants seeking contraception) for Nugent score determination of bacterial vaginosis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses for assessment of specific microbiota were collected from asymptomatic, healthy women aged 18-35 years in Harare, Zimbabwe, who were confirmed to be free of nonstudy hormones by mass spectrometry at each visit...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468855/major-clinical-research-advances-in-gynecologic-cancer-in-2017
#8
REVIEW
Dong Hoon Suh, Miseon Kim, Kyung Hun Lee, Keun Yong Eom, Maj Kamille Kjeldsen, Mansoor Raza Mirza, Jae Weon Kim
In 2017, 10 topics were selected as major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology. For cervical cancer, efficacy and safety analysis results of a 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and long-term impact of reduced dose of quadrivalent vaccine were updated. Brief introduction of KEYNOTE trials of pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, followed. Tailored surveillance programs for gynecologic cancer related with Lynch syndrome and update on sentinel lymph node mapping were reviewed for uterine corpus cancer...
March 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463201/effectiveness-of-gonacon-as-an-immunocontraceptive-in-colony-housed-cats
#9
Amy Fischer, Valerie Aw Benka, Joyce Briggs, Marc-Antoine Driancourt, Joanne Maki, Darcy So Mora, Kevin Morris, Kayla A Myers, Linda Rhodes, Lindsey M Vansandt, George Robert Weedon, Julie Wolf, Julie K Levy
Objectives Non-surgical contraceptive management of free-roaming cat populations is a global goal for public health and humane reasons. The objectives of this study were to measure the duration of contraception following a single intramuscular injection of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based vaccine (GonaCon) and to confirm its safe use in female cats living in colony conditions. Methods GonaCon (0.5 ml/cat) was administered intramuscularly to 20 intact female cats (queens), and saline was administered to 10 queens serving as sham-treated controls...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457756/effects-of-combined-oral-contraceptives-on-the-clinical-and-biochemical-parameters-of-hyperandrogenism-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Mina Amiri, Ali Kabir, Fatemeh Nahidi, Maryam Shekofteh, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, selection of COCs with maximum antiandrogenic effects is one the main issues in treatment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effects of COCs on the clinical and biochemical parameters of hyperandrogenism (HA) in patients with PCOS. METHODS: Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and web of science) were searched from 1987 to November 2015 to identify clinical trials investigating effect of the various COCs on the clinical and biochemical parameters of HA in patients...
February 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430227/levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-device-related-acute-liver-injury
#11
Hira Imad Cheema, Ashutosh Gupta
Oral contraceptives have long been associated with liver injury. However, very little attention is paid to the metabolic side effects of hormone-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs). These devices are generally considered safe and commonly used. We report for the first time acute liver injury associated with a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD. Our patient did not have any comorbidities that could have caused or exacerbated liver injury. A detailed workup and liver biopsy remained negative for any other potential cause of liver injury...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408422/concordance-of-self-reported-hormonal-contraceptive-use-and-presence-of-exogenous-hormones-in-serum-among-african-women
#12
Maria Pyra, Jairam R Lingappa, Renee Heffron, David W Erikson, Steven W Blue, Rena C Patel, Kavita Nanda, Helen Rees, Nelly R Mugo, Nicole L Davis, Athena P Kourtis, Jared M Baeten
OBJECTIVES: Studies that rely on self-report to investigate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as other health outcomes, could have compromised results due to misreporting. We determined the frequency of misreported hormonal contraceptive use among African women with and at risk for HIV. STUDY DESIGN: We tested 1102 archived serum samples from 664 African women who had participated in prospective HIV prevention studies...
April 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347814/-customization-of-hormonal-contraception
#13
Vincenzo DE Leo, Antonio Cianci, Costantino DI Carlo, Valentina Cappelli, Franca Fruzzetti
In the last few years new oral contraceptives have been marketed showing a better safety profile for women. They are the result of important changes made to the old compounds. As far as the estrogenic component, with the aim of decreasing side effects, the dose of ethinyl estradiol has been reduced and synthetic estrogens have been replaced by natural estradiol, further improving the safety profile. Also the progestin component in the last years has been changed in terms of dose, endocrine and metabolic characteristics...
February 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327114/anthropometric-characteristics-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-and-survival
#14
Albina N Minlikeeva, Kirsten B Moysich, Paul C Mayor, John L Etter, Rikki A Cannioto, Roberta B Ness, Kristen Starbuck, Robert P Edwards, Brahm H Segal, Sashikant Lele, Kunle Odunsi, Brenda Diergaarde, Francesmary Modugno
PURPOSE: Multiple studies have examined the role of anthropometric characteristics in ovarian cancer risk and survival; however, their results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between weight change, height and height change and risk and outcome of ovarian cancer using data from a large population-based case-control study. METHODS: Data from 699 ovarian cancer cases and 1,802 controls who participated in the HOPE study were included. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, race, number of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer to examine the associations between self-reported height and weight and height change with ovarian cancer risk...
