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active inference

Abed Khorasani, Nargess Heydari Beni, Vahid Shalchyan, Mohammad Reza Daliri
Local field potential (LFP) signals recorded by intracortical microelectrodes implanted in primary motor cortex can be used as a high informative input for decoding of motor functions. Recent studies show that different kinematic parameters such as position and velocity can be inferred from multiple LFP signals as precisely as spiking activities, however, continuous decoding of the force magnitude from the LFP signals in freely moving animals has remained an open problem. Here, we trained three rats to press a force sensor for getting a drop of water as a reward...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Inimary T Toby, Mikhail K Levin, Edward A Salinas, Scott Christley, Sanchita Bhattacharya, Felix Breden, Adam Buntzman, Brian Corrie, John Fonner, Namita T Gupta, Uri Hershberg, Nishanth Marthandan, Aaron Rosenfeld, William Rounds, Florian Rubelt, Walter Scarborough, Jamie K Scott, Mohamed Uduman, Jason A Vander Heiden, Richard H Scheuermann, Nancy Monson, Steven H Kleinstein, Lindsay G Cowell
BACKGROUND: The genes that produce antibodies and the immune receptors expressed on lymphocytes are not germline encoded; rather, they are somatically generated in each developing lymphocyte by a process called V(D)J recombination, which assembles specific, independent gene segments into mature composite genes. The full set of composite genes in an individual at a single point in time is referred to as the immune repertoire. V(D)J recombination is the distinguishing feature of adaptive immunity and enables effective immune responses against an essentially infinite array of antigens...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Ivan Ljubic, Aleksandar Sabljic, Marija Bonifacic
The reactions of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals in aqueous medium are of interest because they exhibit a rich variety of fundamentally important competing mechanisms, such as proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), hydrogen atom transfer, free radical substitutions, abstractions and additions etc. We present a theoretical study of the mechanism and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of α-hydroxyisopropyl (2-propanol) radical with four halogenated organic substrates: iodoacetate (IAc), iodoacetamide (IAm), 5-bromouracil (5-BrU), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Félix LaRoche-Johnston, Caroline Monat, Benoit Cousineau
BACKGROUND: Group II introns are catalytically active RNA and mobile retroelements present in certain eukaryotic organelles, bacteria and archaea. These ribozymes self-splice from the pre-mRNA of interrupted genes and reinsert within target DNA sequences by retrohoming and retrotransposition. Evolutionary hypotheses place these retromobile elements at the origin of over half the human genome. Nevertheless, the evolution and dissemination of group II introns was found to be quite difficult to infer...
October 20, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Gergő Orbán, Pietro Berkes, József Fiser, Máté Lengyel
Neural responses in the visual cortex are variable, and there is now an abundance of data characterizing how the magnitude and structure of this variability depends on the stimulus. Current theories of cortical computation fail to account for these data; they either ignore variability altogether or only model its unstructured Poisson-like aspects. We develop a theory in which the cortex performs probabilistic inference such that population activity patterns represent statistical samples from the inferred probability distribution...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Caroline Honaiser Lescano, Ivan Pires de Oliveira, Tiago Zaminelli, Débora da Silva Baldivia, Luan Ramos da Silva, Mauro Napolitano, Camila Bitencourt Mendes Silvério, Nilton Lincopan, Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandoña
Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model...
2016: PloS One
Alessandro Borri, Pasquale Palumbo, Abhyudai Singh
Synthetic biology combines different branches of biology and engineering aimed at designing synthetic biological circuits able to replicate emergent properties useful for the biotechnology industry, human health and environment. The role of negative feedback in noise propagation for a basic enzymatic reaction scheme is investigated. Two feedback control schemes on enzyme expression are considered: one from the final product of the pathway activity, the other from the enzyme accumulation. Both schemes are designed to provide the same steady-state average values of the involved players, in order to evaluate the feedback performances according to the same working mode...
October 2016: IET Systems Biology
Scott Ferrenberg, Alexander S Martinez, Akasha M Faist
BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces...
2016: PeerJ
Jiangshan Ma, Keke Zhang, Mei Huang, Stanton B Hector, Bin Liu, Chunyi Tong, Qian Liu, Jiarui Zeng, Yan Gao, Ting Xu, Ying Liu, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + OH· + H2O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Bianca Ferreira Olivieri, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante, Joslaine Noely Dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo, Renata Helena Branco, Sarah Figueiredo Martins Bonilha, Lucia Galvão de Albuquerque, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira Silva, Fernando Baldi
The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and metabolic pathways associated with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and residual feed intake in an experimental Nellore cattle population. The high-density SNP chip (Illumina High-Density Bovine BeadChip, 777k) was used to genotype the animals. The SNP markers effects and their variances were estimated using the single-step genome wide association method. The (co)variance components were estimated by Bayesian inference. The chromosome segments that are responsible for more than 1...
