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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228294/accurate-mapping-of-trna-reads
#1
Anne Hoffmann, Jörg Fallmann, Mario Mörl, Peter F Stadler, Fabian Amman
Motivation: Many repetitive DNA elements are transcribed at appreciable expression levels. Mapping the corresponding RNA sequencing reads back to a reference genome is notoriously difficult and error-prone task, however. This is in particular true if chemical modifications introduce systematic mismatches, while at the same time the genomic loci are only approximately identical, as in the case of tRNAs. Results: We therefore developed a dedicated mapping strategy to handle RNA-seq reads that map to tRNAs relying on a modified target genome in which known tRNA loci are masked and instead intronless tRNA precursor sequences are appended as artificial "chromosomes"...
December 8, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226707/managing-anticoagulation-in-patients-receiving-implantable-cardiac-devices
#2
Panagiota Anna Chousou, Peter J Pugh
A substantial proportion of patients who undergo cardiac device implantation receive oral anticoagulation to prevent thromboembolism or antiplatelets to prevent thrombotic events. Anticoagulation and antiplatelets increase the risk of hemorrhagic complications, while discontinuation may increase thromboembolic risk and thrombotic events. With the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant agents and the newer antiplatelet agents such as prasugrel or ticagrelor, the perioperative management of patients has become more challenging...
December 11, 2017: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225163/impact-of-dose-adjusted-melphalan-in-obese-patients-undergoing-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Kendall Shultes, Christopher Arp, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, Kathryn Trinkaus, Sean DeFrates
BACKGROUND: Limited guidance exists for dosing melphalan (MEL) for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the obese patient population as the current literature reports conflicting clinical outcomes between obese and non-obese patients. In 2014, the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation published conditioning chemotherapy dosing guidelines for obese patients and recommended MEL be dosed utilizing actual body weight (ABW) in the body surface area calculation. Practice at Barnes-Jewish Hospital has consistently been to dose MEL using an adjusted body weight (AdBW) with a 20% correction when patients weigh greater than or equal to 120% their ideal body weight (IBW)...
December 7, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224699/measuring-physical-capacity-and-performance-in-older-people
#4
REVIEW
Sarah E Lamb, David J Keene
We highlight the important differences between the concepts of capacity and performance and highlight the development of measures and their application in common conditions encountered in health care practice with older people. A number of expert consensus projects have concluded that mobility, balance, muscle strength and dexterity are core domains for capacity measurement in older people. Instruments with evidence of adequate psychometric properties for the evaluation of capacity in response to intervention programmes include the Short Physical Performance Battery, hand grip strength, mini-BEST and 9-hole pegboard test...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224570/mapping-the-evidence-on-pharmacological-interventions-for-non-affective-psychosis-in-humanitarian-non-specialised-settings-a-unhcr-clinical-guidance
#5
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Corrado Barbui, Charlotte Hanlon, Sudipto Chatterjee, Julian Eaton, Lynne Jones, Derrick Silove, Peter Ventevogel
BACKGROUND: Populations exposed to humanitarian emergencies are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, including new onset, relapse and deterioration of psychotic disorders. Inadequate care for this group may lead to human rights abuses and even premature death. The WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG), and its adaptation for humanitarian settings (mhGAP-HIG), provides guidance for management of mental health conditions by non-specialised healthcare professionals...
December 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224233/review-article-methodology-for-the-rapid-review-series-on-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-the-emergency-department
#6
REVIEW
Kirsten Strudwick, Megan McPhee, Anthony Bell, Melinda Martin-Khan, Trevor Russell
Musculoskeletal injuries are a common presentation to the ED, with significant costs involved in the management of these injuries, variances in care within the ED and associated morbidity. A series of rapid review papers were completed to guide best practice for the assessment and management of common musculoskeletal injuries presenting to the ED. This paper presents the methodology used across the rapid reviews. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, TRIP and the grey literature, including relevant organisational websites, were searched in 2015...
December 10, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219878/community-based-management-of-multiple-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania-a-best-practice-implementation-project
#7
Isaya Jelly, Micah D J Peters
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has prioritized collaboration with communities in its 2016 "End TB" implementation strategy. Acknowledging the difficulties that some communities face in gaining access to health facilities due to barriers such as stigma, discrimination, healthcare expenditure, transport and income loss, partnering with communities in the roll-out of community-based TB management activities is vital. AIM: The aim of this project was to make a contribution to promoting evidence-based practice with regards to the community-based management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Kibong'oto National Infectious Disease Hospital, Tanzania, and thereby supporting improvements in patient outcomes and resource utilization...
