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Immunotherapy. Food allergy. Vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#1
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999436/food-allergy-and-the-gut
#2
REVIEW
Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn, Hania Szajewska, Gideon Lack
Food allergy develops as a consequence of a failure in oral tolerance, which is a default immune response by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues to ingested antigens that is modified by the gut microbiota. Food allergy is classified on the basis of the involvement of IgE antibodies in allergic pathophysiology, either as classic IgE, mixed pathophysiology or non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy include emesis, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dysphagia, food impaction, protein-losing enteropathy and failure to thrive...
December 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957697/benefit-of-slit-and-scit-for-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#3
REVIEW
Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Diego Bagnasco
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use since more than one century, when Leonard Noon experimentally proved its efficacy in hayfever (Noon, in Lancet 1:1572-3, 1911). Since then, AIT was administered only as subcutaneous injections (SCIT) until the sublingual route (SLIT) was proposed in 1986. The use of SLIT was proposed following several surveys from the USA and UK that repeatedly reported fatalities due to SCIT (Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 75(1): 166, 1985; Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 660-77, 1985; Committee on the safety of medicines...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620194/mk-8237-a-house-dust-mite-vaccine-for-treating-allergic-rhinitis-asthma-and-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Matteo Ferrando, Diego Bagnasco, Giovanni Passalacqua, Gilda Varricchi, Giorgio Walter Canonica
INTRODUCTION: Since its introduction in clinical practice one century ago for the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has exhibited a relevant clinical efficacy that was subsequently confirmed in controlled trials. Thus, AIT has been accepted worldwide, as testified by guidelines and international documents. AIT is considered pivotal in the management of allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and with or without asthma. These conditions, in addition to hymenoptera venom allergy, currently are the accepted indications...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853127/vaccine-development-for-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-based-on-recombinant-allergens-and-synthetic-allergen-peptides-lessons-from-the-past-and-novel-mechanisms-of-action-for-the-future
#5
REVIEW
Rudolf Valenta, Raffaela Campana, Margit Focke-Tejkl, Verena Niederberger
In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the characteristics of recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that have reached clinical evaluation and discuss how molecular vaccine approaches can make AIT more safe and effective and thus more convenient...
February 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26418475/toll-like-receptors-as-targets-for-allergen-immunotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Zahra Aryan, Nima Rezaei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are novel and promising targets for allergen immunotherapy. Bench studies suggest that TLR agonists reduce Th2 responses and ameliorate airway hyper-responsiveness. In addition, clinical trials are at initial phases to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TLR agonists for the allergen immunotherapy of patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. (Figure is included in full-text article.) RECENT FINDINGS: To date, two allergy vaccine-containing TLR agonists have been investigated in clinical trials; Pollinex Quattro and AIC...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25765512/development-of-a-hypoallergenic-recombinant-parvalbumin-for-first-in-man-subcutaneous-immunotherapy-of-fish-allergy
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laurian Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Hans Huber, Ines Swoboda, Neil Rigby, Serge A Versteeg, Bettina M Jensen, Suzanne Quaak, Jaap H Akkerdaas, Lars Blom, Juan Asturias, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Maria L Bernardi, Michael Clausen, Rosa Ferrara, Martina Hauer, Jet Heyse, Stephan Kopp, Marek L Kowalski, Anna Lewandowska-Polak, Birgit Linhart, Bernhard Maderegger, Bernard Maillere, Adriano Mari, Alberto Martinez, E N Clare Mills, Angela Neubauer, Claudio Nicoletti, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Antonio Portoles, Ville Ranta-Panula, Sara Santos-Magadan, Heidi J Schnoor, Sigurveig T Sigurdardottir, Per Stahl-Skov, George Stavroulakis, Georg Stegfellner, Sonia Vázquez-Cortés, Marianne Witten, Frank Stolz, Lars K Poulsen, Montserrat Fernandez-Rivas, Rudolf Valenta, Ronald van Ree
BACKGROUND: The FAST (food allergy-specific immunotherapy) project aims at developing safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy for fish allergy, using recombinant hypoallergenic carp parvalbumin, Cyp c 1. OBJECTIVES: Preclinical characterization and good manufacturing practice (GMP) production of mutant Cyp (mCyp) c 1. METHODS: Escherichia coli-produced mCyp c 1 was purified using standard chromatographic techniques. Physicochemical properties were investigated by gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry...
2015: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25680669/food-allergies-the-basics
#8
REVIEW
Rudolf Valenta, Heidrun Hochwallner, Birgit Linhart, Sandra Pahr
IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation...
May 2015: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25656803/production-and-immunological-analysis-of-ige-reactive-recombinant-egg-white-allergens-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Pathum Dhanapala, Tim Doran, Mimi L K Tang, Cenk Suphioglu
IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance...
May 2015: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25459578/potential-treatments-for-food-allergy
#10
REVIEW
Stephanie Albin, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
This article presents an overview of potential treatments of food allergy, with an emphasis on various forms of immunotherapy (including oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, epicutaneous immunotherapy, immunotherapy with modified food antigens, and immunotherapy with a recombinant peanut vaccine). Allergen nonspecific treatments, such as Chinese herbal formulas, probiotics/prebiotics, helminths, monoclonal antibodies, and toll-like receptor agonists, are also summarized.
February 2015: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25276342/peanut-immunotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Katherine Anagnostou, Andrew Clark
Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies, such as egg and milk. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication, but a disease- modifying therapy is needed for peanut allergy...
