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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107459/associations-of-health-club-membership-with-physical-activity-and-cardiovascular-health
#1
Elizabeth C Schroeder, Gregory J Welk, Warren D Franke, Duck-Chul Lee
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA) guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204) and non-members (n = 201) from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105572/proteome-wide-identification-of-iron-binding-proteins-of-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-undulosa-focus-on-secretory-virulent-proteins
#2
Ankita Sharma, Dixit Sharma, Shailender Kumar Verma
Xanthomonas translucensĀ pv. undulosa (Xtu) causes Bacterial Leaf Streak disease in the staple food crops such as wheat and barley. The survival strategies of pathogen and host are determined by the complex interactions occurring between the host plants and the pathogenic microbes. Iron binding proteins are important in the plant-microbe interactions as they are indulged in enzyme catalysis, virulence, metabolic and transport activities. In the presented study, we have identified that ~9.8% of Xtu proteome possess iron binding sequence motifs...
January 19, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103241/contextual-refinement-of-regulatory-targets-reveals-effects-on-breast-cancer-prognosis-of-the-regulome
#3
Erik Andrews, Yue Wang, Tian Xia, Wenqing Cheng, Chao Cheng
Gene expression regulators, such as transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have varying regulatory targets based on the tissue and physiological state (context) within which they are expressed. While the emergence of regulator-characterizing experiments has inferred the target genes of many regulators across many contexts, methods for transferring regulator target genes across contexts are lacking. Further, regulator target gene lists frequently are not curated or have permissive inclusion criteria, impairing their use...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103189/dynamic-programming-for-instance-annotation-in-multi-instance-multi-label-learning
#4
Anh Pham, Raviv Raich, Xiaoli Fern
Labeling data for classification requires significant human effort. To reduce labeling cost, instead of labeling every instance, a group of instances (bag) is labeled by a single bag label. Computer algorithms are then used to infer the label for each instance in a bag, a process referred to as instance annotation. This task is challenging due to the ambiguity regarding the instance labels. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model for the instance annotation problem and introduce an expectation maximization framework for inference, based on the maximum likelihood approach...
January 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103186/what-the-success-of-brain-imaging-implies-about-the-neural-code
#5
Olivia Guest, Bradley C Love
The success of fMRI places constraints on the nature of the neural code. The fact that researchers can infer similarities between neural representations, despite fMRI's limitations, implies that certain neural coding schemes are more likely than others. For fMRI to succeed given its low temporal and spatial resolution, the neural code must be smooth at the voxel and functional level such that similar stimuli engender similar internal representations. Through proof and simulation, we determine which coding schemes are plausible given both fMRI's successes and its limitations in measuring neural activity...
January 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103105/evolution-of-earth-like-extrasolar-planetary-atmospheres-assessing-the-atmospheres-and-biospheres-of-early-earth-analog-planets-with-a-coupled-atmosphere-biogeochemical-model
#6
S Gebauer, J L Grenfell, J W Stock, R Lehmann, M Godolt, P von Paris, H Rauer
Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models...
January 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101729/air-pollution-and-successful-aging-recent-evidence-and-new-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Gali Cohen, Yariv Gerber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide demographic changes occurring in a relatively short period have led to a growing interest in the determinants of aging "successfully" and how to promote a healthier old age. As environmental exposures such as ambient air pollution are believed to play a role in the process of aging, they might represent one of the pathways turning potential successful agers to unsuccessful agers. We aimed to critically review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between chronic exposure to ambient air pollution and several key determinants of unsuccessful aging and to identify specific populations of unsuccessful agers that are potentially more vulnerable to air pollution's health effects...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100748/independent-neural-computation-of-value-from-other-people-s-confidence
#8
Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn, Arndis Simonsen, Chris D Frith, Nathaniel D Daw
: Expectation of reward can be shaped by the observation of actions and expressions of other people in one's environment. A person's apparent confidence in the likely reward of an action, for instance, makes qualities of their evidence, not observed directly, socially accessible. This strategy is computationally distinguished from associative learning methods that rely on direct observation, by its use of inference from indirect evidence. In twenty-three healthy human subjects, we isolated effects of first-hand experience, other people's choices, and the mediating effect of their confidence, on decision-making and neural correlates of value within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100168/effects-of-pleistocene-sea-level-fluctuations-on-mangrove-population-dynamics-a-lesson-from-sonneratia-alba
#9
Yuchen Yang, Jianfang Li, Shuhuan Yang, Xinnian Li, Lu Fang, Cairong Zhong, Norman C Duke, Renchao Zhou, Suhua Shi
BACKGROUND: A large-scale systematical investigation of the influence of Pleistocene climate oscillation on mangrove population dynamics could enrich our knowledge about the evolutionary history during times of historical climate change, which in turn may provide important information for their conservation. RESULTS: In this study, phylogeography of a mangrove tree Sonneratia alba was studied by sequencing three chloroplast fragments and seven nuclear genes. A low level of genetic diversity at the population level was detected across its range, especially at the range margins, which was mainly attributed to the steep sea-level drop and associated climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene glacial periods...
