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dominant follicle

C P Bianchi, M A Benavente, M Simonetti, M A Aba
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol based on GnRH and PGF2α to synchronize the emergence of a new wave of ovarian follicular development in llamas and, therefore, when a new dominant follicle develops. Llamas (n = 18) were assigned to growing, mature or regressing follicle groups according to the phase of the follicular wave at the beginning of treatment. The protocol was initiated with a GnRH analogue (GnRHa) injection on Day 0 followed 7 days later with a d-cloprostenol injection and a second GnRHa injection on Day 10...
March 11, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Sheena L P Regan, Phil G Knight, John L Yovich, Yee Leung, Frank Arfuso, Arun Dharmarajan
Primordial germ cells migrate to the fetal gonads and proliferate during gestation to generate a fixed complement of primordial follicles, the so-called ovarian reserve. Primordial follicles comprise an oocyte arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis, surrounded by a layer of pregranulosa cells. Activation of primordial follicles to grow beyond this arrested stage is of particular interest because, once activated, they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms involved in growth, selection, maturation, and ultimately, ovulation or atresia...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
O J Ginther, R R Domingues, S V Dangudubiyyam, E R Araujo
Diameter deviation or follicle selection during a follicular wave begins with continuous growth rate of F1 (dominant or selected follicle; DF) and decreasing growth rate of F2 (largest subordinate). Intraovarian patterns based on presence or absence of the DF and CL are DF-CL, DF, CL, and devoid (neither DF nor CL). The DF and CL relationships in a pair of ovaries are ipsilateral (DF-CL pattern and devoid pattern) and contralateral (DF pattern and CL pattern). The effects of patterns and relationships on F1, F2, and FSH during deviation were determined in 21 mares...
February 24, 2018: Theriogenology
Sylvie Jaillard, Elena J Tucker, Linda Akloul, Marion Beaumont, Mathilde Domin, Laurent Pasquier, Guilhem Jouve, Sylvie Odent, Marc-Antoine Belaud-Rotureau, Célia Ravel
Ovarian reserve represents the number of available follicles/oocytes within ovaries and it can be assessed by follicle stimulating hormone levels, anti-Müllerian hormone levels, and/or antral follicle count determined by ultrasounds. A low ovarian reserve is defined by an abnormal ovarian reserve test. This condition can be considered premature if it occurs before the age of 40, leading to premature ovarian insufficiency. Despite the growing knowledge concerning the genetic basis of ovarian deficiency, the majority of cases remain without a genetic diagnosis...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
M P De Cesaro, J T Dos Santos, J G Ferst, J E Nóbrega, Pra Rosa, M T Rovani, G F Ilha, R C Bohrer, R Ferreira, B G Gasperin, V Bordignon, Pbd Gonçalves
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are known to regulate reproductive events in polyovulatory species, but their function and regulation in monovulatory species remain to be fully characterized. Using a well-established in vivo model, we found that bovine granulosa cells from follicles near the deviation stage express mRNA for the three NP receptors (NPR1, NPR2 and NPR3), but not for NP precursors (NPPA, NPPB and NPPC). The abundance of NPR3 mRNA was higher in dominant compared to subordinate follicles at the expected time of follicular deviation...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Mohamad Irani, Stephen Chow, Derek Keating, Simone Elder, Zev Rosenwaks, Gianpiero Palermo
The objective of this study was to identify sperm score thresholds to achieve satisfactory intrauterine insemination (IUI) success rates according to the response to stimulation with clomiphene citrate (CC). To minimize the confounding effect of female age, we included only CC/IUI cycles of women ≤35 years old. A total of 1,194 CC/IUI cycles were included. Semen volume, concentration, and motility influenced the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Normal morphology (≥4%) was associated with a comparable CPR with 3%, 2%, and 1% normal forms (15...
