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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926564/probabilistic-models-for-neural-populations-that-naturally-capture-global-coupling-and-criticality
#1
Jan Humplik, Gašper Tkačik
Advances in multi-unit recordings pave the way for statistical modeling of activity patterns in large neural populations. Recent studies have shown that the summed activity of all neurons strongly shapes the population response. A separate recent finding has been that neural populations also exhibit criticality, an anomalously large dynamic range for the probabilities of different population activity patterns. Motivated by these two observations, we introduce a class of probabilistic models which takes into account the prior knowledge that the neural population could be globally coupled and close to critical...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924611/size-effects-resolve-discrepancies-in-40-years-of-work-on-low-temperature-plasticity-in-olivine
#2
Kathryn M Kumamoto, Christopher A Thom, David Wallis, Lars N Hansen, David E J Armstrong, Jessica M Warren, David L Goldsby, Angus J Wilkinson
The strength of olivine at low temperatures and high stresses in Earth's lithospheric mantle exerts a critical control on many geodynamic processes, including lithospheric flexure and the formation of plate boundaries. Unfortunately, laboratory-derived values of the strength of olivine at lithospheric conditions are highly variable and significantly disagree with those inferred from geophysical observations. We demonstrate via nanoindentation that the strength of olivine depends on the length scale of deformation, with experiments on smaller volumes of material exhibiting larger yield stresses...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922354/reconstructing-promoter-activity-from-lux-bioluminescent-reporters
#3
Mudassar Iqbal, Neil Doherty, Anna M L Page, Saara N A Qazi, Ishan Ajmera, Peter A Lund, Theodore Kypraios, David J Scott, Philip J Hill, Dov J Stekel
The bacterial Lux system is used as a gene expression reporter. It is fast, sensitive and non-destructive, enabling high frequency measurements. Originally developed for bacterial cells, it has also been adapted for eukaryotic cells, and can be used for whole cell biosensors, or in real time with live animals without the need for euthanasia. However, correct interpretation of bioluminescent data is limited: the bioluminescence is different from gene expression because of nonlinear molecular and enzyme dynamics of the Lux system...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921381/pentachlorophenol-molecule-design-with-lower-bioconcentration-through-3d-qsar-associated-with-molecule-docking
#4
Xiaolei Wang, Zhenhua Chu, Jiawen Yang, Yu Li
A three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model is built by using a comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) technique with an experimentally determined logarithm of bioconcentration factors (logBCFs) for 36 phenols in fish. Meanwhile, with the pentachlorophenol (PCP) molecule as target molecules, contributions of the molecular fields indicate that the electrostatic fields are the main influences on the bioconcentration of the PCP molecule. Based on the analytical results of CoMSIA contour map of PCP and PCP molecular docking with SOD protease (PDB ID: 4A7T), the R6 substituent positions of PCP were modified to give seven new modified PCP molecules with low bioconcentration in this paper...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919494/shoulder-injury-in-water-polo-a-systematic-review-of-incidence-and-intrinsic-risk-factors
#5
REVIEW
Andrea H Miller, Kerrie Evans, Roger Adams, Gordon Waddington, Jeremy Witchalls
OBJECTIVES: Water polo is a popular water-based contact sport that involves swimming, throwing and defending. Cumulatively, these repetitive overhead activities are thought to increase the risk of shoulder injury and, subsequently to affect players' physical conditioning as well as team performance. The purpose of this review was to examine available evidence relating to shoulder injury rates and risk factors for shoulder injury in water polo. DESIGN: Systematic review METHODS: CINAHL, AUSPORT, Pubmed, Pedro and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for original research papers using the predefined terms ("water polo") AND (shoulder OR glenohumeral* OR arm OR "upper limb")...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919350/crystal-structure-of-inositol-1-3-4-5-6-pentakisphosphate-2-kinase-from-cryptococcus-neoformans
#6
Juntaek Oh, Dong-Gi Lee, Yong-Sun Bahn, Sangkee Rhee
The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a causative agent of meningoencephalitis in humans. For its pathogenicity, the inositol polyphosphate biosynthetic pathway plays critical roles. Recently, Ipk1 from C. neoformans (CnIpk1) was identified as an inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of IP5 to form IP6, a substrate for subsequent reaction to produce inositol pyrophosphates, such as PP-IP5/IP7. Furthermore, it was shown that deletion of IPK1 significantly reduces the virulence of C...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919247/the-effect-of-directed-photic-stimulation-of-the-pineal-on-experimental-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Gregory L Willis, Christopher B Freelance
The role of the circadian system in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. This has emerged from recent studies demonstrating an altered response of PD patients to treatment in relation to the phase of the light/dark cycle and from other work defining the functional significance of melanocytes in PD: a cell type that the nigro-striatal dopamine (NSD) system and circadian system both contain. The present study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the pineal, as the final common pathway of the circadian system, to light delivered directly to the pineal via surgical implantation of LEDs...