January 18, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100151/renin-inhibition-by-soyasaponin-i-a-potent-native-anti-hypertensive-compound
#10
Zeinab Tavassoli, Majid Taghdir, Bijan Ranjbar
One way to control hypertension is inactivation of the Renin- Angiotensin- Aldosterone System (RAAS). Inhibition of renin as a rate-limiting step of this system is an effective way to stop up RAAS. It has been proved that soyasaponin I, an herbal compound obtained from soybeans, has anti-hypertensive effect via renin inhibition, so it has the potential of being an anti-hypertensive drug. Herein, some theoretical approaches such as Docking Simulation, Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation and MMPBSA analysis have been used to study how soyasaponin I inhibits renin at the structural level...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098303/topologically-inferring-pathway-activity-for-precise-survival-outcome-prediction-breast-cancer-as-a-case
#11
Wei Liu, Wei Wang, Guohua Tian, Wenming Xie, Li Lei, Jiujin Liu, Wanxun Huang, Liyan Xu, Enmin Li
Accurately predicting the survival outcome of patients is of great importance in clinical cancer research. In the past decade, building survival prediction models based on gene expression data has received increasing interest. However, the existing methods are mainly based on individual gene signatures, which are known to have limited prediction accuracy on independent datasets and unclear biological relevance. Here, we propose a novel pathway-based survival prediction method called DRWPSurv in order to accurately predict survival outcome...
January 18, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095480/inference-of-candidate-germline-mutator-loci-in-humans-from-genome-wide-haplotype-data
#12
Cathal Seoighe, Aylwyn Scally
The rate of germline mutation varies widely between species but little is known about the extent of variation in the germline mutation rate between individuals of the same species. Here we demonstrate that an allele that increases the rate of germline mutation can result in a distinctive signature in the genomic region linked to the affected locus, characterized by a number of haplotypes with a locally high proportion of derived alleles, against a background of haplotypes carrying a typical proportion of derived alleles...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095421/approximate-inference-for-time-varying-interactions-and-macroscopic-dynamics-of-neural-populations
#13
Christian Donner, Klaus Obermayer, Hideaki Shimazaki
The models in statistical physics such as an Ising model offer a convenient way to characterize stationary activity of neural populations. Such stationary activity of neurons may be expected for recordings from in vitro slices or anesthetized animals. However, modeling activity of cortical circuitries of awake animals has been more challenging because both spike-rates and interactions can change according to sensory stimulation, behavior, or an internal state of the brain. Previous approaches modeling the dynamics of neural interactions suffer from computational cost; therefore, its application was limited to only a dozen neurons...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095201/multisensory-bayesian-inference-depends-on-synapse-maturation-during-training-theoretical-analysis-and-neural-modeling-implementation
#14
Mauro Ursino, Cristiano Cuppini, Elisa Magosso
Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095200/stdp-as-presynaptic-activity-times-rate-of-change-of-postsynaptic-activity-approximates-backpropagation
#15
Yoshua Bengio, Thomas Mesnard, Asja Fischer, Saizheng Zhang, Yuhuai Wu
We show that Langevin Monte Carlo Markov chain inference in an energy-based model with latent variables has the property that the early steps of inference, starting from a stationary point, correspond to propagating error gradients into internal layers, similar to backpropagation. The backpropagated error is with respect to output units that have received an outside driving force pushing them away from the stationary point. Backpropagated error gradients correspond to temporal derivatives with respect to the activation of hidden units...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093073/application-of-meta-omics-techniques-to-understand-greenhouse-gas-emissions-originating-from-ruminal-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Robert J Wallace, Timothy J Snelling, Christine A McCartney, Ilma Tapio, Francesco Strozzi
Methane emissions from ruminal fermentation contribute significantly to total anthropological greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. New meta-omics technologies are beginning to revolutionise our understanding of the rumen microbial community structure, metabolic potential and metabolic activity. Here we explore these developments in relation to GHG emissions. Microbial rumen community analyses based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence analysis are not yet predictive of methane emissions from individual animals or treatments...
January 16, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090606/hierarchical-span-based-conditional-random-fields-for-labeling-and-segmenting-events-in-wearable-sensor-data-streams
#17
Roy J Adams, Nazir Saleheen, Edison Thomaz, Abhinav Parate, Santosh Kumar, Benjamin M Marlin
The field of mobile health (mHealth) has the potential to yield new insights into health and behavior through the analysis of continuously recorded data from wearable health and activity sensors. In this paper, we present a hierarchical span-based conditional random field model for the key problem of jointly detecting discrete events in such sensor data streams and segmenting these events into high-level activity sessions. Our model includes higher-order cardinality factors and inter-event duration factors to capture domain-specific structure in the label space...
June 2016: Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Machine Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089759/using-pupil-size-and-heart-rate-to-infer-affective-states-during-behavioral-neurophysiology-and-neuropsychology-experiments
#18
Andrew R Mitz, Ravi V Chacko, Philip T Putnam, Peter H Rudebeck, Elisabeth A Murray
BACKGROUND: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. NEW METHOD: We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089689/piecing-it-together-unraveling-the-elusive-structure-function-relationship-in-single-pass-membrane-receptors
#19
REVIEW
Christopher C Valley, Andrew K Lewis, Jonathan N Sachs
The challenge of crystallizing single-pass plasma membrane receptors has remained an obstacle to understanding the structural mechanisms that connect extracellular ligand binding to cytosolic activation. For example, the complex interplay between receptor oligomerization and conformational dynamics has been, historically, only inferred from static structures of isolated receptor domains. A fundamental challenge in the field of membrane receptor biology, then, has been to integrate experimentally observable dynamics of full-length receptors (e...
January 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088483/physiology-recording-with-magnetic-field-probes-for-fmri-denoising
#20
Simon Gross, Laetitia Vionnet, Lars Kasper, Benjamin E Dietrich, Klaas P Pruessmann
Physiological noise originating in cardiovascular and respiratory processes is a substantial confound in BOLD fMRI. When unaccounted for it reduces the temporal SNR and causes error in inferred brain activity and connectivity. Physiology correction typically relies on auxiliary measurements with peripheral devices such as ECG, pulse oximeters, and breathing belts. These require direct skin contact or at least a tight fit, impairing subject comfort and adding to the setup time. In this work, we explore a touch-free alternative for physiology recording, using magnetic detection with NMR field probes...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
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