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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817156/a-possible-grinder-from-tell-arbid-syria
#1
Mindy C Pitre, Rafał Koliński, Arkadiusz Sołtysiak
Cereal grinding has been practiced in Mesopotamia since the Upper Palaeolithic. While evidence of cereal grinding is clear from the archaeological and textual records, what remains unclear is whether the activity leaves signs on the skeleton in the form of markers of occupational stress (MOS). A particular constellation of MOS (e.g., osteoarthritis, traumatic injuries, and accessory articular facets) has previously been used to infer the habitual grinding of grain. These same MOS were recently observed in the skeleton of a female discovered in the Middle Bronze Age cemetery at Tell Arbid, NE Syria...
August 17, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814844/comparison-between-parameters-of-muscle-performance-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-non-sarcopenic-and-sarcopenic-elderly-women
#2
Lygia Paccini Lustosa, Patrícia Parreira Batista, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira, Aline Scianni, Giane Amorim Ribeiro-Samora
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a multifactorial geriatric syndrome with complex interrelationships. Increased plasma levels of inflammatory mediators increase the catabolic stimuli of the musculature, thereby causing a decrease in mass and muscular function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knee extensors test (by isokinetic dynamometer) and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNFR1) between sarcopenics and non-sarcopenics community-dwelling elderly women residents of Brazil...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813938/online-sparse-gaussian-process-based-human-motion-intent-learning-for-an-electrically-actuated-lower-extremity-exoskeleton
#3
Yi Long, Zhi-Jiang Du, Chao-Feng Chen, Wei Dong, Wei-Dong Wang
The most important step for lower extremity exoskeleton is to infer human motion intent (HMI), which contributes to achieve human exoskeleton collaboration. Since the user is in the control loop, the relationship between human robot interaction (HRI) information and HMI is nonlinear and complicated, which is difficult to be modeled by using mathematical approaches. The nonlinear approximation can be learned by using machine learning approaches. Gaussian Process (GP) regression is suitable for high-dimensional and small-sample nonlinear regression problems...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813794/maintaining-subject-engagement-during-robotic-rehabilitation-with-a-minimal-assist-as-needed-maan-controller
#4
Ali Utku Pehlivan, Dylan P Losey, Chad G Rose, Marcia K O'Malley
One challenge of robotic rehabilitation interventions is devising ways to encourage and maintain high levels of subject involvement over long duration therapy sessions. Assist-as-needed controllers have been proposed which modulate robot intervention in movements based on measurements of subject involvement. This paper presents a minimal assist-as-needed controller, which modulates allowable error bounds and robot intervention based on sensorless force measurement accomplished through a nonlinear disturbance observer...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811478/reduced-and-unstratified-crust-in-cv-chondrite-parent-body
#5
Clément Ganino, Guy Libourel
Early Solar System planetesimal thermal models predict the heating of the chondritic protolith and the preservation of a chondritic crust on differentiated parent bodies. Petrological and geochemical analyses of chondrites have suggested that secondary alteration phases formed at low temperatures (<300 °C) by fluid-rock interaction where reduced and oxidized Vigarano type Carbonaceous (CV) chondrites witness different physicochemical conditions. From a thermodynamical survey of Ca-Fe-rich secondary phases in CV3 chondrites including silica activity (aSiO2), here we show that the classical distinction between reduced and oxidized chondrites is no longer valid and that their Ca-Fe-rich secondary phases formed in similar reduced conditions near the iron-magnetite redox buffer at low aSiO2 (log(aSiO2) <-1) and moderate temperature (210-610 °C)...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809668/tractography-based-score-for-learning-effective-connectivity-from-multimodal-imaging-data-using-dynamic-bayesian-networks
#6
Shilpa Dang, Santanu Chaudhury, Brejesh Lall, Prasun K Roy
OBJECTIVE: Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally-active segregated regions of the brain. By definition [1] EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modelling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808742/a-more-comprehensive-community-of%C3%A2-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-aoa-revealed-by-genomic-dna-and-rna-analyses-of-amoa-gene-in-subtropical-acidic-forest-soils
#7
Ruo-Nan Wu, Han Meng, Yong-Feng Wang, Wensheng Lan, Ji-Dong Gu
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) are the main nitrifiers which are well studied in natural environments, and AOA frequently outnumber AOB by orders especially in acidic conditions, making AOA the most promising ammonia oxidizers. The phylogeny of AOA revealed in related studies, however, often varied and hardly reach a consensus on functional phylotypes. The objective of this study was to compare ammonia-oxidizing communities by amoA gene and transcript based on both genomic DNA and RNA in extremely acidic forest soils (pH <4...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808284/molecular-rationale-behind-the-differential-substrate-specificity-of-bacterial-rnd-multi-drug-transporters
#8
Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Attilio V Vargiu, Giuliano Malloci, Jürg Dreier, Paolo Ruggerone
Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division (RND) transporters AcrB and AcrD of Escherichia coli expel a wide range of substrates out of the cell in conjunction with AcrA and TolC, contributing to the onset of bacterial multidrug resistance. Despite sharing an overall sequence identity of ~66% (similarity ~80%), these RND transporters feature distinct substrate specificity patterns whose underlying basis remains elusive. We performed exhaustive comparative analyses of the putative substrate binding pockets considering crystal structures, homology models and conformations extracted from multi-copy μs-long molecular dynamics simulations of both AcrB and AcrD...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807291/toxocara-canis-analysis-of-the-kinetics-of-antigen-release-and-antibody-production-in-an-in-vivo-model-for-the-detection-of-past-or-present-infection
#9
Aarón Rodríguez-Caballero, Mario Noé Martínez-Gordillo, Silvia Caballero-Salazar, Yadira Rufino-González, Martha Ponce-Macotela
Worldwide, Toxocara canis is an important zoonotic nematode of public health concern. This soil-transmitted helminth causes visceral larva and ocular larva migrans in paratenic hosts. The detection of T. canis larva migrans is complicated because current immunological tests detect only IgG antibodies, which can cross-react with antigens from other parasites and cannot distinguish between the past and present infection. Analysis of antigen release and antibody production could help improve the detection of larva migrans...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807025/changes-in-tibialis-anterior-architecture-affect-the-amplitude-of-surface-electromyograms
#10
Taian M Vieira, Maria Cristina Bisi, Rita Stagni, Alberto Botter
BACKGROUND: Variations in the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMGs) are typically considered to advance inferences on the timing and degree of muscle activation in different circumstances. Surface EMGs are however affected by factors other than the muscle neural drive. In this study, we use electrical stimulation to investigate whether architectural changes in tibialis anterior (TA), a key muscle for balance and gait, affect the amplitude of surface EMGs. METHODS: Current pulses (500 μs; 2 pps) were applied to the fibular nerve of ten participants, with the ankle at neutral, full dorsi and full plantar flexion positions...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806983/profiling-of-metalloprotease-activities-in-cerebrospinal-fluids-of-patients-with-neoplastic-meningitis
#11
Catharina Conrad, Kristina Dorzweiler, Miles A Miller, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Herwig Strik, Jörg W Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic invasion into leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, resulting in neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a fatal complication of advanced solid and hematological neoplasms. Identification of malignant involvement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) early in the disease course has crucial prognostic and therapeutic implications, but remains challenging. As indicators of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier, Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases (ADAMs) are potential analytes for cerebral pathophysiology and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells into the CSF...
August 14, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806280/integrated-analysis-of-biopsies-from-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-identifies-saa1-as-a-link-between-mucosal-microbes-with-th17-and-th22-cells
#12
Mei San Tang, Rowann Bowcutt, Jacqueline M Leung, Martin J Wolff, Uma M Gundra, David Hudesman, Lisa B Malter, Michael A Poles, Lea Ann Chen, Zhiheng Pei, Antonio G Neto, Wasif M Abidi, Thomas Ullman, Lloyd Mayer, Richard A Bonneau, Ilseung Cho, Pʼng Loke
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are believed to be driven by dysregulated interactions between the host and the gut microbiota. Our goal is to characterize and infer relationships between mucosal T cells, the host tissue environment, and microbial communities in patients with IBD who will serve as basis for mechanistic studies on human IBD. METHODS: We characterized mucosal CD4 T cells using flow cytometry, along with matching mucosal global gene expression and microbial communities data from 35 pinch biopsy samples from patients with IBD...
August 9, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804242/immuno-oncology-integrative-networks-elucidating-the-influences-of-osteosarcoma-phenotypes
#13
REVIEW
Ankush Sharma, Enrico Capobianco
In vivo and in vitro functional phenotyping characterization was recently obtained with reference to an experimental pan-cancer study of 22 osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines. Here, differentially expressed gene (DEG) profiles were recomputed from the publicly available data to conduct network inference on the immune system regulatory activity across the characterized OS phenotypes. Based on such DEG profiles, and for each phenotype that was analyzed, we obtained coexpression networks and bio-annotations for them...
2017: Cancer Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801892/adaptive-neuro-fuzzy-inference-system-applied-qsar-with-bond-dissociation-energy-for-antioxidant-activities-of-phenolic-compounds
#14
Changho Jhin, Chu Won Nho, Keum Taek Hwang
The aim of this study was to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds. The bond dissociation energy of O-H bond (BDE) was calculated by semi-empirical quantum chemical methods. As a new parameter for QSAR models, sum of reciprocals of BDE of enol and phenol groups (X BDE ) was calculated. Significant correlations were observed between X BDE and antioxidant activities, and X BDE was introduced as a parameter for developing QSAR models...
