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Drug resistance, chemotherapy, personalized medicine, anti-cancer agents

Sarina M Hitzerd, Sue Ellen Verbrugge, Gert Ossenkoppele, Gerrit Jansen, Godefridus J Peters
Aminopeptidases represent a class of (zinc) metalloenzymes that catalyze the cleavage of amino acids nearby the N-terminus of polypeptides, resulting in hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Aminopeptidases operate downstream of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and are implicated in the final step of intracellular protein degradation either by trimming proteasome-generated peptides for antigen presentation or full hydrolysis into free amino acids for recycling in renewed protein synthesis. This review focuses on the function and subcellular location of five key aminopeptidases (aminopeptidase N, leucine aminopeptidase, puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase, leukotriene A4 hydrolase and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1/2) and their association with different diseases, in particular cancer and their current position as target for therapeutic intervention by aminopeptidase inhibitors...
April 2014: Amino Acids
Daniel Ansari, Bi-Cheng Chen, Lei Dong, Meng-Tao Zhou, Roland Andersson
Despite improvements in surgical techniques and adjuvant chemotherapy, the overall mortality rates in pancreatic cancer have generally remained relatively unchanged and the 5-year survival rate is actually below 2%. This paper will address the importance of achieving an early diagnosis and identifying markers for prognosis and response to therapy such as genes, proteins, microRNAs or epigenetic modifications. However, there are still major hurdles when translating investigational biomarkers into routine clinical practice...
April 7, 2012: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Conrad Kunick
Despite a number of advances in the past decades the medicinal cancer therapy is hampered by problems of severe unwanted side effects and the development of resistances. Many established anti-cancer drugs are directed toward targets that are not specific for cancer but are essential biochemical molecules in living cells. Because cancer cells do not only carry one but multiple genetic alterations which are more characteristic for the individual patient than for the tumor entity, an individualized medicinal approach could improve the success of a tumor therapy...
September 2004: Current Medicinal Chemistry. Anti-cancer Agents
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