2016: PloS One
D Gączarzewicz, J Udała, M Piasecka, B Błaszczyk, T Stankiewicz
This study was designed to determine the degree and type of bacterial contamination in boar semen (79 ejaculates from Large White and Landrace boars) and its consequences for sperm quality during storage (27 extended semen samples, 16°C for five days) under practical conditions of artificial insemination (AI). The results revealed the presence of aerobic bacteria in 99% of the ejaculates (from 80 to 370 ×106 colony-forming units/mL). Most of the ejaculates contained two or three bacterial contaminants, while the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas bacterial genera were most frequently isolated...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Yong Li, Julia Hoffmann, Yang Li, Flora Stephano, Iris Bruchhaus, Christine Fink, Thomas Roeder
The monoamines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate numerous behaviours and physiological processes in invertebrates. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether these invertebrate counterparts of norepinephrine are important regulators of metabolic and life history traits. We show that flies (Drosophila melanogaster) lacking OA are more resistant to starvation, while their overall life span is substantially reduced compared with control flies. In addition, these animals have increased body fat deposits, reduced physical activity and a reduced metabolic resting rate...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ravindra D Hiremath, Sunil S Jalalpure
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study is to evaluate antiurolithiatic potential of whole plant hydro-alcoholic (30:70) extract of Vernonia cinerea Less. in accordance to its claims made in ancient literature and also being one of the ingredients of cystone, a marketed formulation widely used in the management of urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To induce urolithiasis, 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol was administered orally for 14 days. The curative dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. and preventive doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Amy J Davis, Mevin B Hooten, Ryan S Miller, Matthew L Farnsworth, Jesse Lewis, Michael Moxcey, Kim M Pepin
Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Cory M Smith, Terry J Housh, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Ethan C Hill, Kristen C Cochrane, Amelia A Miramonti, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson
The purposes of the present study were to apply a unique method for the identification of the time course of changes in neuromuscular responses and to infer the motor unit activation strategies used to maintain force during a fatiguing, intermittent isometric workbout. Eleven men performed 50, 6 s intermittent isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors, each separated by 2 s of rest at 60% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (root mean square; RMS) and frequency (mean power frequency; MPF) were obtained from the vastus lateralis (VL) every 5 of the 50 repetitions and normalized as a percent of the initial repetition...
October 18, 2016: Physiological Measurement
Mark A Hawk, Chelsea McCallister, Zachary T Schafer
Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies have suggested that neutralizing ROS can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis in multiple cancer types through distinct mechanisms. These studies therefore infer that antioxidant activity may be necessary to support the viability and/or the invasive capacity of cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis...
October 13, 2016: Cancers
Zhoushuai Qin, Zhiqiang Bai, Ying Sun, Xiaohong Niu, Wei Xiao
In response to replication-blocking lesions, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) can be sequentially ubiquitinated at the K164 residue leading to two modes of DNA-damage tolerance, namely translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and error-free lesion bypass. Ectopic expression of PCNA fused with ubiquitin (Ub) lacking the two C-terminal Gly residues resembles PCNA monoubiquitination-mediated TLS. However, if the fused Ub contains C-terminal Gly residues, it is further polyubiquitinated and inhibits cell proliferation...
October 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
Eliana Isac, Guaraciara de A Picanço, Tatiane L da Costa, Nayana F de Lima, Daniella de S M M Alves, Carolina M Fraga, Ruy de S Lino Junior, Marina C Vinaud
Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug used against a wide variety of protozoans and helminthes. Albendazole, its active metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), is one of the drugs of choice to treat both intestinal and tissue helminth and protozoan infections. However little is known regarding their impact on the metabolism of parasites. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effect of NTZ and ABZSO in the glycolysis of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The cysticerci were treated with 1...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
David Mathar, Leonora Wilkinson, Anna K Holl, Jane Neumann, Lorenz Deserno, Arno Villringer, Marjan Jahanshahi, Annette Horstmann
Incidental learning of appropriate stimulus-response associations is crucial for optimal functioning within our complex environment. Positive and negative prediction errors (PEs) serve as neural teaching signals within distinct ('direct'/'indirect') dopaminergic pathways to update associations and optimize subsequent behavior. Using a computational reinforcement learning model, we assessed learning from positive and negative PEs on a probabilistic task (Weather Prediction Task - WPT) in three populations that allow different inferences on the role of dopamine (DA) signals: (1) Healthy volunteers that repeatedly underwent [(11)C]raclopride Positron Emission Tomography (PET), allowing for assessment of striatal DA release during learning, (2) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients tested both on and off L-DOPA medication, (3) early Huntington's disease (HD) patients, a disease that is associated with hyper-activation of the 'direct' pathway...
September 19, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Marta Licata, Giuseppe Armocida, Marco Broggini, Melania Borgo
The aim of this study was to investigate the degenerative markers at the spine in adult skeletons recovered from archaeological sites. The results of this study may allow us to make inferences about the etiology of the degenerative pathology, physical activity levels and life style in the community. The relevance of this research is that it constitutes a reliable data base to compare with future investigations.
September 18, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
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