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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159675/diffusion-weighted-imaging-demystified-the-technique-and-potential-clinical-applications-for-soft-tissue-imaging
#1
REVIEW
Shivani Ahlawat, Laura M Fayad
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement...
November 20, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156593/site-directed-mutagenesis-of-the-fibronectin-domains-in-insulin-receptor-related-receptor
#2
Igor E Deyev, Natalia A Chachina, Egor S Zhevlenev, Alexander G Petrenko
The orphan insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR), in contrast to its close homologs, the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) can be activated by mildly alkaline extracellular medium. We have previously demonstrated that IRR activation is defined by its extracellular region, involves multiple domains, and shows positive cooperativity with two synergistic sites. By the analyses of point mutants and chimeras of IRR with IR in, we now address the role of the fibronectin type III (FnIII) repeats in the IRR pH-sensing...
November 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156331/may-humic-acids-or-mineral-fertilisation-mitigate-arsenic-mobility-and-availability-to-carrot-plants-daucus-carota-l-in-a-volcanic-soil-polluted-by-as-from-irrigation-water
#3
Antonio G Caporale, Paola Adamo, Shah M G G Azam, Maria A Rao, Massimo Pigna
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a widely consumed root vegetable, whose growth and safety might be threatened by growing-medium arsenic (As) contamination. By this work, we evaluated the effects of humic acids from Leonardite and NPK mineral fertilisation on As mobility and availability to carrot plants grown for 60 days in a volcanic soil irrigated with As-contaminated water - representing the most common scenario occurring in As-affected Italian areas. As expected, the irrigation with As-contaminated water caused a serious toxic effect on plant growth and photosynthetic rate; the highest rate of As also inhibited soil enzymatic activity...
November 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154463/establishing-upper-limits-on-neuronal-activity-evoked-ph-changes-with-apt-cest-mri-at-7-t
#4
Vitaliy Khlebnikov, Jeroen C W Siero, Alex A Bhogal, Peter R Luijten, Dennis W J Klomp, Hans Hoogduin
PURPOSE: To detect neuronal activity-evoked pH changes by amide proton transfer-chemical exchange saturation transfer (APT-CEST) MRI at 7 T. METHODS: Three healthy subjects participated in the study. A low-power 3-dimensional APT-CEST sequence was optimized through the Bloch-McConnell equations. pH sensitivity of the sequence was estimated both in phantoms and in vivo. The feasibility of pH-functional MRI was tested in Bloch-McConnell-simulated data using the optimized sequence...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153845/identification-of-abc-transporters-acting-in-vitamin-b12-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Megan K McDonald, Julie-Anne Fritz, Dongxin Jia, Deborah Scheuchner, Floyd F Snyder, Avalyn Stanislaus, Jared Curle, Liang Li, Sally P Stabler, Robert H Allen, Paul E Mains, Roy A Gravel
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is a micronutrient essential to human health. Cbl is not utilized as is but must go through complex subcellular and metabolic processing to generate two cofactor forms: methyl-Cbl for methionine synthase, a cytosolic enzyme; and adenosyl-Cbl for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, a mitochondrial enzyme. Some 10-12 human genes have been identified responsible for the intracellular conversion of Cbl to cofactor forms, including genes that code for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters acting at the lysosomal and plasma membranes...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150592/the-influence-of-genetic-stability-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-and-azole-resistance
#6
Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Pollyne Borborema Almeida de Lima, Rafaela Andrade do Carmo, Marjorie Mendes Marini, José Franco da Silveira, Beatriz Henriques Ferreira, Fernando Rodrigues, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Genetic stability is extremely important for the survival of every living organism and a very complex set of genes have evolved to cope with DNA repair upon DNA damage. Here, we investigated the Aspergillus fumigatus AtmA (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and AtrA kinases and how they impact virulence and the evolution of azole resistance. We demonstrated that A. fumigatus atmA and atrA null mutants are haploid and have a discrete chromosomal polymorphism. The ΔatmA and ΔatrA strains are sensitive to several DNA damaging agents but surprisingly both strains were more resistant than the wild-type strain to paraquat, menadione, and hydrogen peroxide...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150243/effects-of-n-carbamylglutamate-and-l-arginine-on-steroidogenesis-and-gene-expression-in-bovine-granulosa-cells
#7
T Feng, L F Schütz, B C Morrell, M C Perego, L J Spicer
Feeding N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and arginine (ARG) improves reproductive measures in pigs and reduces systemic steroid levels in pregnant ewes. We hypothesized that the effects of NCG and ARG on reproduction were due to direct effects on the ovary. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of NCG and ARG on granulosa cell (GC) steroidogenesis, gene expression, and cell proliferation in vitro. GC were collected from small (1-5mm) bovine follicles and treated in vitro with NCG or ARG in serum-free medium for 24h to 48h...
