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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534306/assessment-of-water-quality-using-multivariate-techniques-in-river-sosiani-kenya
#1
A O Achieng', P O Raburu, E C Kipkorir, S O Ngodhe, K O Obiero, J Ani-Sabwa
Multivariate techniques can infer intrinsic characteristics of complex data by generating correlation, similarity, dissimilarity, and covariance vector matrix to ascertain their relationships. The study evaluated the effect of anthropogenic activities by analyzing selected physicochemical water quality parameters (WQP) as indicators of pollution in River Sosiani, located in western Kenya, at six stations from August 2012 to February 2013 (Aug-Oct ≡ wet season, Nov-Feb ≡ Dry season). Temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), conductivity, and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were measured in situ while Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Organic Nitrogen (TON), and Biologial Oxygen Demand (BOD) were measured in vitro using standard methods...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533792/retrospective-analysis-of-wood-anatomical-traits-reveals-a-recent-extension-in-tree-cambial-activity-in-two-high-elevation-conifers
#2
Marco Carrer, Daniele Castagneri, Angela L Prendin, Giai Petit, Georg von Arx
The study of xylogenesis or wood formation is a powerful, yet labor intensive monitoring approach to investigate intra-annual tree growth responses to environmental factors. However, it seldom covers more than a few growing seasons, so is in contrast to the much longer lifespan of woody plants and the time scale of many environmental processes. Here we applied a novel retrospective approach to test the long-term (1926-2012) consistency in the timing of onset and ending of cambial activity, and in the maximum cambial cell division rate in two conifer species, European larch and Norway spruce at high-elevation in the Alps...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533260/relationship-between-monocyte-platelet-aggregation-and-endothelial-function-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-adults
#3
Andrew Haynes, Matthew D Linden, Elisa Robey, Louise H Naylor, Kay L Cox, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Daniel J Green
Low-grade inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and platelet hyper-reactivity to agonists are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In vitro and animal studies infer an inverse mechanistic relationship between platelet activation and the production of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and prostacyclin. This concept is supported by evidence of an inverse relationship between endothelial function and platelet activation in high-risk cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to investigate what relationship, if any, exists between platelet and endothelial function in healthy, middle-aged, and elderly adults...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532991/estimating-population-density-for-disease-risk-assessment-the-importance-of-understanding-the-area-of-influence-of-traps-using-wild-pigs-as-an-example
#4
Amy J Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C VerCauteren, Kim M Pepin
Population density is a key driver of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. Accurate disease risk assessment and determination of management impacts on wildlife populations requires an ability to estimate population density alongside management actions. A common management technique for controlling wildlife populations to monitor and mitigate disease transmission risk is trapping (e.g., box traps, corral traps, drop nets). Although abundance can be estimated from trapping actions using a variety of analytical approaches, inference is limited by the spatial extent to which a trap attracts animals on the landscape...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532363/early-visual-cortex-as-a-multiscale-cognitive-blackboard
#5
Pieter R Roelfsema, Floris P de Lange
Neurons in early visual cortical areas not only represent incoming visual information but are also engaged by higher level cognitive processes, including attention, working memory, imagery, and decision-making. Are these cognitive effects an epiphenomenon or are they functionally relevant for these mental operations? We review evidence supporting the hypothesis that the modulation of activity in early visual areas has a causal role in cognition. The modulatory influences allow the early visual cortex to act as a multiscale cognitive blackboard for read and write operations by higher visual areas, which can thereby efficiently exchange information...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530204/in-bed-vital-signs-monitoring-system-based-on-unobtrusive-magnetic-induction-method-with-a-concentric-planar-gradiometer
#6
Hadiseh Mahdavi, Javier Rosell-Ferrer
SIGNIFICANCE: Unobtrusive vital signs monitoring is of major importance for various medical areas such as detection and treatment of sleep disorders, monitoring neonates and burned victims, home health care and smart home applications and wearables among others. Such applications call for monitoring methods in which the patient's natural state is less interfered with. An ideal device would be non-invasive, minimally restrictive, robust enough to compensate movements of the patients, and would operate without relying on the patient's full cooperation...
