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Baptiste Brossard, Normand Carpentier
Contemporary research into health and mental health treats diagnosis as a central step in understanding illness management and trajectory; consequently, in the last two decades, sociology of diagnosis has attained increasing influence within medical sociology. Deeply embedded in social constructionism, the set of research divides between those who focus on the social and historical construction of diagnoses as categories, and those who see diagnosis as a process. Regarding the latter, this approach explores the constitution of the medical production, highlighting how it constitutes a starting point for entering a 'sick role', for being labelled, for naming one's problem and by extension, for framing one's illness narrative...
October 22, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Gill Murphy, Kath Peters, Lesley Wilkes, Debra Jackson
Background Conceptual frameworks are important to ensure a clear underpinning research philosophy. Further, the use of conceptual frameworks can support structured research processes. Aim To present a partnership model for a reflective narrative for researcher and participant. Discussion This paper positions the underpinning philosophical framework of the model in social constructionism (the idea that jointly constructed understandings form the basis for shared assumptions) and narrative enquiry. The model has five stages - study design, invitation to share a research space and partnership, a metaphorical research space, building a community story, and reading the community story to others...
September 2016: Nurse Researcher
Dana Rosenfeld, Damien Ridge, Jose Catalan, Valerie Delpech
Studies of disclosure amongst older people living with HIV (PLWH) are uninformed by critical social-gerontological approaches that can help us to appreciate how older PLWH see and treat age as relevant to disclosure of their HIV status. These approaches include an ethnomethodologically-informed social constructionism that explores how 'the' life course (a cultural framework depicting individuals' movement through predictable developmental stages from birth to death) is used as an interpretive resource for determining self and others' characteristics, capacities, and social circumstances: a process Rosenfeld and Gallagher (2002) termed 'lifecoursing'...
August 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
Kenya V Beard, Wrenetha A Julion
BACKGROUND: The rise in undergraduate enrollment of African-American students has not translated into more African-American faculty members, although they could mentor minority students and promote an ethos that encourages their academic success. Discrimination against African-American faculty members continues, which could lessen their presence. PURPOSE: This study explored the narratives of 23 African-American faculty members to determine if race still matters in nursing...
June 18, 2016: Nursing Outlook
Raphael van Riel
It is common to note that social environment and cultural formation shape mental disorders. The details of this claim are, however, not well understood. The paper takes a look at the claim that culture has an impact on psychiatry from the perspective of metaphysics and the philosophy of science. Its aim is to offer, in a general fashion, partial explications of some significant versions of the thesis that culture and social environment shape mental disorders and to highlight some of the consequences social constructionism about psychiatry has for psychiatric explanation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Carolyn Mackintosh-Franklin
BACKGROUND: This review provides a contextual report of the current use of pedagogy in undergraduate nursing programmes run by Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) in the United Kingdom (UK). Pedagogy provides the framework for educators to add shape and structure to the educational process, and to support student learning and programme development. Traditionally nurse education has used a behaviourist approach focusing on learning outcomes and competency based education, although there is also increasing support for the cognitive/student learning focused pedagogic approach...
May 2016: Nurse Education Today
Philippa Rasmussen, Eimear Muir-Cochrane, Ann Henderson
AIM: To discuss the theoretical framework of social constructivism and justify it s appropriateness for and compatibility with an interpretive approach to child adolescent mental health (CAMH) nursing research. BACKGROUND: Recent changes to national nursing legislation in Australia have resulted in the removal of the separate register with regulatory authorities that existed for the specialty of mental health nursing. Aspects of mental health nursing age are not easily defined, with some being tacit...
November 2015: Nurse Researcher
Lisi J Gordon, Charlotte E Rees, Jean S Ker, Jennifer Cleland
CONTEXT: As doctors in all specialties are expected to undertake leadership within health care organisations, leadership development has become an inherent part of medical education. Whereas the leadership literature within medical education remains mostly focused on individual, hierarchical leadership, contemporary theory posits leadership as a group process, which should be distributed across all levels of health care organisation. This gap between theory and practice indicates that there is a need to understand what leadership and followership mean to medical trainees working in today's interprofessional health care workplace...
December 2015: Medical Education
Eliane Cadoná, Helena Scarparo
This study sets out to analyze scientific articles in order to investigate how researchers in the area of Social Constructionism define "health" in Primary Health Care. An integrative review of the literature was conducted along with a decision to concentrate on those works with narrative experiences and research studies. The database researched was the Brazilian Virtual Health Library, with experiences in the scope of Primary Health Care. The effectiveness of this step resulted in 12 articles. Data were analyzed and discussed based on the perspectives of social constructionism, which generated two central themes...