September 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917446/amplitude-modulation-rate-dependent-topographic-organization-of-the-auditory-steady-state-response-in-human-auditory-cortex
#8
Nathan Weisz, Chrysoula Lithari
Periodic modulations of an acoustic feature, such as amplitude over a certain frequency range, leads to phase locking of neural responses to the envelope of the modulation. Using electrophysiological methods this neural activity pattern, also called the auditory steady-state response (aSSR), is visible following frequency transformation of the evoked response as a clear spectral peak at the modulation frequency. Despite several studies employing the aSSR that show, for example, strongest responses for ∼40 Hz and an overall right-hemispheric dominance, it has not been investigated so far to what extent within auditory cortex different modulation frequencies elicit aSSRs at a homogenous source or whether the localization of the aSSR is topographically organized in a systematic manner...
September 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915268/large-scale-cross-species-chemogenomic-platform-proposes-a-new-drug-discovery-strategy-of-veterinary-drug-from-herbal-medicines
#9
Chao Huang, Yang Yang, Xuetong Chen, Chao Wang, Yan Li, Chunli Zheng, Yonghua Wang
Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM) is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915250/multi-layered-mutation-in-hedgehog-related-genes-in-gorlin-syndrome-may-affect-the-phenotype
#10
Shoko Onodera, Akiko Saito, Daigo Hasegawa, Nana Morita, Katsuhito Watanabe, Takeshi Nomura, Takahiko Shibahara, Shinsuke Ohba, Akira Yamaguchi, Toshifumi Azuma
Gorlin syndrome is a genetic disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance that predisposes the affected individual to a variety of disorders that are attributed largely to heterozygous germline patched1 (PTCH1) mutations. PTCH1 is a hedgehog (Hh) receptor as well as a repressor, mutation of which leads to constitutive activation of Hh pathway. Hh pathway encompasses a wide variety of cellular signaling cascades, which involve several molecules; however, no associated genotype-phenotype correlations have been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915088/abiotic-and-biotic-formation-of-amino-acids-in-the-enceladus-ocean
#11
Elliot L Steel, Alfonso Davila, Christopher P McKay
The active plume at Enceladus' south pole makes the indirect sampling of its global ocean possible. The partially resolved chemistry of the plume, which points to conditions that are seemingly compatible with life, has made orbital sampling missions a priority. We present a conceptual model of energy flux, hydrothermal H2 production, and both abiotic and biotic production of amino acids. Based on the energy flux observed at the south pole and the inferred internal hydrothermal activity, we estimate an H2 production of 0...
September 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910071/a-simple-incl3-doped-pedot-pss-and-uv-ozone-treatment-strategy-external-quantum-efficiency-up-to-21-for-solution-processed-organic-light-emitting-devices-with-a-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-emitter
#12
Tao Zhou, Guohua Xie, Shaolong Gong, Manli Huang, Jiajia Luo, Chuluo Yang
A low-cost and easy-processed scheme for solution processed organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) was provided to overcome the flaws of poly(styrene sulfonic acid)-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene) (PEDOT:PSS) together with the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. The modified PEDOT:PSS with higher work function (5.66 eV), higher conductivity and more efficient hole injecting ability was obtained by simply mixing the aqueous PEDOT:PSS with InCl3 and then consecutive ultraviolet-ozone treatment. The simply structured and solution-processed OLEDs with our modified PEDOT:PSS achieved very high external quantum efficiency of 21...
