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Immunotherapy. Food allergy. Vaccine

Elizabeth Feuille, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn
With rising prevalence of food allergy (FA), allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) for FA has become an active area of research in recent years. In AIT, incrementally increasing doses of inciting allergen are given with the goal to increase tolerance, initially through desensitization, which relies on regular exposure to allergen. With prolonged therapy in some subjects, AIT may induce sustained unresponsiveness, in which tolerance is retained after a period of allergen avoidance. Methods of AIT currently under study in humans include oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, and subcutaneous delivery of modified allergenic protein, as well as via DNA-based vaccines encoding allergen with lysosomal-associated membrane protein I...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Quindelyn S Cook, A Wesley Burks
Food allergy is a significant public health problem, with no suitable treatments available for patients. Currently, patients are limited to avoidance and the use of readily available emergency medications. Immunotherapy is an appealing therapeutic strategy for inducing tolerance. Studies with whole native allergens have demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy for food allergy; however, the risk of IgE-mediated reactions with such treatment is significant. Advances in molecular biology techniques, including purification, sequencing, and cloning, have allowed researchers to identify specific allergen components and T cell binding epitopes...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Wendy Ramírez, Virgilio Bourg, Damaris Torralba, Elisa Facenda, Beatriz Tamargo, Bárbara O González, Gustavo Sierra, Oliver Pérez, Yordanis Perez-Llano, Alexis Labrada
The proteoliposome (PL) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B has been reported as a safe and potent vaccine adjuvant, inducing a TH1-skewed response. The present study describes a pre-clinical safety evaluation of an allergy therapeutic vaccine candidate based on purified allergens from Dermatophagoides siboney house dust mite and PL as adjuvant, both components adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide gel. Two separate studies of acute toxicity evaluation were performed in mice and rabbits, and two repeat-dose studies were conducted in non-sensitized and allergen-sensitized Balb/c mice, respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Rudolf Valenta, Raffaela Campana, Verena Niederberger
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy is the most common immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity disease. It affects more than 25% of the population. In IgE-sensitized subjects, allergen encounter can causes a variety of symptoms ranging from hayfever (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis) to asthma, skin inflammation, food allergy and severe life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is based on vaccination with the disease-causing allergens. AIT is an extremely effective, causative and disease-modifying treatment...
September 2017: Immunology Letters
Madhan Masilamani, Mariona Pascal, Hugh A Sampson
Characterization of allergen-specific T cells is critical to understand their contribution to disease pathogenesis. The identification of immunodominant T-cell epitopes is crucial for development of T-cell-based vaccines. Peptide-specific T-cell proliferation studies are usually performed in a library of short synthetic peptides (15mer or 20mer) with 3 or 5 offset spanning the entire length of the allergen. T-cell peptide epitopes lack the primary and tertiary structure of the native protein to cross-link IgE, but retain the ability to stimulate T cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn, Hania Szajewska, Gideon Lack
Food allergy develops as a consequence of a failure in oral tolerance, which is a default immune response by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues to ingested antigens that is modified by the gut microbiota. Food allergy is classified on the basis of the involvement of IgE antibodies in allergic pathophysiology, either as classic IgE, mixed pathophysiology or non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy include emesis, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dysphagia, food impaction, protein-losing enteropathy and failure to thrive...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica, Diego Bagnasco
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use since more than one century, when Leonard Noon experimentally proved its efficacy in hayfever (Noon, in Lancet 1:1572-3, 1911). Since then, AIT was administered only as subcutaneous injections (SCIT) until the sublingual route (SLIT) was proposed in 1986. The use of SLIT was proposed following several surveys from the USA and UK that repeatedly reported fatalities due to SCIT (Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 75(1): 166, 1985; Lockey et al. in J Allergy Clin Immunol 660-77, 1985; Committee on the safety of medicines...
November 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Matteo Ferrando, Diego Bagnasco, Giovanni Passalacqua, Gilda Varricchi, Giorgio Walter Canonica
INTRODUCTION: Since its introduction in clinical practice one century ago for the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has exhibited a relevant clinical efficacy that was subsequently confirmed in controlled trials. Thus, AIT has been accepted worldwide, as testified by guidelines and international documents. AIT is considered pivotal in the management of allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and with or without asthma. These conditions, in addition to hymenoptera venom allergy, currently are the accepted indications...
November 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Rudolf Valenta, Raffaela Campana, Margit Focke-Tejkl, Verena Niederberger
In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the characteristics of recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that have reached clinical evaluation and discuss how molecular vaccine approaches can make AIT more safe and effective and thus more convenient...