November 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149758/oligotrophy-as-a-major-driver-of-mercury-bioaccumulation-in-medium-to-high-trophic-level-consumers-a-marine-ecosystem-comparative-study
#8
Tiphaine Chouvelon, Pierre Cresson, Marc Bouchoucha, Christophe Brach-Papa, Paco Bustamante, Sylvette Crochet, Françoise Marco-Miralles, Bastien Thomas, Joël Knoery
Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant of environmental concern. Numerous factors influencing its bioaccumulation in marine organisms have already been described at both individual and species levels (e.g., size or age, habitat, trophic level). However, few studies have compared the trophic characteristics of ecosystems to explain underlying mechanisms of differences in Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification among food webs and systems. The present study aimed at investigating the potential primary role of the trophic status of systems on Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in temperate marine food webs, as shown by their medium-to high-trophic level consumers...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149223/two-genetic-codes-repetitive-syntax-for-active-non-coding-rnas-non-repetitive-syntax-for-the-dna-archives
#9
Guenther Witzany
Current knowledge of the RNA world indicates 2 different genetic codes being present throughout the living world. In contrast to non-coding RNAs that are built of repetitive nucleotide syntax, the sequences that serve as templates for proteins share-as main characteristics-a non-repetitive syntax. Whereas non-coding RNAs build groups that serve as regulatory tools in nearly all genetic processes, the coding sections represent the evolutionarily successful function of the genetic information storage medium. This indicates that the differences in their syntax structure are coherent with the differences of the functions they represent...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147679/dense-fluidized-granular-media-in-microgravity
#10
Philip Born, Johannes Schmitz, Matthias Sperl
Handling and transport of granular media are inevitably governed by the settling of particles. Settling into a dense state is one of the defining characteristics of granular media, among dissipation and absence of thermal agitation. Hence, settling complicates the adaptation of microscopic theories from atomic, molecular, or colloidal media to granular media. It is desirable to provide experiments in which selectively one of the granular characteristics is tuned to test suitable adaptation of a theory. Here we show that gas fluidization of granular media in microgravity is a suitable approach to achieve steady states closer to thermally agitated systems free of settling...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147123/acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-following-coronary-artery-angiography-a-case-report
#11
Majid Hajimaghsoudi, Faezeh Zeinali, Mehrdad Mansouri, Mohammad Hosein Dehghani
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis has different etiologies from biliary stone to metabolic disturbances. Coronary angiography is one of the newly understood etiologies. CASE REPORT: This paper is about a women suffering from acute pancreatitis after coronary angiography. CONCLUSION: Embolization of cholesterol crystals due to vessel wall trauma during coronary angiography as well as contrast medium are responsible for such side effect.
May 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146880/optogenetic-inhibition-of-striatal-gabaergic-neuronal-activity-improves-outcomes-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#12
Lu Jiang, Wanlu Li, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Yaying Song, Yuanyuan Ma, Meijie Qu, Yifan Lu, Xiaosong He, Jieyu Zheng, Zongjie Fu, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Striatal GABAergic neuron is known as a key regulator in adult neurogenesis. However, the specific role of striatal GABAergic neuronal activity in the promotion of neurological recovery after ischemic stroke remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetic approach to investigate these effects and mechanism. METHODS: Laser stimulation was delivered via an implanted optical fiber to inhibit or activate the striatal GABAergic neurons in Gad2-Arch-GFP or Gad2-ChR2-tdTomato mice (n=80) 1 week after 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
November 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146257/klebsiella-sp-confers-enhanced-tolerance-to-salinity-and-plant-growth-promotion-in-oat-seedlings-avena-sativa
#13
Swapnil Sapre, Iti Gontia-Mishra, Sharad Tiwari
Plant growth and yield is adversely affected by soil salinity. Salt tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain IG 3 was isolated from rhizosphere of wheat plants. The isolate IG 3 was able to grow in presence of NaCl ranging from 0 to 20% in Luria Bertani medium. The present study was planned to evaluate the role of inoculation of PGPR strain IG 3 and its efficacy in augmenting salt tolerance in oat (Avena sativa) under NaCl stress (100mM). The physiological parameter such as shoot length, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and relative water content (RWC) were remarkably higher in IG 3 inoculated plants in comparison to un-inoculated plants under NaCl stress...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146184/glutamate-production-from-ammonia-via-glutamate-dehydrogenase-2-activity-supports-cancer-cell-proliferation-under-glutamine-depletion
#14
Yukiko Takeuchi, Yasumune Nakayama, Eiichiro Fukusaki, Yasuhiro Irino
Cancer cells rapidly consume glutamine as a carbon and nitrogen source to support proliferation, but the cell number continues to increase exponentially after glutamine is nearly depleted from the medium. In contrast, cell proliferation rates are strongly depressed when cells are cultured in glutamine-free medium. How cancer cells survive in response to nutrient limitation and cellular stress remains poorly understood. In addition, rapid glutamine catabolism yields ammonia, which is a potentially toxic metabolite that is secreted into the extracellular space...
