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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775890/triterpenic-acids-enriched-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-improving-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#1
Meng-Ge Zhao, Xue-Ping Sheng, Ya-Ping Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Cui-Hua Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
The effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus (CPT) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated using in vivo and in vitro models. In high fat diet-induced Wister rats, CPT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels. Moreover, CPT restored mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction, decreased cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, improved nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) expression...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774351/diversity-of-biologically-active-secondary-metabolites-from-endophytic-and-saprotrophic-fungi-of-the-ascomycete-order-xylariales
#2
REVIEW
Soleiman E Helaly, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler
Covering: up to December 2017The diversity of secondary metabolites in the fungal order Xylariales is reviewed with special emphasis on correlations between chemical diversity and biodiversity as inferred from recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The Xylariales are arguably among the predominant fungal endophytes, which are the producer organisms of pharmaceutical lead compounds including the antimycotic sordarins and the antiparasitic nodulisporic acids, as well as the marketed drug, emodepside. Many Xylariales are "macromycetes", which form conspicuous fruiting bodies (stromata), and the metabolite profiles that are predominant in the stromata are often complementary to those encountered in corresponding mycelial cultures of a given species...
May 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774286/biological-control-of-anopheles-darlingi-aedes-aegypti-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae-using-shrimps
#3
Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho, Juliana de Carvalho Apolinário Coêlho, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Wilma Aparecida Starke Buzetti
Mosquitoes can act as vectors of important diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika virus, yellow fever, Chikungunya and Mayaro fever, in addition to filariasis. The use of insecticides, larvicides, bed nets and repellents, besides the use of drugs as chemoprevention and the treatment of the sick are currently the pillars of the control of these vectors. We studied the biological control against of Anopheles darlingi , Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae using shrimps of the species M. pantanalense , M...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772079/detection-of-multiple-perturbations-in-multi-omics-biological-networks
#4
Paula J Griffin, Yuqing Zhang, William Evan Johnson, Eric D Kolaczyk
Cellular mechanism-of-action is of fundamental concern in many biological studies. It is of particular interest for identifying the cause of disease and learning the way in which treatments act against disease. However, pinpointing such mechanisms is difficult, due to the fact that small perturbations to the cell can have wide-ranging downstream effects. Given a snapshot of cellular activity, it can be challenging to tell where a disturbance originated. The presence of an ever-greater variety of high-throughput biological data offers an opportunity to examine cellular behavior from multiple angles, but also presents the statistical challenge of how to effectively analyze data from multiple sources...
May 17, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770212/adolescent-thc-exposure-does-not-sensitize-conditioned-place-preferences-to-subthreshold-d-amphetamine-in-male-and-female-rats
#5
Robin J Keeley, Cameron Bye, Jan Trow, Robert J McDonald
The acute effects of marijuana consumption on brain physiology and behaviour are well documented, but the long-term effects of its chronic use are less well known. Chronic marijuana use during adolescence is of increased interest, given that the majority of individuals first use marijuana during this developmental stage , and  adolescent marijuana use is thought to increase the susceptibility to abusing other drugs when exposed later in life. It is possible that marijuana use during critical periods in adolescence could lead to increased sensitivity to other drugs of abuse later on...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769834/continuous-knee-cooling-affects-functional-hop-performance-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Bruno Tassignon, Ben Serrien, Kevin De Pauw, Jean-Pierre Baeyens, Romain Meeusen
Cryotherapy is widely used in sports and rehabilitation to aid recovery and injury management. The purpose was to examine if a low temperature computer controlled continuous knee cooling protocol (10°C) for one hour and a moderate continuous knee cooling protocol (18°C) for one hour affected neuromuscular activity and functional performance tests. We used a randomized controlled study design. Twenty healthy male subjects (age = 24 ± 3 years) were included and randomized into 2 groups (10°C and 18°C). On day one, participants performed a maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps (MVC), single leg hop for distance (SLHD), and crossover hop for time (COHT) with both legs before and after cooling of their right leg...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766269/antimalarial-activity-and-metabolism-of-dihydroartemisinin-derived-dimer