February 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Zahra Aryan, Nima Rezaei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are novel and promising targets for allergen immunotherapy. Bench studies suggest that TLR agonists reduce Th2 responses and ameliorate airway hyper-responsiveness. In addition, clinical trials are at initial phases to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TLR agonists for the allergen immunotherapy of patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. (Figure is included in full-text article.) RECENT FINDINGS: To date, two allergy vaccine-containing TLR agonists have been investigated in clinical trials; Pollinex Quattro and AIC...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Laurian Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Hans Huber, Ines Swoboda, Neil Rigby, Serge A Versteeg, Bettina M Jensen, Suzanne Quaak, Jaap H Akkerdaas, Lars Blom, Juan Asturias, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Maria L Bernardi, Michael Clausen, Rosa Ferrara, Martina Hauer, Jet Heyse, Stephan Kopp, Marek L Kowalski, Anna Lewandowska-Polak, Birgit Linhart, Bernhard Maderegger, Bernard Maillere, Adriano Mari, Alberto Martinez, E N Clare Mills, Angela Neubauer, Claudio Nicoletti, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Antonio Portoles, Ville Ranta-Panula, Sara Santos-Magadan, Heidi J Schnoor, Sigurveig T Sigurdardottir, Per Stahl-Skov, George Stavroulakis, Georg Stegfellner, Sonia Vázquez-Cortés, Marianne Witten, Frank Stolz, Lars K Poulsen, Montserrat Fernandez-Rivas, Rudolf Valenta, Ronald van Ree
BACKGROUND: The FAST (food allergy-specific immunotherapy) project aims at developing safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy for fish allergy, using recombinant hypoallergenic carp parvalbumin, Cyp c 1. OBJECTIVES: Preclinical characterization and good manufacturing practice (GMP) production of mutant Cyp (mCyp) c 1. METHODS: Escherichia coli-produced mCyp c 1 was purified using standard chromatographic techniques. Physicochemical properties were investigated by gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry...
2015: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Rudolf Valenta, Heidrun Hochwallner, Birgit Linhart, Sandra Pahr
IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation...
May 2015: Gastroenterology
Pathum Dhanapala, Tim Doran, Mimi L K Tang, Cenk Suphioglu
IgE-mediated allergy to chicken egg affects a large number of children and adults worldwide. The current management strategy for egg allergy is strict avoidance, however this is impractical due to the presence of eggs in a range of foods and pharmaceutical products including vaccines. Strict avoidance also poses nutritional disadvantages due to high nutritional value of eggs. Allergen specific immunotherapy is being pursued as a curative treatment, in which an allergic individual is gradually exposed to the allergen to induce tolerance...
May 2015: Molecular Immunology
Stephanie Albin, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
This article presents an overview of potential treatments of food allergy, with an emphasis on various forms of immunotherapy (including oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, epicutaneous immunotherapy, immunotherapy with modified food antigens, and immunotherapy with a recombinant peanut vaccine). Allergen nonspecific treatments, such as Chinese herbal formulas, probiotics/prebiotics, helminths, monoclonal antibodies, and toll-like receptor agonists, are also summarized.
February 2015: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Katherine Anagnostou, Andrew Clark
Peanut allergy is common and can be a cause of severe, life-threatening reactions. It is rarely outgrown like other food allergies, such as egg and milk. Peanut allergy has a significant effect on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, due to dietary and social restrictions, but mainly stemming from fear of accidental peanut ingestion. The current management consists of strict avoidance, education and provision of emergency medication, but a disease- modifying therapy is needed for peanut allergy...
2014: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Antonio Nieto, Ulrich Wahn, Albrecht Bufe, Philippe Eigenmann, Susanne Halken, Gunilla Hedlin, Arne Høst, Jonathan Hourihane, Jocelyne Just, Gideon Lack, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi, Antonella Muraro, Nikos Papadopoulos, Graham Roberts, Angela Simpson, Erkka Valovirta, Stephan Weidinger, Magnus Wickman, Angel Mazon
Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma...
October 2014: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Corinne A Keet, Robert A Wood
Food allergy is a common condition for which there are currently no approved treatments except avoidance of the allergenic food and treatment of accidental reactions. There are several potential treatments that are under active investigation in animal and human studies, but it is not yet clear what the best approach may be. Here, we review approaches that are currently in clinical trials, including oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, immunotherapy combined with anti-IgE, and Chinese herbal medicine as well as approaches that are in preclinical or early clinical investigation, including modified protein immunotherapy, adjuvants, DNA vaccines, and helminth administration...
May 2014: Journal of Clinical Investigation
C Gómez-Casado, M Garrido-Arandia, P Gamboa, N Blanca-López, G Canto, J Varela, J Cuesta-Herranz, L F Pacios, A Díaz-Perales, L Tordesillas
Nowadays, treatment of food allergy only considered the avoidance of the specific food. However, the possibility of cross-reactivity makes this practice not very effective. Immunotherapy may exhibit as a good alternative to food allergy treatment. The use of hypoallergenic molecules with reduced IgE binding capacity but with ability to stimulate the immune system is a promising tool which could be developed for immunotherapy. In this study, three mutants of Pru p 3, the principal allergen of peach, were produced based on the described mimotope and T cell epitopes, by changing the specific residues to alanine, named as Pru p 3...
2013: Clinical & Developmental Immunology
A Roulias, U Pichler, M Hauser, M Himly, H Hofer, P Lackner, C Ebner, P Briza, B Bohle, M Egger, M Wallner, F Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Birch pollen allergies are frequently associated with adverse reactions to various fruits, nuts, or vegetables, described as pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and caused by cross-reactive IgE antibodies primarily directed against Bet v 1. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) represents an effective treatment for inhalant allergies; however, successful birch pollen SIT does not correlate well with the amelioration of concomitant food allergies. METHODS: As vaccine candidates, apple Mal d 1 as well as hazelnut Cor a 1 derivatives were designed by in silico backbone analyses of the respective allergens...
February 2014: Allergy
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