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Community acquired pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334446/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
Stephanie Posten, Jennifer Reed
Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making...
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333818/community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-hospitalization-and-case-fatality-risk-in-10-pediatric-facilities-in-argentina
#2
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, Gabriela Ensinck, Aldo Cancellara, Enrique V Casanueva, Verónica Firpo, Martín Caruso, María F Lución, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Fabiana Molina, Héctor J Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Santiago López Papucci
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are prevalent both in Argentina and worldwide, and they may have a severe clinical course. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the hospitalization rate and case fatality risk factors of CA-MRSA infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical study. All patients < 15 years old with community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections admitted to 10 pediatric facilities between January 2012 and December 2014 were included...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333786/the-added-value-of-the-lateral-chest-radiograph-for-diagnosing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#3
Michalle Soudack, Semion Plotkin, Aviva Ben-Shlush, Lisa Raviv-Zilka, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Michael Benacon, Arie Augarten
BACKGROUND: Opinions differ as to the need of a lateral radiograph for diagnosing community acquired pneumonia in children referred to the emergency department. A lateral radiograph increases the ionizing radiation burden but at the same time may improve specificity and sensitivity in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of the frontal and lateral chest radiographs compared to frontal view stand-alone images for the management of children with suspected community acquired pneumonia seen in a pediatric emergency department...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327212/a-composite-of-functional-status-and-pneumonia-severity-index-improves-the-prediction-of-pneumonia-mortality-in-older-patients
#4
Francisco Sanz, María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Estrella Fernández, Luis Force, María José Pérez-Lozano, Vicente Martín, Mikel Egurrola, Jesús Castilla, Jenaro Astray, Diana Toledo, Ángela Domínguez
BACKGROUND: The baseline health status may be a determinant of interest in the evolution of pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the predictive ability of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) mortality by combining the Barthel Index (BI) and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) in patients aged ≥ 65 years. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MAIN MEASURES: In this prospective, observational, multicenter analysis of comorbidities, the clinical data, additional examinations and severity of CAP were measured by the PSI and functional status by the BI...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326340/rare-cause-of-pulmonary-cavitation-in-a-75-year-old-man
#5
Jaffar Al-Sheikhli, Hussein Taqi, John Drake, Ayaaz Habib
A 75-year-old man of Asian descent presented to the acute medical unit with signs and symptoms suggestive of a community-acquired pneumonia. He had multiple comorbidities and was relatively immunocompromised as a result. Initial investigations supported the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia complicated by a cavitating lung lesion, and the patient was treated as per hospital guidelines. He continued to deteriorate despite appropriate therapy and developed a hydropneumothorax, requiring the insertion of a chest drain...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325222/pneumonia-as-a-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Marcos I Restrepo, Luis F Reyes
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of death around the globe. Up to 30% of patients admitted to hospital for CAP develop cardiovascular complications (i.e. new/worsening heart failure, new/worsening arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions and/or strokes), acutely and up to 10 years thereafter. Cardiac complications result from complex interactions between preexisting conditions, relative ischaemia, upregulation of the sympathetic system, systemic inflammation and direct pathogen-mediated damage to the cardiovascular system...