February 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322301/effects-of-short-term-dhea-intake-on-hormonal-responses-in-young-recreationally-trained-athletes-modulation-by-gender
#15
Katia Collomp, Corinne Buisson, Nicolas Gravisse, Soraya Belgherbi, Zakaria Labsy, Manh-Cuong Do, Olivier Gagey, Sophie Dufay, Nancy Vibarel-Rebot, Michel Audran
BACKGROUND: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) figures on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances in sport because it is assumed that athletes expect a significant increase in testosterone through DHEA administration. The literature on the hormonal effects of DHEA intake nevertheless appears to be very scant in healthy young subjects, especially women. PURPOSE: We examined the effects of DHEA on adrenal and gonadal hormones, IGF1 and free T3 in healthy young male and female recreationally trained volunteers...
March 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228373/medical-treatment-or-surgery-for-colorectal-endometriosis-results-of-a-shared-decision-making-approach
#16
Paolo Vercellini, Maria Pina Frattaruolo, Riccardo Rosati, Dhouha Dridi, Anna Roberto, Paola Mosconi, Olga De Giorgi, Fulvia Milena Cribiù, Edgardo Somigliana
STUDY QUESTION: What is the degree of patient satisfaction in women with symptomatic colorectal endometriosis who choose medical or surgical treatment after a shared decision-making (SDM) process? SUMMARY ANSWER: The degree of satisfaction with treatment was high both in women who chose medical treatment with a low-dose oral contraceptive (OCP) or a progestin, and in those who chose to undergo surgical resection of bowel endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Hormonal therapies and surgery for colorectal endometriosis have been investigated in non-comparative studies with inconsistent results...
February 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215211/a-study-of-hormonal-effects-in-cervical-smear-samples-using-raman-spectroscopy
#17
Damien Traynor, Padraig Kearney, Ines Ramos, Cara M Martin, John J O'Leary, Fiona M Lyng
Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool that has the potential to be used as a screening method for cervical cancer. It is a label-free, low-cost method providing a biochemical fingerprint of a given sample. The objective of this study was to address patient-to-patient variability contributed by hormonal effects due to the menstrual cycle, the use of hormone-based contraceptives (HC) and the onset of menopause, and to determine if these changes would affect the ability to successfully identify dyskaryotic cells...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162517/elevated-plasma-8-iso-prostaglandin-f-2%C3%AE-levels-in-human-smokers-originate-primarily-from-enzymatic-instead-of-non-enzymatic-lipid-peroxidation
#18
Thomas J van 't Erve, Fred B Lih, Maria B Kadiiska, Leesa J Deterding, Ronald P Mason
It is widely accepted that free radicals in tobacco smoke lead to oxidative stress and generate the popular lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α ). However, 8-iso-PGF2α can simultaneously be produced in vivo by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) induced by inflammation. This inflammation-dependent mechanism has never been considered as a source of elevated 8-iso-PGF2α in tobacco smokers. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of chemical- and PGHS-dependent 8-iso-PGF2α formation in the plasma of tobacco smokers and non-smokers...
February 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149179/postmenopausal-hormone-therapy-and-risk-of-stroke-a-pooled-analysis-of-data-from-population-based-cohort-studies
#19
Germán D Carrasquilla, Paolo Frumento, Anita Berglund, Christer Borgfeldt, Matteo Bottai, Chiara Chiavenna, Mats Eliasson, Gunnar Engström, Göran Hallmans, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Patrik K Magnusson, Peter M Nilsson, Nancy L Pedersen, Alicja Wolk, Karin Leander
BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates a favourable influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) if initiated early, but not late, on subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the clinical relevance of timing of HT initiation for hard end points such as stroke remains to be determined. Further, no previous research has considered the timing of initiation of HT in relation to haemorrhagic stroke risk. The importance of the route of administration, type, active ingredient, and duration of HT for stroke risk is also unclear...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144993/evaluate-the-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-reproductive-endocrine-system-in-newly-diagnosed-female-epileptic-patients-receiving-either-valproate-or-lamotrigine-monotherapy-a-prospective-study
#20
Harpreet Singh Sidhu, R Srinivasa, Akshay Sadhotra
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the development of reproductive endocrine changes in Indian women with epilepsy initiating on either Valproate (VPA) or Lamotrigine (LTG) monotherapy. METHODS: Reproductive hormonal profiles, hirsutism, ovarian morphology by ultrasonography and menstrual cycle data in newly diagnosed women with epilepsy taking VPA (n=34) or LTG (n=32) monotherapy were compared. None of the women were receiving hormonal contraception. Patients gave details of seizure type and frequency, medical and drug history...
January 2018: Epilepsy Research
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