February 20, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Richard G Tait, Robert A Cushman, Anthony K McNeel, Eduardo Casas, Timothy P L Smith, Harvey C Freetly, Gary L Bennett
Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to equalize CAPN1 haplotypes, CAST, and GHR genetic marker frequencies. The objective was to estimate the pleiotropic effects of these carcass quality oriented markers for body weight, reproduction, and first calf performance traits in 174 replacement beef females which were managed under 2 post-weaning development protocols...
February 3, 2018: Theriogenology
Anna E Zielak-Steciwko, John A Browne
Micro RNAs (miRNA) are integral components of genetic regulatory networks and act by binding to the transcripts of their corresponding target genes, leading to a decrease in protein production levels either by mRNA degradation or by translational repression. While the role of miRNAs is ubiquitous, they have a particular importance with regard to cell differentiation. The miRNA-target mRNA interaction has a significant impact on many signaling pathways and the cross-talk between them; playing a regulatory role in a variety of different physiological processes within the cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
K Agrawal, Shalini Gainder, Lakhbir K Dhaliwal, Vanita Suri
Objective: To determine the efficacy of the stair-step protocol (SSP) using clomiphene citrate (CC) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compare it with traditional regimen. Design: This was randomized control trial. Setting: Infertility Clinic. Patients: Sixty infertile PCOS women. Interventions: Patients were randomized into the study (SSP - 30 patients) and control group (traditional protocol - 30 patients)...
October 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
I Y H Martinez, A P C Santos, M P Bottino, R E Orlandi, G Santos, L M S Simões, J C Souza, A M G Díaza, M Binelli, J N S Sales
The growth profiles of the future dominant follicle (DF) and subordinate follicle (SF) and the gene expression of the granulosa cells during luteolysis induction in Bos indicus cows were evaluated. Forty cows were synchronized with a progesterone and estradiol based protocol. After synchronization, cows with a corpus luteum (CL) were evaluated by ultrasonography every 12 h, beginning at eight days post ovulation. Cows identified with a follicle of at least 6.0 mm in diameter in the second wave were split into two groups (BD-before follicular deviation and AD-after follicular deviation...
February 2, 2018: Theriogenology
Alexandre B Prata, Jéssica N Drum, Leonardo F Melo, Estela R Araujo, Roberto Sartori
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eCG or hCG on the final growth of the dominant follicle in Nelore (Bos indicus) cows submitted to fixed-time AI (FTAI). Eighty-four lactating cows with body condition score (BCS) of 2.9 (range 1-5) were used. At a random day of the estrous cycle (D0) cows received 2 mg estradiol benzoate and a reused intravaginal progesterone device (1.9 g). At D8, when the device was removed, 0.5 mg cloprostenol and 1 mg estradiol cypionate was given i.m., and cows were randomly assigned to receive on D8 one of the following treatments: Control (no treatment; n = 17), eCG (300 IU i...
January 31, 2018: Theriogenology
Alvaro García-Guerra, Aurea M O Canavessi, Pedro L J Monteiro Jr, Megan A Mezera, Roberto Sartori, Brian W Kirkpatrick, Milo C Wiltbank
The acquisition of dominance and ovulatory capacity was evaluated in follicles from cows that were carriers or half-sibling non-carriers of the Trio allele. Follicle size at acquisition of follicular dominance was determined by evaluating whether follicles ovulate after GnRH challenge (ovulatory capacity-experiment 1) and by determination of intra-follicular concentrations of estradiol and free IGF1 and relative mRNA expression of CYP19A1, LHCGR, and PAPPA in granulosa cells from follicles of different sizes (experiment 2)...
February 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Alvaro Garcia-Guerra, Mamat H Kamalludin, Brian W Kirkpatrick, Milo C Wiltbank
The newly-discovered Trio high-fecundity allele produces multiple ovulations in cattle. The present study evaluated: 1) Size and growth rates of follicles in Trio carriers during a synchronized follicular wave, induced by follicle aspiration, 2) FSH patterns associated with the follicular wave, 3) Size of corpora lutea (CL) and circulating progesterone, and 4) Intra-follicular estradiol concentrations prior to normal deviation. Trio carriers had mean dominant follicles that were significantly smaller in diameter and volume than non-carriers...