June 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529729/characterization-of-the-novel-in1059-harbouring-vim-gene-cassette
#7
Dongguo Wang, Jinhong Yang, Meiyu Fang, Wei He, Ying Zhang, Caixia Liu, Dongsheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529505/comparative-genomics-unravels-the-functional-roles-of-co-occurring-acidophilic-bacteria-in-bioleaching-heaps
#8
Xian Zhang, Xueduan Liu, Yili Liang, Yunhua Xiao, Liyuan Ma, Xue Guo, Bo Miao, Hongwei Liu, Deliang Peng, Wenkun Huang, Huaqun Yin
The spatial-temporal distribution of populations in various econiches is thought to be potentially related to individual differences in the utilization of nutrients or other resources, but their functional roles in the microbial communities remain elusive. We compared differentiation in gene repertoire and metabolic profiles, with a focus on the potential functional traits of three commonly recognized members (Acidithiobacillus caldus, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans) in bioleaching heaps...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529472/a-comparative-study-of-average-linked-mastoid-and-rest-references-for-erp-components-acquired-during-fmri
#9
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Ling Li
In simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, average reference (AR), and digitally linked mastoid (LM) are popular re-referencing techniques in event-related potential (ERP) analyses. However, they may introduce their own physiological signals and alter the EEG/ERP outcome. A reference electrode standardization technique (REST) that calculated a reference point at infinity was proposed to solve this problem. To confirm the advantage of REST in ERP analyses of synchronous EEG-fMRI studies, we compared the reference effect of AR, LM, and REST on task-related ERP results of a working memory task during an fMRI scan...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527316/effects-of-contextual-relevance-on-pragmatic-inference-during-conversation-an-fmri-study
#10
Wangshu Feng, Yue Wu, Catherine Jan, Hongbo Yu, Xiaoming Jiang, Xiaolin Zhou
Contextual relevance, which is vital for understanding conversational implicatures (CI), engages both the frontal-temporal language and theory-of-mind networks. Here we investigate how contextual relevance affects CI processing and regulates the connectivity between CI-processing-related brain regions. Participants listened to dialogues in which the level of contextual relevance to dialogue-final utterance (reply) was manipulated. This utterance was either direct, indirect but relevant, irrelevant with contextual hint, or irrelevant with no contextual hint...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526286/physical-activity-alters-limb-bone-structure-but-not-entheseal-morphology
#11
Ian J Wallace, Julia M Winchester, Anne Su, Doug M Boyer, Nicolai Konow
Studies of ancient human skeletal remains frequently proceed from the assumption that individuals with robust limb bones and/or rugose, hypertrophic entheses can be inferred to have been highly physically active during life. Here, we experimentally test this assumption by measuring the effects of exercise on limb bone structure and entheseal morphology in turkeys. Growing females were either treated with a treadmill-running regimen for 10 weeks or served as controls. After the experiment, femoral cortical and trabecular bone structure were quantified with μCT in the mid-diaphysis and distal epiphysis, respectively, and entheseal morphology was quantified in the lateral epicondyle...
June 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522431/wnk1-and-p38-mapk-distribution-in-ionocytes-and-accessory-cells-of-euryhaline-teleost-fish-implies-ionoregulatory-function
#12
W S Marshall, R R F Cozzi, M Spieker
Ionocytes of euryhaline teleost fish secrete NaCl, under regulation by serine and threonine kinases, including with-no-lysine kinase (WNK1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus L.) were acclimated to freshwater (FW), full strength seawater (SW) and hypersaline conditions (2SW). Immunocytochemistry of ionocytes in opercular epithelia of fish acclimated to SW and 2SW revealed that WNK1-anti-pT58 phosphoantibody localized strongly to accessory cells and was present in the cytosol of ionocytes close to, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the apical membrane and sodium, potassium, 2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC) in basolateral membrane...
May 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520713/combining-inferred-regulatory-and-reconstructed-metabolic-networks-enhances-phenotype-prediction-in-yeast
#13
Zhuo Wang, Samuel A Danziger, Benjamin D Heavner, Shuyi Ma, Jennifer J Smith, Song Li, Thurston Herricks, Evangelos Simeonidis, Nitin S Baliga, John D Aitchison, Nathan D Price
Gene regulatory and metabolic network models have been used successfully in many organisms, but inherent differences between them make networks difficult to integrate. Probabilistic Regulation Of Metabolism (PROM) provides a partial solution, but it does not incorporate network inference and underperforms in eukaryotes. We present an Integrated Deduced And Metabolism (IDREAM) method that combines statistically inferred Environment and Gene Regulatory Influence Network (EGRIN) models with the PROM framework to create enhanced metabolic-regulatory network models...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514202/the-physical-characteristics-of-match-play-in-english-schoolboy-and-academy-rugby-union
#14
Dale B Read, Ben Jones, Padraic J Phibbs, Gregory A B Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Jonathon J S Weakley, Kevin Till