2014: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25224992/allergy-and-asthma-prevention-2014
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Nieto, Ulrich Wahn, Albrecht Bufe, Philippe Eigenmann, Susanne Halken, Gunilla Hedlin, Arne Høst, Jonathan Hourihane, Jocelyne Just, Gideon Lack, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi, Antonella Muraro, Nikos Papadopoulos, Graham Roberts, Angela Simpson, Erkka Valovirta, Stephan Weidinger, Magnus Wickman, Angel Mazon
Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma...
October 2014: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24789880/emerging-therapies-for-food-allergy
#13
REVIEW
Corinne A Keet, Robert A Wood
Food allergy is a common condition for which there are currently no approved treatments except avoidance of the allergenic food and treatment of accidental reactions. There are several potential treatments that are under active investigation in animal and human studies, but it is not yet clear what the best approach may be. Here, we review approaches that are currently in clinical trials, including oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, immunotherapy combined with anti-IgE, and Chinese herbal medicine as well as approaches that are in preclinical or early clinical investigation, including modified protein immunotherapy, adjuvants, DNA vaccines, and helminth administration...
May 2014: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24324505/allergenic-characterization-of-new-mutant-forms-of-pru-p-3-as-new-immunotherapy-vaccines
#14
C Gómez-Casado, M Garrido-Arandia, P Gamboa, N Blanca-López, G Canto, J Varela, J Cuesta-Herranz, L F Pacios, A Díaz-Perales, L Tordesillas
Nowadays, treatment of food allergy only considered the avoidance of the specific food. However, the possibility of cross-reactivity makes this practice not very effective. Immunotherapy may exhibit as a good alternative to food allergy treatment. The use of hypoallergenic molecules with reduced IgE binding capacity but with ability to stimulate the immune system is a promising tool which could be developed for immunotherapy. In this study, three mutants of Pru p 3, the principal allergen of peach, were produced based on the described mimotope and T cell epitopes, by changing the specific residues to alanine, named as Pru p 3...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24224690/differences-in-the-intrinsic-immunogenicity-and-allergenicity-of-bet-v-1-and-related-food-allergens-revealed-by-site-directed-mutagenesis
#15
A Roulias, U Pichler, M Hauser, M Himly, H Hofer, P Lackner, C Ebner, P Briza, B Bohle, M Egger, M Wallner, F Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Birch pollen allergies are frequently associated with adverse reactions to various fruits, nuts, or vegetables, described as pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and caused by cross-reactive IgE antibodies primarily directed against Bet v 1. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents an effective treatment for inhalant allergies; however, successful birch pollen SIT does not correlate well with the amelioration of concomitant food allergies. METHODS: As vaccine candidates, apple Mal d 1 as well as hazelnut Cor a 1 derivatives were designed by in silico backbone analyses of the respective allergens...
February 2014: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23701565/skin-as-a-novel-route-for-allergen-specific-immunotherapy
#16
Wei Li, Zhuo Zhang, Rong Tian, Ke Zhang
Subcutaneous allergen specific immunotherapy is an effective treatment of IgE-mediated allergies, but it requires repeated allergen injections with a risk of systemic allergic reactions. Other routes of immunization had been explored to improve patient compliance and safety. Skin is not only a physical barrier between the body and outside world, but also an important immune organ eliciting innate and adaptive immune function. Skin has been used as an ideal site for vaccination of infectious diseases. Food allergen topically applied onto disrupted skin can induce sensitization and food allergy would develop subsequently...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23406934/egg-hypersensitivity-in-review
#17
REVIEW
Sana A Hasan, Regina D Wells, Carla M Davis
Egg hypersensitivity is the second most common food allergy with a prevalence of up to 1.7% and the discovery of information about egg allergy is ongoing. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of the allergens involved, natural history, clinical presentation, diagnostic strategies, treatment options, egg-containing vaccine guidelines, and future therapies for health care providers in managing egg hypersensitivity. Recent clinically applicable articles are reviewed for the allergist as an update for the state of the art management of egg allergy...
January 2013: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23315329/new-directions-in-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Linda Cox, Enrico Compalati, Thomas Kundig, Mark Larche
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is effective in reducing the clinical symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis, asthma and venom-induced anaphylaxis. Subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with unmodified allergen extracts are the most widely prescribed AIT regimens. The efficacy of these 2 routes appears comparable, but the safety profile with SLIT is more favorable allowing for home administration and requiring less patient time. However, both require that the treatment is taken regularly over several years, e...
April 2013: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23278886/in-silico-prediction-of-ara-h-2-t-cell-epitopes-in-peanut-allergic-children
#19
M Pascal, G N Konstantinou, M Masilamani, J Lieberman, H A Sampson
BACKGROUND: Despite the frequency and severity of peanut allergy, the only approved treatment is strict avoidance. Different types of immunotherapy with crude peanut extract are not universally effective and have been associated with relatively high adverse reaction rates. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether in silico predictive algorithms were useful in identifying candidate peptides for an Ara h 2 peptide-based vaccine using peanut-allergic patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro...
January 2013: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23252390/current-and-emerging-immunotherapeutic-approaches-to-treat-and-prevent-peanut-allergy
#20
REVIEW
Darren S Miller, Michael P Brown, Paul M Howley, John D Hayball
Peanut-allergen hypersensitivity reactions, which can result in anaphylactic episodes and death, affect approximately 1% of the general population. Currently, strict avoidance of allergenic food is the only available treatment for this food-induced allergic reaction; however, the innocuous presence of trace amounts of peanut protein contaminating food products makes avoidance extremely difficult, especially in children. Therefore, safe and inexpensive therapeutic strategies aimed at prevention and treatment of peanut allergies is urgently required...
December 2012: Expert Review of Vaccines
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