January 11, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324986/the-impact-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-carriage-in-the-community-acquired-pneumonia-immunization-trial-in-adults-capita-study
#7
Anna M M van Deursen, Marlies A van Houten, Chris Webber, Michael Patton, Daniel Scott, Scott Patterson, Qin Jiang, William C Gruber, Beate Schmoele-Thoma, Diederick E Grobbee, Marc J M Bonten, Elisabeth A M Sanders
Background: The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage with pneumococci and other bacteria in adults is unknown. The direct effects of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in community dwelling older adults was investigated as part of the randomized controlled Community Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA). Methods: We determined the carriage of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324810/course-of-sp-d-ykl-40-ccl18-and-ca-15-3-in-adult-patients-hospitalised-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-their-association-with-disease-severity-and-aetiology-a-post-hoc-analysis
#8
Simone M C Spoorenberg, Stefan M T Vestjens, G P Voorn, Coline H M van Moorsel, Bob Meek, Pieter Zanen, Ger T Rijkers, Willem Jan W Bos, Jan C Grutters
BACKGROUND AND AIM: SP-D, YKL-40, CCL18 and CA 15-3 are pulmonary markers that have been extensively investigated in different chronic pulmonary diseases. However, in acute pulmonary diseases, such as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), little is known about the course of these markers and their relationship with the aetiological agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the course of these four markers in CAP and to study influence of disease severity, aetiology and antibiotic use prior to admission on their course...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319770/factors-associated-with-hospital-mortality-in-renal-transplant-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#9
Rafael Mendes da Silva, Flavio Geraldo Rezende de Freitas, Antonio Tonete Bafi, Hélio Tedesco Silva Junior, Bartira de Aguiar Roza
INTRODUCTION: The lungs are often involved in a variety of complications after kidney transplantation. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is one of the most serious manifestations of pulmonary involvement. OBJECTIVE: To describe the main causes of ARF in kidney transplant patients who require intensive care and identify the factors associated with mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated adult patients with ARF admitted to the intensive care unit of a center with high volume of transplants from August 2013 to August 2015...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319365/the-prognostic-value-of-mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin-in-the-evaluation-of-acute-dyspnea
#10
Justin J Choi, Matthew W McCarthy
Acute dyspnea is a common chief complaint among patients who visit an emergency room and presents diagnostic challenges for clinicians in both identifying the etiology and determining the clinical severity. The study of biomarkers in the prognostication and risk stratification of these patients has been increasing, including the investigation of the prognostic value for mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM). Areas Covered: In this review, the authors cover what is known about MR-proADM testing in patients presenting with acute dyspnea and the supporting evidence of its prognostic value in common conditions in medical patients with acute dyspnea, including acute heart failure, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute pulmonary embolism...
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318527/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#11
Surinder Kumar, Indu Bala Garg, Gulshan Rai Sethi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) employing serological tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. METHODS: In this prospective study, 200 children aged 6 mo to 12 y hospitalized with acute LRTIs were investigated for M. pneumoniae. Serum samples were collected for serological analysis of M. pneumoniae. Throat swab samples were obtained on admission to amplify 277-base pair region of 16S rDNA gene of M...
January 10, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318108/an-unusual-cause-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#12
Jaimie Mittal, Wendy A Szymczak, Noah Robbins, Carol Harris, Priya Nori
We present a case of fatal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Acinetobacter baumannii, which is rarely reported in the northeastern United States. Previously reported cases originate from tropical and subtropical climates, and infection tends to have an aggressive course with a poor outcome. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial; however, the associated systemic inflammatory response may overwhelm host defenses, especially in patients with certain co-morbidities.
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317705/pneumolysin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leads-to-release-of-mitochondrial-dna
#13
Andreas Nerlich, Maren Mieth, Eleftheria Letsiou, Diana Fatykhova, Katja Zscheppang, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Thomas F Meyer, Lisa Paasch, Timothy J Mitchell, Mario Tönnies, Torsten T Bauer, Paul Schneider, Jens Neudecker, Jens C Rückert, Stephan Eggeling, Maria Schimek, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel, Andreas C Hocke
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pn.) is the most common bacterial pathogen causing community acquired pneumonia. The pore-forming toxin pneumolysin (PLY) is the major virulence factor of S.pn. and supposed to affect alveolar epithelial cells thereby activating the immune system by liberation of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP). To test this hypothesis, we established a novel live-cell imaging based assay to analyse mitochondrial function and associated release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as DAMP in real-time...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316555/intestinal-dysbiosis-secondary-to-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#14
Yuji Naito, Kaori Kashiwagi, Tomohisa Takagi, Akira Andoh, Ryo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to lead to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory adverse events. A longitudinal observational cohort study has demonstrated the heightened risk of death associated with PPI use. SUMMARY: We evaluated meta-analyses to determine the association between PPI use and infectious and inflammatory diseases. Meta-analyses showed that PPI use is a potential risk for the development of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, as well as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, hepatic encephalopathy, and adverse outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease...