The aim was to compare the physical characteristics of under-18 academy and schoolboy rugby union competition by position (forwards and backs). Using a microsensor unit, match characteristics were recorded in 66 players. Locomotor characteristics were assessed by maximum sprint speed (MSS) and total, walking, jogging, striding and sprinting distances. The slow component (<2 m · s(-1)) of PlayerLoad(TM) (PLslow), which is the accumulated accelerations from the three axes of movement, was analysed as a measure of low-speed activity (e...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513668/computational-analysis-of-site-differences-in-selective-aliphatic-c-h-hydroxylation-by-nonheme-iron-oxo-complexes
#15
Jian Wang, Yuan-Yuan Zhao, Po-Heng Lee
Selective C-H hydroxylation by nonheme iron complexes offers a promising method in the field of organic synthesis. Aliphatic C-H bond oxidation reactions of pivalate (R) catalyzed by [Fe(S,S-PDP)(CH3CN)2](2+) (CAT1) were examined using the density functional theory. Our calculations of the CH3CN solvent agree with the experimental findings. However, it was observed that the gas-phase results did not replicate selective C-H hydroxylation observed experimentally when CAT1 catalyzed hydrocarbon oxidations by H2O2via an HO-Fe(V)[double bond, length as m-dash]O oxidant (CAT1a)...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511133/phorate-induced-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-differential-expression-of-p53-apaf-1-and-cat-genes-in-fish-channa-punctatus-bloch-1793
#16
Arun Ratn, Yashika Awasthi, Manoj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Renu Tripathi, Sunil P Trivedi
The present study was conducted to assess the in-vivo activities of certain molecular biomarkers under the impact of phorate exposure. Fish, Channa punctatus (35 ± 3.0 g; 14.5 ± 1.0 cm; Actinopterygii) were subjected to semi-static conditions having 5% (0.0375 mg/L for T1 group) and 10% of 96 h-LC50 (0.075 mg/L for T2 group) of phorate exposure for 15 and 30 d. The oxidative stress was assessed in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. DNA damage was measured as induction of micronuclei (MN) and consequent differential expression of apoptotic genes-tumor suppressor (p53), apoptotic peptidase activating factor-1 (apaf-1) and catalase (cat) in liver and kidney, two major sites of biotransformation in fish, were quantified...
May 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510204/microarray-meta-analysis-to-explore-abiotic-stress-specific-gene-expression-patterns-in-arabidopsis
#17
Po-Chih Shen, Ai-Ling Hour, Li-Yu Daisy Liu
BACKGROUND: Abiotic stresses are the major limiting factors that affect plant growth, development, yield and final quality. Deciphering the underlying mechanisms of plants' adaptations to stresses using few datasets might overlook the different aspects of stress tolerance in plants, which might be simultaneously and consequently operated in the system. Fortunately, the accumulated microarray expression data offer an opportunity to infer abiotic stress-specific gene expression patterns through meta-analysis...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505742/random-versus-maximum-entropy-models-of-neural-population-activity
#18
Ulisse Ferrari, Tomoyuki Obuchi, Thierry Mora
The principle of maximum entropy provides a useful method for inferring statistical mechanics models from observations in correlated systems, and is widely used in a variety of fields where accurate data are available. While the assumptions underlying maximum entropy are intuitive and appealing, its adequacy for describing complex empirical data has been little studied in comparison to alternative approaches. Here, data from the collective spiking activity of retinal neurons is reanalyzed. The accuracy of the maximum entropy distribution constrained by mean firing rates and pairwise correlations is compared to a random ensemble of distributions constrained by the same observables...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505536/design-synthesis-molecular-docking-and-cytotoxic-evaluation-of-novel-2-furybenzimidazoles-as-vegfr-2-inhibitors
#19
Mona A Abdullaziz, Heba T Abdel-Mohsen, Ahmed M El Kerdawy, Fatma A F Ragab, Mamdouh M Ali, Sherifa M Abu-Bakr, Adel S Girgis, Hoda I El Diwani
Inhibition of angiogenesis through inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) has been applied in cancer therapy because of its important role in promoting cancer growth and metastasis. In the presented study, a series of benzimidazol-furan hybrids was designed and synthesized through facile synthetic pathways. Evaluation of the synthesized compounds for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against breast (MCF-7) and hepatocellular (HepG2) carcinoma cell lines was performed. Two of the synthesized conjugates, 10b and 15, showed potent antiproliferative properties against MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 21...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505247/single-cell-regulome-data-analysis-by-scrat
#20
Zhicheng Ji, Weiqiang Zhou, Hongkai Ji
Summary: Emerging single-cell technologies (e.g., single-cell ATAC-seq, DNase-seq or ChIP-seq) have made it possible to assay regulome of individual cells. Single-cell regulome data are highly sparse and discrete. Analyzing such data is challenging. User-friendly software tools are still lacking. We present SCRAT, a Single-Cell Regulome Analysis Toolbox with a graphical user interface, for studying cell heterogeneity using single-cell regulome data. SCRAT can be used to conveniently summarize regulatory activities according to different features (e...
May 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
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