December 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219094/a-collaborative-approach-to-adopting-adapting-guidelines-the-australian-24-hour-movement-guidelines-for-the-early-years-birth-to-5-years-an-integration-of-physical-activity-sedentary-behavior-and-sleep
#8
Anthony D Okely, Davina Ghersi, Kylie D Hesketh, Rute Santos, Sarah P Loughran, Dylan P Cliff, Trevor Shilton, David Grant, Rachel A Jones, Rebecca M Stanley, Julie Sherring, Trina Hinkley, Stewart G Trost, Clare McHugh, Simon Eckermann, Karen Thorpe, Karen Waters, Timothy S Olds, Tracy Mackey, Rhonda Livingstone, Hayley Christian, Harriette Carr, Adam Verrender, João R Pereira, Zhiguang Zhang, Katherine L Downing, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: In 2017, the Australian Government funded the update of the National Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0-5 years, with the intention that they be an integration of movement behaviours across the 24-h period. The benefit for Australia was that it could leverage research in Canada in the development of their 24-h guidelines for the early years. Concurrently, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group published a model to produce guidelines based on adoption, adaption and/or de novo development using the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218898/building-trans-omics-evidence-using-imaging-and-omics-to-characterize-cancer-profiles
#9
Arunima Srivastava, Chaitanya Kulkarni, Parag Mallick, Kun Huang, Raghu Machiraju
Utilization of single modality data to build predictive models in cancer results in a rather narrow view of most patient profiles. Some clinical facet s relate strongly to histology image features, e.g. tumor stages, whereas others are associated with genomic and proteomic variations (e.g. cancer subtypes and disease aggression biomarkers). We hypothesize that there are coherent "trans-omics" features that characterize varied clinical cohorts across multiple sources of data leading to more descriptive and robust disease characterization...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216440/an-interdisciplinary-approach-to-implementing-a-best-practice-guideline-in-public-health
#10
Lisa Prowd, Denna Leach, Hazel Lynn, May Tao
This article describes how one Ontario Public Health Unit implemented a best practice guideline throughout the organization and across disciplines to achieve best practice outcomes in the delivery of client-centered care. Integration of evidence-informed practice presents challenges for both implementation and sustainability. Applying a best practice guideline in the public health setting can add to the challenge. To address this, a variety of interventions were applied: building an interdisciplinary team, adapting a Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario Best Practice Guideline to reflect public health practice for nursing and other disciplines, developing a working definition of "client," engaging staff in knowledge translation, developing policy to support practice change, and incorporating client-centered care principles into daily practice...
December 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215904/practice-procedures-in-models-of-primary-care-collaboration-for-children-with-adhd
#11
Jessica A Moore, Kathryn Karch, Valeriia Sherina, Aubree Guiffre, Sandra Jee, Lynn C Garfunkel
INTRODUCTION: With nationwide movement toward an integrated medical home, evidence to support, compare, and specify effective models for collaboration between primary care and behavioral health professionals is essential. This study compared 2 models of primary care with behavioral health integration on American Academy of Pediatrics guideline adherence for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment and treatment. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective chart review of a random sample of children aged 6-13 years, seen for ADHD services in 2 primary care offices, 1 fully integrated model and 1 co-located service only model, comparing ADHD assessment and treatment practices...
December 7, 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214904/noise-induced-hearing-loss-what-south-african-mine-workers-know
#12
Amisha Kanji, Katijah Khoza-Shangase, Liepollo Ntlhakana
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to investigate the knowledge of mine workers regarding noise induced hearing loss in the South African gold and non-ferrous mining subsectors. METHOD: A descriptive research design was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on 90 participants who comprised managers, supervisors and miners. Data was analysed qualitatively. RESULTS: The majority of participants (97%) acknowledged working in a noisy environment and demonstrated knowledge of the consequences of this exposure on their hearing function...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212438/the-intensity-and-timing-of-sex-offender-treatment
#13
Andrew Day, Stuart Ross, Sharon Casey, James Vess, Diana Johns, Gaynor Hobbs
Current evidence about the impact of specialized sex offender treatment on reoffending remains inconsistent, drawing attention to the need to focus more on those program characteristics that potentially moderate outcome. This review considers current professional perspectives and evidence on two defining aspects of treatment: its intensity and timing. It is concluded that insufficient evidence currently exists to articulate best practice in this area and there is a pressing need to collect empirical evidence about the effectiveness of different intensity treatments offered at different stages of sentence...
