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contrast mediums

Waleed K Mohammed, Natalio Krasnogor, Nicholas S Jakubovics
The ability of microorganisms to regulate gene expression is thought to be critical for survival and growth during the development of polymicrobial biofilms such as dental plaque. The commensal dental plaque colonizer, Streptococcus gordonii, responds to cell-cell contact (coaggregation) with Actinomyces oris by regulating > 20 genes, including those involved in arginine biosynthesis. We hypothesized that an S. gordonii extracellular protease is critical for sensing by providing amino acids that modulate gene expression...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Ilhem Bouderbala, Nadjia El Saadi, Alassane Bah, Pierre Auger
In this paper, we develop a 3D-individual-based model (IBM) to understand effect of various small-scale mechanisms in phytoplankton cells, on the cellular aggregation process. These mechanisms are: spatial interactions between cells due to their chemosensory abilities (chemotaxis), a molecular diffusion and a demographical process. The latter is considered as a branching process with a density-dependent death rate to take into account the local competition on resources. We implement the IBM and simulate various scenarios under real parameter values for phytoplankton cells...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
Margarita Braunagel, Florian Ortner, Ulf Schönermarck, Antje Habicht, Andreas Schindler, Manfred Stangl, Frederik F Strobl, Maximilian Reiser, Dirk A Clevert, Christoph Trumm, Andreas Helck
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess an optimized renal multiphase computed tomography angiography (MP-CTA) protocol regarding reduction of contrast volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients underwent MP-CTA (12 phases, every 3.5 seconds, 80 kV/120 mAs) using 30 mL of contrast medium. The quality of MP-CTA was assessed quantitatively measuring vessel attenuation, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. MP-CTA was evaluated qualitatively regarding depiction of vessels, cortex differentiation, and motion artifacts (grades 1-4, 1 = best)...
March 12, 2018: Academic Radiology
John O Hwabejire, Daniel D Tran, Terrence M Fullum
The management of adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) has evolved from "the sun should not rise and set on a small bowel obstruction", implying mandatory immediate surgical exploration to selective non-operative management. Not every patient with adhesive small bowel obstruction meets criteria for non-operative management and treating all comers the same way can lead to catastrophic outcomes. Water Soluble Contrast Medium (WSCM) has important diagnostic and therapeutic utility in the management of ASBO and should be employed ab initio...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Ande Rostvall, Wen Zhang, Wiebke Dürig, Gunno Renman, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens, Pablo Gago-Ferrero
This study evaluated the performance of five different sorbents (granular activated carbon (GAC), GAC + Polonite® (GAC + P), Xylit, lignite and sand) for a set of 83 micropollutants (MPs) (pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), personal care products, artificial sweeteners, parabens, pesticide, stimulants), together representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. Treatment with GAC and GAC + P provided the highest removal efficiencies, with average values above 97%. Removal rates were generally lower for Xylit (on average 74%) and lignite (on average 68%), although they proved to be highly efficient for a few individual MPs...
March 6, 2018: Water Research
David B Medeiros, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Werner C Antunes, Wagner L Araújo, Danilo M Daloso, Alisdair R Fernie
Sucrose has long been thought to play an osmolytic role in stomatal opening. However, recent evidence supports the idea that the role of sucrose in this process is primarily energetic. Here we used a combination of stomatal aperture assays coupled with kinetic [U-13 C]-sucrose isotope labelling experiments to confirm that sucrose is degraded during light-induced stomatal opening and to define the fate of the C released from sucrose breakdown. We additionally show that addition of sucrose in the medium did not enhance light-induced stomatal opening...