August 11, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801617/g-protein-stoichiometry-dictates-biased-agonism-through-distinct-receptor-g-protein-partitioning
#15
Lauriane Onfroy, Ségolène Galandrin, Stéphanie M Pontier, Marie-Hélène Seguelas, Du N'Guyen, Jean-Michel Sénard, Céline Galés
Biased agonism at G protein coupled receptors emerges as an opportunity for development of drugs with enhanced benefit/risk balance making biased ligand identification a priority. However, ligand biased signature, classically inferred from ligand activity across multiple pathways, displays high variability in recombinant systems. Functional assays usually necessity receptor/effector overexpression that should be controlled among assays to allow comparison but this calibration currently fails. Herein, we demonstrate that Gα expression level dictates the biased profiling of agonists and, to a lesser extent of β-blockers, in a Gα isoform- and receptor-specific way, depending on specific G protein activity in different membrane territories...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800693/a-modified-sintacs-method-for-groundwater-vulnerability-and-pollution-risk-assessment-in-highly-anthropized-regions-based-on-no3-and-so4-2-concentrations
#16
Busico Gianluigi, Kazakis Nerantzis, Colombani Nicolò, Mastrocicco Micòl, Voudouris Konstantinos, Tedesco Dario
Groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment area worldwide tools in supporting groundwater protection and land planning. In this study, we used three of these different methodologies applied to the Campanian Plain located in southern Italy: SINTACS, AVI and LOS. However, their capability to describe the observed chemical pollution of the area has resulted quite poor. For such a reason, a modified SINTACS method has been then implemented in the area in order to get a more reliable view of groundwater vulnerability...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800172/viscous-drag-on-the-flagellum-activates-bacillus-subtilis-entry-into-the-k-state
#17
Christine Diethmaier, Ravi Chawla, Alexandra Canzoneri, Daniel B Kearns, Pushkar P Lele, David Dubnau
Bacillus subtilis flagella are not only required for locomotion but also act as sensors that monitor environmental changes. Although how the signal transmission takes place is poorly understood, it has been shown that flagella play an important role in surface sensing by transmitting a mechanical signal to control the DegS-DegU two-component system. Here we report a role for flagella in the regulation of the K-state, which enables transformability and antibiotic tolerance (persistence). Mutations impairing flagellar synthesis are inferred to increase DegU-P, which inhibits the expression of ComK, the master regulator for the K-state, and reduces transformability...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798903/anti-quorum-sensing-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-delftia-tsuruhatensis-extract-by-attenuating-the-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-factor-production-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Vijay K Singh, Avinash Mishra, Bhavanath Jha
Multidrug-resistance bacteria commonly use cell-to-cell communication that leads to biofilm formation as one of the mechanisms for developing resistance. Quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) is an effective approach for the prevention of biofilm formation. A Gram-negative bacterium, Delftia tsuruhatensis SJ01, was isolated from the rhizosphere of a species of sedge (Cyperus laevigatus) grown along the coastal-saline area. The isolate SJ01 culture and bacterial crude extract showed QSI activity in the biosensor plate containing the reference strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798740/smrt-sequencing-revealed-mitogenome-characteristics-and-mitogenome-wide-dna-modification-pattern-in-ophiocordyceps-sinensis
#19
Xincong Kang, Liqin Hu, Pengyuan Shen, Rui Li, Dongbo Liu
Single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing was used to characterize mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and to analyze the mt genome-wide pattern of epigenetic DNA modification. The complete mt genome of O. sinensis, with a size of 157,539 bp, is the fourth largest Ascomycota mt genome sequenced to date. It contained 14 conserved protein-coding genes (PCGs), 1 intronic protein rps3, 27 tRNAs and 2 rRNA subunits, which are common characteristics of the known mt genomes in Hypocreales. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 14 PCGs in Pezizomycotina fungi supports O...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797246/characterisation-of-protein-families-in-spider-digestive-fluids-and-their-role-in-extra-oral-digestion
#20
André Walter, Jesper Bechsgaard, Carsten Scavenius, Thomas S Dyrlund, Kristian W Sanggaard, Jan J Enghild, Trine Bilde
BACKGROUND: Spiders are predaceous arthropods that are capable of subduing and consuming relatively large prey items compared to their own body size. For this purpose, spiders have evolved potent venoms to immobilise prey and digestive fluids that break down nutrients inside the prey's body by means of extra-oral digestion (EOD). Both secretions contain an array of active proteins, and an overlap of some components has been anecdotally reported, but not quantified. We systematically investigated the extent of such protein overlap...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
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