February 7, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
A D Rodrigues, R F Cooke, R S Cipriano, L G T Silva, R L A Cerri, L H Cruppe, M Meneghetti, K G Pohler, J L M Vasconcelos
This experiment evaluated the impacts of estrus expression and intensity, estimated by physical activity during a timed-AI protocol, on reproductive performance of Bos indicus-influenced beef cows. A total of 290 lactating, primiparous and multiparous non-pregnant Nelore × Angus cows received a 2 mg injection of estradiol benzoate and an intravaginal progesterone (P4) releasing device (CIDR) on d -11, a 12.5 mg injection of PGF2α on d -4, CIDR removal in addition to 0.6 mg injection of estradiol cypionate and 300 IU injection of eCG on d -2, and timed-AI on d 0...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
T Moonmanee, C Navanukraw, P Yama, J Jitjumnong
A greater understanding of the uterine artery's (UtA) biology is essential to the increase in female reproductive abilities. The UtA flow velocity waveform, blood flow volume (BFV), pulsatility and resistance indices (PI and RI), blood flow velocities, dynamics of the dominant follicle (DF), and estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels in an induced ovulatory cycle were evaluated in Thai native cattle. Twenty cows were induced with synchronized ovulation through a P4-releasing device, from Day -9 to Day -4, concurrent with the administration of two doses of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone on Day -9 and Day -1, and two doses of prostaglandin F2α on Day -4 and 8 h later...
January 25, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Marcos C Abalos, Francisco Acuña, Andrea K Cancino, Juan F Aller
The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of exogenous GnRH administered 7 days after breeding on the formation of an accessory corpus luteum (ACL), plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and pregnancy rates. Adult females (n = 71) having a follicle ≥ 7 mm in diameter in the ovary were naturally mated (Day 0). On Day 7, ultrasonic examination was performed to confirm the occurrence of ovulation as evidenced by presence of an induced corpus luteum (ICL). Females with an ICL plus a dominant follicle ≥ 7 mm (n = 56) were treated with saline solution (SS, n = 29) or GnRH analogue (n = 27)...
January 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Sergio Romero, Ricardo Pella, Francisco Escudero, Ygor Pérez, Mario García, Patricia Orihuela
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of ovarian follicular dominance on the outcome of oocyte in-vitro maturation. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 21 patients with polycystic ovaries or polycystic ovary syndrome (Rotterdam criteria, 2004) subjected to 24 in-vitro maturation (IVM) cycles between October 2015 and January 2017. Patients undergoing IVM received minimal gonadotropin stimulation starting on day 2 or 3 of the cycle; ovum pick-up typically occurred on days 6 to 8...
January 17, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Mikyung Kim, Ae-Ran Kim, Hyo-Ju Park, Ojin Kwon, Joo-Hee Kim, Eun-Ji Park, Seon-Eun Baek, Jeong-Eun Yoo, Jun-Hwan Lee
BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of Danggwijagyaksan (DJS) for alleviating climacteric syndrome in peri- and postmenopausal women with a blood-deficiency dominant pattern. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial. A total of 34 women with climacteric syndrome who have signed informed consent forms will be registered in this study. Placebo or DJS will be randomly assigned to the participants in an equal proportion...
January 15, 2018: Trials
A F Stassi, M E Baravalle, E M Belotti, A N Amweg, E Angeli, M M L Velázquez, F Rey, N R Salvetti, H H Ortega
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. The main signs of this infertility are ovulation failure and follicular persistence. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 in ovarian follicular structures at different times of persistence in a model of follicular persistence induced by prolonged administration of progesterone in dairy cows. Protein expression of IL-1β, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry...
January 3, 2018: Theriogenology
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