March 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ayush Bhargava, Jeffrey W Bertrand, Anand K Gramopadhye, Kapil C Madathil, Sabarish V Babu
With costs of head-mounted displays (HMDs) and tracking technology decreasing rapidly, various virtual reality applications are being widely adopted for education and training. Hardware advancements have enabled replication of real-world interactions in virtual environments to a large extent, paving the way for commercial grade applications that provide a safe and risk-free training environment at a fraction of the cost. But this also mandates the need to develop more intrinsic interaction techniques and to empirically evaluate them in a more comprehensive manner...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Satoru Morita, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Kenji Endo, Shingo Suzaki, Akira Mitsuhashi, Takafumi Shiohara, Midori Yatabe, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shuji Sakai
PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of image fusion guidance (IF) with pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) with intraprocedural fluoroscopy for adrenal venous sampling (AVS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: AVS before and after ACTH stimulation including bilateral segmental sampling of effluent tributaries was performed in 62 patients with IF. A 3D volume rendering image, including adrenal glands and veins extracted from previously obtained contrast-enhanced CT images, was manually registered to the real-time X-ray fluoroscopy...
March 14, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Robyn Melanie Benz, Meritxell Alzamora Garcia, Felix Amsler, Johannes Voigt, Andreas Fieselmann, Anna Lucja Falkowski, Bram Stieltjes, Anna Hirschmann
Phantom-based initial performance assessment of a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) x-ray system and comparison of 3-D tomography with computed tomography (CT) were proposed. A 3-D image quality phantom was scanned with a prototype version of 3-D cone-beam CT imaging implemented on a twin robotic x-ray system using three trajectories (163 deg = table, 188 deg = upright, and 200 deg = side), six tube voltages (60, 70, 81, 90, 100, and 121 kV), and four detector doses (0.348, 0.696, 1.740, and [Formula: see text])...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Xiangmin Zhang, Xiangfu Zeng, Lianbin Liu, Xiaolin Lan, Jing Huang, Hongxue Zeng, Rong Li, Keqing Luo, Wei Wu, Maohua Zhou, Shaojin Li
The concentration and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were measured to investigate connections with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, clinical stages, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. There were 30 patients with NPC who met the criteria for inclusion in the present study. The EBV copy number, as well as the concentration and distribution of REE, was analyzed. EBV was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, with the concentrations of REE in NPC tissues measured using inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Fatiha Tetili, Farida Bendali, Josette Perrier, Djamila Sadoun
Staphylococcus aureus is a potential pathogen contaminating raw milk and dairy products, where it is able to produce thermostable enterotoxins that can cause staphylococcal food poisoning. This study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory activity of a Lactococcus lactis strain (isolated from milk) on S. aureus growth and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) production. In the presence of L. lactis , the number of the pathogen decreased significantly (p<0.05) after 6 h of incubation in a laboratory medium and milk (3 log CFU/mL reduction compared to pure cultures)...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Eduardo F Gallo, Jozsef Meszaros, Jeremy D Sherman, Muhammad O Chohan, Eric Teboul, Claire S Choi, Holly Moore, Jonathan A Javitch, Christoph Kellendonk
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) regulate motivated behavior, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we show that selective upregulation of D2Rs in the indirect pathway of the adult NAc enhances the willingness to work for food. Mechanistic studies in brain slices reveal that D2R upregulation attenuates inhibitory transmission at two main output projections of the indirect pathway, the classical long-range projections to the ventral pallidum (VP), as well as local collaterals to direct pathway medium spiny neurons...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Ingrid Boehm, Johannes T Heverhagen
Both iodinated contrast media and gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) can induce immediate hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, iodinated contrast media have been shown to be responsible for delayed or non-immediate reactions that occur 1 h up to several days following iodinated contrast medium-injection. Here we for the first time present a female patient who acquired a delayed reaction after the application of a gadolinium-based contrast agent.