#7
Guoshun Zhang, Hualing Dai, Guolian Ren, Xiaoyang Xiao, Lele Zhao, Ruili Wang, Shuqiu Zhang
The dihydroartemisinin-derived dimer (DHA dimer) was synthesized, and its antimalarial activities were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The dimer IC50 value of 0.51 ± 0.12 nM in vitro was significantly lower than that of DHA at 1.81 ± 0.70 nM. The dimer ED50 values were 0.44 ± 0.03 and 0.18 ± 0.03 mg/(kg·day) in vivo for intragastric (i.g.) and intravenous (i.v.) groups, respectively, to Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria. It also performed better relative to those of DHA which had ED50 values of 0...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765811/comparative-genome-analysis-of-bacillus-velezensis-reveals-a-potential-for-degrading-lignocellulosic-biomass
#8
Long Chen, Wei Gu, Hai-Yan Xu, Gui-Lian Yang, Xiao-Feng Shan, Guang Chen, Yuan-Huan Kang, Chun-Feng Wang, Ai-Dong Qian
Genomes of 24 sequenced Bacillus velezensis strains were characterized to identity shared and unique genes of lignocellulolytic enzymes and predict potential to degrade lignocellulose. All 24 strains had genes that encoded lignocellulolytic enzymes, with potential to degrade cellulose and hemicelluloses. Several lignocellulosic genes related to cellulose degradation were universally present, including one GH5 (endo-1,4-β-glucanase), one GH30 (glucan endo-1,6-β-glucosidase), two GH4 (6-phospho-β-glucosidase, 6-phospho-α-glucosidase), one GH1 (6-phospho-β-galactosidase), one GH16 (β-glucanase) and three GH32 (two sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase and levanase)...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765057/critical-amino-acids-for-the-insecticidal-activity-of-vip3af-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-inference-on-structural-aspects
#9
N Banyuls, C S Hernández-Rodríguez, J Van Rie, J Ferré
Vip3 vegetative insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are an important tool for crop protection against caterpillar pests in IPM strategies. While there is wide consensus on their general mode of action, the details of their mode of action are not completely elucidated and their structure remains unknown. In this work the alanine scanning technique was performed on 558 out of the total of 788 amino acids of the Vip3Af1 protein. From the 558 residue substitutions, 19 impaired protein expression and other 19 substitutions severely compromised the insecticidal activity against Spodoptera frugiperda...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765056/anatomy-of-a-fumarolic-system-inferred-from-a-multiphysics-approach
#10
Marceau Gresse, Jean Vandemeulebrouck, Svetlana Byrdina, Giovanni Chiodini, Philippe Roux, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Marc Wathelet, Tullio Ricci, Jean Letort, Zaccaria Petrillo, Paola Tuccimei, Carlo Lucchetti, Alessandra Sciarra
Fumaroles are a common manifestation of volcanic activity that are associated with large emissions of gases into the atmosphere. These gases originate from the magma, and they can provide indirect and unique insights into magmatic processes. Therefore, they are extensively used to monitor and forecast eruptive activity. During their ascent, the magmatic gases interact with the rock and hydrothermal fluids, which modify their geochemical compositions. These interactions can complicate our understanding of the real volcanic dynamics and remain poorly considered...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763765/towards-understanding-the-complexity-of-cardiovascular-oscillations-insights-from-information-theory
#11
Michal Javorka, Jana Krohova, Barbora Czippelova, Zuzana Turianikova, Zuzana Lazarova, Radovan Wiszt, Luca Faes
Cardiovascular complexity is a feature of healthy physiological regulation, which stems from the simultaneous activity of several cardiovascular reflexes and other non-reflex physiological mechanisms. It is manifested in the rich dynamics characterizing the spontaneous heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV). The present study faces the challenge of disclosing the origin of short-term HRV and BPV from the statistical perspective offered by information theory. To dissect the physiological mechanisms giving rise to cardiovascular complexity in different conditions, measures of predictive information, information storage, information transfer and information modification were applied to the beat-to-beat variability of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and respiratory volume signal recorded non-invasively in 61 healthy young subjects at supine rest and during head-up tilt (HUT) and mental arithmetics (MA)...
May 5, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763287/insight-studies-on-metal-organic-framework-nanofibrous-membrane-adsorption-and-activation-for-heavy-metal-ions-removal-from-aqueous-solution
#12
Johnson Efome, Dipak Rana, Takeshi Matsuura, Christopher Q Lan
Electrospun nanofiber composite membranes containing water stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) particles (Zr-based MOF-808) supported on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber synthesized via co-electrospinning have been prepared. MOF particles were dispersed in the organic polymer and their subsequent presence was inferred by SEM. Membrane performance in heavy metal ion adsorption in batch filtration was evaluated based on Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions sequestration. The adsorption capacities of the pristine MOF and the MOF composite membrane revealed that MOF particles in the membrane could be accessed for adsorption in the hydrophilic PAN membranes...