November 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143185/osteogenic-prospective-of-deriving-human-dental-stem-cells-in-collagen-matrix-boost
#15
Tong-Jing Fang, Ding-Han Wang, Chia-Yu Wang, Raju Poongodi, Nien-Hsien Liou, Jiang-Chuan Liu, Ming-Lun Hsu, Po-Da Hong, Shih-Fang Yang, Meng-Lun Liu
Stem cells derived from oral tissue represent a highly attractive alternative source for clinical bone regeneration because they can be collected by non-invasive or minimally invasive procedures. Herein, we describe the human dental stem cells (DSCs) deriving from buccal fat pads (BFP), dental pulp (DP) of impacted teeth, and periodontal ligaments (PDL) to obtain BFPSCs, DPSCs, and PDLSCs, respectively. Cells were purified with selected medium and expanded through passages in stem cell culture medium. Purified cells were characterized for stemness by their growth rate, immunostaining, and multilineage differentiation ability...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143062/-intracranial-cystic-lesions
#16
REVIEW
F Ahlhelm, K Shariat, S Götschi, S Ulmer
CLINICAL PROBLEM: Intracerebral cysts are common findings in imaging of the neurocranium and are not always clinically significant. The pathological spectrum of intracerebral cysts is, however, very broad and in addition to incidental findings includes developmental disorders, malformation tumors, primary and secondary neoplasms and infectious etiologies, such as cerebral abscess formation, cysticercosis or residuals after congenital cytomegalovirus infections. Intracerebral cystic defects may be caused by inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as multiple sclerosis as well as by mitochondriopathies, leukodystrophy, electrolyte disturbances or osmotic demyelination syndrome or brain infarctions, e...
November 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138282/trajectory-analysis-unveils-reelin-s-role-in-the-directed-migration-of-granule-cells-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#17
Shaobo Wang, Bianka Brunne, Shanting Zhao, Xuejun Chai, Jiawei Li, Jeremie Lau, Antonio Virgilio Failla, Bernd Zobiak, Mirjam Sibbe, Gary L Westbrook, David Lutz, Michael Frotscher
Reelin controls neuronal migration and layer formation. Previous studies in reeler mice deficient in Reelin focused on the result of the developmental process in fixed tissue sections. It has remained unclear whether Reelin affects the migratory process, migration directionality or migrating neurons guided by the radial glial scaffold. Moreover, Reelin has been regarded as an attractive signal, since newly generated neurons migrate toward the Reelin-containing marginal zone. Conversely, Reelin might be a stop signal, since migrating neurons in reeler, but not in wild-type mice, invade the marginal zone...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136290/the-role-of-ca-2-dependent-k-channels-at-the-rat-corticostriatal-synapses-revealed-by-paired-pulse-stimulation
#18
Angel A Robles G, Ana V Vega, Carolina Gonzalez-Sandoval, Jaime Barral
Potassium channels play an important role in modulating synaptic activity both at presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. We have shown before that presynaptically located KV and KIR channels modulate the strength of corticostriatal synapses in rat brain, but the role of other types of potassium channels at these synapses remains largely unknown. Here we show that calcium-dependent potassium channels BK-type but not SK-type channels are located presynaptically in corticostriatal synapses. We stimulated cortical neurons in rat brain slices and recorded postsynaptic excitatory potentials (EPSP) in medium spiny neurons (MSN) in dorsal neostriatum...
November 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136144/antioxidants-improve-ivf-outcome-and-subsequent-embryo-development-in-the-mouse
#19
T Truong, D K Gardner
STUDY QUESTION: What is the effect of a combination of three antioxidants (Acetyl-L-Carnitine, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and α-Lipoic Acid), present in IVF medium during mouse oocyte and sperm collection, on fertilization and subsequent IVF embryo development? SUMMARY ANSWER: A combination of antioxidants resulted in faster developmental times from the 2-cell stage through to expanded blastocyst stage, accompanied by a significant increase in blastocyst cell number and a reduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135235/estimating-the-strength-of-single-chitin-nanofibrils-via-sonication-induced-fragmentation
#20
Yu Bamba, Yu Ogawa, Tsuguyuki Saito, Lars A Berglund, Akira Isogai
We report the mechanical strength of native chitin nanofibrils. Highly crystalline α-chitin nanofibrils were purified from filaments produced by a microalgae Phaeocystis globosa, and two types of β-chitin nanofibrils were purified from pens of a squid Loligo bleekeri and tubes of a tubeworm Lamellibrachia satsuma, with relatively low and high crystallinity, respectively. These chitin nanofibrils were fully dispersed in water. Strength of individualized nanofibrils was estimated using cavitation-induced tensile fracture of nanoscale filaments in a liquid medium...
November 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
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