March 11, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Lie Wang, Giri Kumar Chandaka, Robert C Foehring, Joseph C Callaway, William E Armstrong
Oxytocin (OT) neurons exhibit larger afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) following spike trains during pregnancy and lactation, when these neurons burst and release more OT. Calcium-dependent AHPs mediated by SK channels show this plasticity, and are reduced when the channel is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and increased when dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), by altering Ca2+ sensitivity. We compared AHP currents in supraoptic OT neurons after CK2 inhibition with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), or PP1-PP2A inhibition with okadaic acid (OA) focusing on the peak current at 100 ms representing the SK-mediated, medium AHP (ImAHP )...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yu Iwashita, Shigeo Negi, Yuko Iwashita, Masaki Higashiura, Yusuke Shigi, Shintaro Yamanaka, Masaki Ohya, Toru Mima, Takashi Shigematsu
Renocolic fistula is rare. Renal cyst infection is a serious complication in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We present a case of refractory renal cyst infection due to renocolic fistula in a patient with ADPKD. A 65-year-old man with ADPKD on hemodialysis visited our hospital with complaints of fever and left abdominal pain. We diagnosed renal cyst infection with abdominal computed tomography scans. After hospitalization, gas shadow was observed in the left renal cyst. Percutaneous puncture of the cyst was performed...
March 14, 2018: CEN Case Reports
Tetsutaro Matayoshi, Kei Kamide, Ryoichi Tanaka, Tetsuya Fukuda, Takeshi Horio, Yoshio Iwashima, Fumiki Yoshihara, Satoko Nakamura, Hajime Nakahama, Yusuke Ohya, Yuhei Kawano
Background: The results of recent trials have brought some confusion to the treatment strategy for renal artery stenosis (RAS). To evaluate the applicability of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) for RAS, we extracted the factors that may affect the effectiveness of PTRA from cases experienced at a hypertension center. Methods and Results: We retrospectively assessed the blood pressure (BP) lowering effects and renoprotective effects in 50 consecutive patients that had hemodynamically significant RAS and had undergone PTRA and stenting during 2001-2005...
2018: International Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Nouhaud, François Mallard, Rodolphe Poupardin, Neda Barghi, Christian Schlötterer
Fecundity is probably the most frequently studied fitness component in Drosophila. Nevertheless, currently used methods to measure fecundity are not well-suited for large-scale experiments, with many populations being assayed in parallel. Here we present a standardized pipeline to measure fecundity in many Drosophila population samples with substantially reduced hand on times. Using a high-contrast medium for egg laying, we developed a Java plug-in for ImageJ to quantify the number of eggs by image processing...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana R Bastos, Carlos M S Vicente, Rui Oliveira-Silva, Nuno J O Silva, Marta Tacão, João P da Costa, Mário Lima, Paulo S André, Rute A S Ferreira
The development of portable low-cost integrated optics-based biosensors for photonics-on-a-chip devices for real-time diagnosis are of great interest, offering significant advantages over current analytical methods. We report the fabrication and characterization of an optical sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to monitor the growing concentration of bacteria in a liquid medium. The device pattern was imprinted on transparent self-patternable organic-inorganic di-ureasil hybrid films by direct UV-laser, reducing the complexity and cost production compared with lithographic techniques or three-dimensional (3D) patterning using femtosecond lasers...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
Seav-Ly Tran, Claire Jenkins, Valérie Livrelli, Stephanie Schüller
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are characterized by the release of potent Shiga toxins (Stx), which are associated with severe intestinal and renal disease. Although all STEC strains produce Stx, only a few serotypes cause infection in humans. To determine which virulence traits in vitro are linked to human disease in vivo, 13 Stx2a-producing STEC strains of seropathotype (SPT) A or B (associated with severe human intestinal disease and outbreaks) and 6 strains of SPT D or E (rarely or not linked to human disease) were evaluated in a microaerobic human colonic epithelial infection model...
March 13, 2018: Microbiology
Qingdi Quentin Li, Huei-Fung Tsai, Ajeet Mandal, Bryan A Walker, Jason A Noble, Yuichi Fukuda, John E Bennett
Pathogenic fungi, including Candida glabrata, develop strategies to grow and survive both in vitro and in vivo under azole stress. However, the mechanisms by which yeast cells counteract the inhibitory effects of azoles are not completely understood. In the current study, it was demonstrated that the expression of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes ERG2, ERG3, ERG4, ERG10, and ERG11 was significantly upregulated in C. glabrata following fluconazole treatment. Inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis using fluconazole also increased the expression of the sterol influx transporter AUS1 and the sterol metabolism regulators SUT1 and UPC2 in fungal cells...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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