December 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212346/palliative-care-providers-practices-surrounding-psychological-distress-screening-and-treatment-a-national-survey
#14
Elissa Kozlov, Claude Eghan, Sheila Moran, Keela Herr, M Carrington Reid
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how inpatient palliative care teams nationwide currently screen for and treat psychological distress. METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to inpatient palliative care providers of all disciplines nationwide asking about their practice patterns regarding psychological assessment and treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and responses, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether certain disciplines were more likely to utilize specific treatment modalities...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211040/promoting-long-term-health-among-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-what-s-new
#15
Mary Ann McColl, Shikha Gupta, Karen Smith, Alexander McColl
A key ingredient to successful health promotion is a primary care provider who can offer an informed first response to lifestyle issues, emerging problems and chronic challenges. This article aims to assist family physicians to play their role in promoting the health of people with SCI, by summarizing the latest evidence in the management of spinal cord injury in primary care. This study used a scoping review methodology to survey peer-reviewed journal articles and clinical guidelines published between January 2012 to June 2016...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210494/systematic-review-of-aged-care-interventions-for-older-prisoners
#16
Bruce A Stevens, Rhonda Shaw, Peter Bewert, Mavis Salt, Rebecca Alexander, Brendan Loo Gee
OBJECTIVE: The care of older prisoners is a growing problem. This review examined aged care interventions in prisons. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. A total of 1186 abstracts were screened for inclusion. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included. RESULTS: Two quantitative studies and five qualitative studies examined aged care interventions (n = 7)...
December 6, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207742/use-of-multi-response-format-test-in-the-assessment-of-medical-students-critical-thinking-ability
#17
Mahboobeh Khabaz Mafinejad, Seyyed Kamran Soltani Arabshahi, Alireza Monajemi, Mohammad Jalili, Akbar Soltani, Javad Rasouli
Introduction: To evaluate students critical thinking skills effectively, change in assessment practices is must. The assessment of a student's ability to think critically is a constant challenge, and yet there is considerable debate on the best assessment method. There is evidence that the intrinsic nature of open and closed-ended response questions is to measure separate cognitive abilities. Aim: To assess critical thinking ability of medical students by using multi-response format of assessment...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207454/podcasting-in-medical-education-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
Daniel Cho, Michael Cosimini, Juan Espinoza
Podcasts are increasingly being used for medical education, both within teaching institutions and on an international scale by major journals. To date, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the development of educational podcasts. To review the state of the literature, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and ERIC were searched in May 2016 for articles describing audio format podcasts used in medical education. Eighty-four articles met inclusion criteria. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence was done using Kirkpatrick's model for evaluating outcomes...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205275/antenatal-maternal-education-for-improving-postnatal-perineal-healing-for-women-who-have-birthed-in-a-hospital-setting
#19
REVIEW
Sonia M O'Kelly, Zena Eh Moore
BACKGROUND: The female perineum becomes suffused and stretched during pregnancy, and further strain during vaginal childbirth contributes to approximately 85% of women experiencing some degree of trauma to the perineal region. Multiple factors play a role in the type and severity of trauma experienced, including parity, delivery method, and local practices. There is ongoing debate about best midwifery practice to reduce perineal trauma. Once perineal trauma has occurred, treatment also varies greatly, depending on its degree and severity, local practice and customs, and personal preference...
December 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204069/the-role-of-focal-laser-in-the-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-era
#20
REVIEW
Jason N Crosson, Lauren Mason, John O Mason
Introduction: To review important studies examining focal laser for diabetic macular edema (DME), to examine real-world data regarding actual treatments patients are receiving, to present long-term visual outcomes in real-world practice, and to suggest an evidence-based approach for the use of focal laser. Methods: This study is a review of landmark studies evaluating focal laser and pharmacologic therapy for DME. In addition, the authors include a retrospective review of 102 consecutive eyes of 53 patients in our practice setting in rural Alabama...
2017: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
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