September 2015: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Elizabeth Forster, Alaa Hafiz
UNLABELLED: Without question a child's death is a devastating event for parents and families. Health professionals working with the dying child and family draw upon their expertise and experience to engage with children, parents and families on this painful journey. This is a delicate and sensitive area of practice and has strong and penetrating effects on health professionals. They employ physical, emotional, spiritual and problem solving strategies to continue to perform this role effectively and to protect their continued sense of wellbeing...
June 2015: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
Kristen A Lindquist, Jennifer K MacCormack, Holly Shablack
Common sense suggests that emotions are physical types that have little to do with the words we use to label them. Yet recent psychological constructionist accounts reveal that language is a fundamental element in emotion that is constitutive of both emotion experiences and perceptions. According to the psychological constructionist Conceptual Act Theory (CAT), an instance of emotion occurs when information from one's body or other people's bodies is made meaningful in light of the present situation using concept knowledge about emotion...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Riitta Viitala
PURPOSE: Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change...
2014: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Leonie G Cox, Alan Simpson
This study will be of interest to anyone concerned with a critical appraisal of mental health service users' and carers' participation in research collaboration and with the potential of the postcolonial paradigm of cultural safety to contribute to the service user research (SUR) movement. The history and nature of the mental health field and its relationship to colonial processes provokes a consideration of whether cultural safety could focus attention on diversity, power imbalance, cultural dominance and structural inequality, identified as barriers and tensions in SUR...
December 2015: Nursing Inquiry
D Con, K Goethals
BACKGROUND: In this article we focus on the role, function and composition of the morning report in the training of psychiatrists in residence at psychiatric hospitals. We also pay attention to the way in which the case should be presented in the morning report. AIM: To make some proposals regarding ways in which the efficiency of the morning report and the case presented in that report can be improved. METHOD: We studied currently available literature and publications about the morning report and we also drew on our own experience with the morning report...
2015: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
C Daryl Cameron, Kristen A Lindquist, Kurt Gray
Morality and emotions are linked, but what is the nature of their correspondence? Many "whole number" accounts posit specific correspondences between moral content and discrete emotions, such that harm is linked to anger, and purity is linked to disgust. A review of the literature provides little support for these specific morality-emotion links. Moreover, any apparent specificity may arise from global features shared between morality and emotion, such as affect and conceptual content. These findings are consistent with a constructionist perspective of the mind, which argues against a whole number of discrete and domain-specific mental mechanisms underlying morality and emotion...
November 2015: Personality and Social Psychology Review
Liahna E Gordon, Tony J Silva
Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory...
2015: Journal of Homosexuality
Diana S Ebersole, Michelle Miller-Day, Janice Raup-Krieger
Parents are powerful socialization agents for children and as children reach adolescence parental role models, among other sources of influence, become particularly salient in adolescents' decision-making regarding initiation of substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication about substances is associated with less substance use by adolescents; however, it is unclear how youth interpret anti-drug use messages from their parents, especially if the parents engage in legal and/or illicit substance use themselves...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Family Communication
Hamidreza Hedayati, Brahmaputra Marjadi, Mehrdad Askarian
BACKGROUND: Setting up good infection control practices in educational institutions is crucial in shaping future health professionals. The implementation of standard precautions (SPs) in Iranian dental schools has not been explored qualitatively to identify barriers to good practice. METHODS: Twelve focus group discussions and 8 semistructured interviews were conducted with students, residents, and staff members (n = 83) of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Dental School...
July 2014: American Journal of Infection Control
P C Rust
Abstract This article examines sexual identity formation among 346 lesbian-identified and 60 bisexual-identified women. On average, bisexuals come out at later ages and exhibit less "stable" identity histories. However, variations in identity history among lesbians and bisexuals overshadow the differences between them and demonstrate that coming out is not a linear, goal-oriented, developmental process. Sexual identity formation must be reconceptualized as a process of describing one's social location within a changing social context...
1997: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Todd C Shoepe, Dana K Cavedon, Joseph M Derian, Celine S Levy, Amy Morales
Anatomical education is a dynamic field where developments in the implementation of constructive, situated-learning show promise in improving student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an individualized, technology heavy project in promoting student performance in a combined anatomy and physiology laboratory course. Mixed-methods research was used to compare two cohorts of anatomy laboratories separated by the adoption of a new laboratory atlas project, which were defined as preceding (PRE) and following the adoption of the Anatomical Teaching and Learning Assessment Study (ATLAS; POST)...
January 2015: Anatomical Sciences Education
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