September 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904779/discriminating-patterns-and-drivers-of-multiscale-movement-in-herpetofauna-the-dynamic-and-changing-environment-of-the-mojave-desert-tortoise
#13
Giancarlo Sadoti, Miranda E Gray, Matthew L Farnsworth, Brett G Dickson
Changes to animal movement in response to human-induced changes to the environment are of growing concern in conservation. Most research on this problem has focused on terrestrial endotherms, but changes to herpetofaunal movement are also of concern given their limited dispersal abilities and specialized thermophysiological requirements. Animals in the desert region of the southwestern United States are faced with environmental alterations driven by development (e.g., solar energy facilities) and climate change...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904202/discrete-dynamical-modeling-of-influenza-infection-suggests-age-dependent-differences-in-immunity
#14
Ericka Keef, Li Ang Zhang, David Swigon, Alisa Urbano, G Bard Ermentrout, Michael Matuszewski, Franklin R Toapanta, Ted M Ross, Robert S Parker, Gilles Clermont
Immunosenescence, an age-related decline in immune function, is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Older hosts exhibit delayed onset of immunity and prolonged inflammation after an infection, leading to excess damage and greater likelihood of death. Our study applies a rule-based model to infer which components of immune response are most changed in an aged host. Two groups of BALB/c mice (age 12-16 wks and 72-76 wks) were infected at 2 inocula: a survivable 50 PFU dose and a lethal 500 PFU dose...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903485/editor-s-highlight-mechanistic-toxicity-tests-based-on-an-adverse-outcome-pathway-network-for-hepatic-steatosis
#15
Michelle M Angrish, Charlene A McQueen, Elaine Cohen-Hubal, Maribel Bruno, Yue Ge, Brian N Chorley
Risk assessors use liver endpoints in rodent toxicology studies to assess the safety of chemical exposures. Yet, rodent endpoints may not accurately reflect human responses. For this reason and others, human-based invitro models are being developed and anchored to adverse outcome pathways to better predict adverse human health outcomes. Here, a networked adverse outcome pathway-guided selection of biology-based assays for lipid uptake, lipid efflux, fatty acid oxidation, and lipid accumulation were developed...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903046/genome-scale-architecture-of-small-molecule-regulatory-networks-and-the-fundamental-trade-off-between-regulation-and-enzymatic-activity
#16
Ed Reznik, Dimitris Christodoulou, Joshua E Goldford, Emma Briars, Uwe Sauer, Daniel Segrè, Elad Noor
Metabolic flux is in part regulated by endogenous small molecules that modulate the catalytic activity of an enzyme, e.g., allosteric inhibition. In contrast to transcriptional regulation of enzymes, technical limitations have hindered the production of a genome-scale atlas of small molecule-enzyme regulatory interactions. Here, we develop a framework leveraging the vast, but fragmented, biochemical literature to reconstruct and analyze the small molecule regulatory network (SMRN) of the model organism Escherichia coli, including the primary metabolite regulators and enzyme targets...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900708/apparent-activation-energies-of-protein-protein-complex-dissociation-in-the-gas-phase-determined-by-electrospray-mass-spectrometry
#17
Yelena Yefremova, F Teresa I Melder, Bright D Danquah, Kwabena F M Opuni, Cornelia Koy, Alexandra Ehrens, David Frommholz, Harald Illges, Knut Koelbel, Frank Sobott, Michael O Glocker
We have developed a method to determine apparent activation energies of dissociation for ionized protein-protein complexes in the gas phase using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry following the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus quasi-equilibrium theory. Protein-protein complexes were formed in solution, transferred into the gas phase, and separated from excess free protein by ion mobility filtering. Afterwards, complex disassembly was initiated by collision-induced dissociation with step-wise increasing energies...
September 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900010/prior-expectations-induce-prestimulus-sensory-templates
#18
Peter Kok, Pim Mostert, Floris P de Lange
Perception can be described as a process of inference, integrating bottom-up sensory inputs and top-down expectations. However, it is unclear how this process is neurally implemented. It has been proposed that expectations lead to prestimulus baseline increases in sensory neurons tuned to the expected stimulus, which in turn, affect the processing of subsequent stimuli. Recent fMRI studies have revealed stimulus-specific patterns of activation in sensory cortex as a result of expectation, but this method lacks the temporal resolution necessary to distinguish pre- from poststimulus processes...
September 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899009/in-and-out-of-control-brain-mechanisms-linking-fluency-of-action-selection-to-self-agency-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Martin Voss, Valérian Chambon, Dorit Wenke, Simone Kühn, Patrick Haggard
Sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over one's actions, and their consequences. It involves both predictive processes linked to action control, and retrospective 'sense-making' causal inferences. Schizophrenia has been associated with impaired predictive processing, but the underlying mechanisms that impair patients' sense of agency remain unclear. We introduce a new 'prospective' aspect of agency and show that subliminally priming an action not only influences response times, but also influences reported sense of agency over subsequent action outcomes...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898266/translating-natural-genetic-variation-to-gene-expression-in-a-computational-model-of-the-drosophila-gap-gene-regulatory-network
#20
Vitaly V Gursky, Konstantin N Kozlov, Ivan V Kulakovskiy, Asif Zubair, Paul Marjoram, David S Lawrie, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Maria G Samsonova
Annotating the genotype-phenotype relationship, and developing a proper quantitative description of the relationship, requires understanding the impact of natural genomic variation on gene expression. We apply a sequence-level model of gap gene expression in the early development of Drosophila to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a panel of natural sequenced D. melanogaster lines. Using a thermodynamic modeling framework, we provide both analytical and computational descriptions of how single-nucleotide variants affect gene expression...
2017: PloS One
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