January 6, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308781/community-acquired-necrotising-pneumonia-caused-by-panton-valentine-leucocidin-producing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
C L Leong, A Norazah, A Azureen, R Lingam
A 61-year-old male presented with community-onset pneumonia not responding to treatment despite given appropriate antibiotics. Computed tomography scan of the thorax showed large multiloculated pleural effusion with multiple cavitating foci within collapsed segments; lesions which were suggestive of necrotising pneumonia. Drainage of the effusion and culture revealed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which had the same antibiotic profile with the blood isolate and PVL gene positive.
December 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303276/-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-simplicity-is-the-key-to-success
#16
Vítězslav Kolek, Petr Jakubec, Stanislav Losse
Pneumonia is the most wide-spread infectious disease and requires unrelenting attention. It is defined as an acute inflammatory disease affecting pulmonary alveoli, respiratory bronchioles and the pulmonary interstitium. In recent years we have seen the endeavour to rationalize the approach to pneumonias and utilize the current methods of administering effective antibiotics to reduce occurrence of complications, limit the number of hospitalizations and shorten the length of treatment. With the awareness of all the potential agents it is empiric therapy which predominates, being supported by the knowledge of a regional epidemiological situation, good diagnosing and experience of rational antibiotic treatment...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302645/community-acquired-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-northwestern-nigeria-epidemiology-antimicrobial-resistance-and-outcome
#17
Garba Iliyasu, Farouq Dayyab Mohammad, Abdulrazaq Garba Habib
Background: Pneumococcus is the leading cause of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide, and the leading cause of mortality. Pneumococcal pneumonia is poorly studied in Nigeria. We describe the epidemiology including associated co-morbidities and outcome of pneumococcal pneumonia in North-western Nigeria. Material and methods: We conducted a prospective, hospital based study on patients with community acquired pneumococcal pneumonia. Detailed clinical evaluation and relevant laboratory investigations were carried out...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299898/a-case-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-korea
#18
Young Woong Son, In Young Jung, Mi Young Ahn, Yong Duk Jeon, Hea Won Ann, Jin Young Ahn, Nam Su Ku, Sang Hoon Han, Jun Young Choi, Young Goo Song, June Myung Kim
Acinetobacter baumannii is an aerobic Gram-negative coccobacillus that causes nosocomial pneumonia in patients on mechanical ventilation or previously treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Nevertheless, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by A. baumannii, especially multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, is rare. We experienced the first case of CAP caused by MDR A. baumannii in Korea in a 78-year-old man. This case shows that MDR A. baumannii can cause CAP in Korea.
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298323/implementation-of-global-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-system-glass-in-patients-with-bacteremia
#19
Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Kantarida Sripanidkulchai, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Pinyo Rattanaumpawan, Orawan Supapueng, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Visanu Thamlikitkul
The global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS) was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015. GLASS is a surveillance system for clinical specimens that are sent to microbiology laboratory for clinical purposes. The unique feature of GLASS is that clinical data is combined with microbiological data, and deduplication of the microbiological results is performed. The objective of the study was to determine feasibility and benefit of GLASS for surveillance of blood culture specimens...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290527/mutant-selection-window-of-four-quinolone-antibiotics-against-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis
#20
Hajime Nakai, Takumi Sato, Takashi Uno, Emiko Furukawa, Masato Kawamura, Hiroshi Takahashi, Akira Watanabe, Shigeru Fujimura
Community-acquired pneumonia and otitis media are caused by several bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. For the treatment of these diseases, various quinolones are frequently used. We determined the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of four quinolones, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, tosufloxacin, and garenoxacin, using 92 clinical isolates and evaluated each mutant selection window (MSW). Furthermore, the DNA sequence of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) for the resistant mutant selected based on the MSW was determined...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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