May 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761710/who-s-the-boss-determining-the-control-pathways-of-cardiovascular-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-acute-stress
#13
Kate M Edwards, Nathan B Morris
Acute stress responses are known to include increases in heart rate and blood pressure, as well as increases in the number of circulating immune cells, all of which are governed by the autonomic nervous system. This laboratory practical measures cardiovascular and circulating immune cell responses to a passive (cold pressor) and active (mental arithmetic) acute stress task in student participants. The results allow them to examine the different patterns of autonomic response they elicit (approximated by heart rate and blood pressure responses), and knowledge of these responses can then be used to infer the governing autonomic aspect of the increases in circulating immune cells from the results...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760667/a-drd2-annk1-comt-interaction-consisting-of-functional-variants-confers-risk-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-traumatized-chinese
#14
Kunlin Zhang, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Gen Li, Ruojiao Fang, Ping Liu, Shu Luo, Xiangyang Zhang, Israel Liberzon
Objective: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma- and stress-related psychiatric syndrome that occurs after exposure to extraordinary stressors. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) plays important roles in neurobiological processes like reward and stress, and a link between PTSD and the dopaminergic system has been reported. Thus, the investigation of an association between PTSD and gene-gene interaction (epistasis) within dopaminergic genes could uncover the genetic basis of dopamine-related PTSD symptomatology and contribute to precision medicine...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760661/a-semantic-transformation-methodology-for-the-secondary-use-of-observational-healthcare-data-in-postmarketing-safety-studies
#15
Anil Pacaci, Suat Gonul, A Anil Sinaci, Mustafa Yuksel, Gokce B Laleci Erturkmen
Background: Utilization of the available observational healthcare datasets is key to complement and strengthen the postmarketing safety studies. Use of common data models (CDM) is the predominant approach in order to enable large scale systematic analyses on disparate data models and vocabularies. Current CDM transformation practices depend on proprietarily developed Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) procedures, which require knowledge both on the semantics and technical characteristics of the source datasets and target CDM...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760401/belief-state-representation-in-the-dopamine-system
#16
Benedicte M Babayan, Naoshige Uchida, Samuel J Gershman
Learning to predict future outcomes is critical for driving appropriate behaviors. Reinforcement learning (RL) models have successfully accounted for such learning, relying on reward prediction errors (RPEs) signaled by midbrain dopamine neurons. It has been proposed that when sensory data provide only ambiguous information about which state an animal is in, it can predict reward based on a set of probabilities assigned to hypothetical states (called the belief state). Here we examine how dopamine RPEs and subsequent learning are regulated under state uncertainty...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757711/misleading-health-consumers-through-violations-of-communicative-norms-a-case-study-of-online-diabetes-education
#17
Derek Powell, Martin Keil, Dru Brenner, Liliana Lim, Ellen M Markman
Communication is a cooperative endeavor that goes well beyond decoding sentences' literal meaning. Listeners actively construe the meaning of utterances from both their literal meanings and the pragmatic principles that govern communication. When communicators make pragmatically infelicitous statements, the effects can be similar to paltering-misleading speech that evokes false inferences from true statements. The American Diabetes Association's (ADA's) "Diabetes Myths" website provides a real-world case study in such misleading communications...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757444/physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-associated-factors-in-recipients-of-solid-organ-transplantation
#18
Edwin J van Adrichem, Rienk Dekker, Wim P Krijnen, Erik A M Verschuuren, Pieter U Dijkstra, Cees P van der Schans
Background: Short-term survival after solid-organ transplantation has substantially improved, and the focus has shifted to long-term survival, including the role of physical activity (PA). Knowledge about PA and sedentary time in recipients of solid-organ transplantation is limited, and identification of the levels and associated factors is necessary for intervention development. Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of PA and sedentary time in recipients of solid-organ transplantation and to identify factors associated with these behaviors...
May 10, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753941/an-integrated-computational-approach-of-molecular-dynamics-simulations-receptor-binding-studies-and-pharmacophore-mapping-analysis-in-search-of-potent-inhibitors-against-tuberculosis
#19
Shivangi Agarwal, Ekta Verma, Vivek Kumar, Namrita Lall, Samaresh Sau, Arun K Iyer, Sushil K Kashaw
Tuberculosis is an infectious chronic disease caused by obligate pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis that affects millions of people worldwide. Although many first and second line drugs are available for its treatment, but their irrational use has adversely lead to the emerging cases of multiple drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Therefore, there is an intense need to develop novel potent analogues for its treatment. This has prompted us to develop potent analogues against TB. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome provides us with number of validated targets to combat against TB...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753645/reserve-flux-capacity-in-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-enables-escherichia-coli-s-rapid-response-to-oxidative-stress
#20
Dimitris Christodoulou, Hannes Link, Tobias Fuhrer, Karl Kochanowski, Luca Gerosa, Uwe Sauer
To counteract oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS), bacteria evolved various mechanisms, primarily reducing ROS through antioxidant systems that utilize cofactor NADPH. Cells must stabilize NADPH levels by increasing flux through replenishing metabolic pathways like pentose phosphate (PP) pathway. Here, we investigate the mechanism enabling the rapid increase in NADPH supply by exposing Escherichia coli to hydrogen peroxide and quantifying the immediate metabolite dynamics. To systematically infer active regulatory interactions governing this response, we evaluated ensembles of kinetic models of glycolysis and PP pathway, each with different regulation mechanisms...
May 2, 2018: Cell Systems
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