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cardiovascular molecular imaging

Henrike Knacke, Maik Pietzner, Kieu Trinh Do, Werner Römisch-Margl, Gabi Kastenmüller, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Jan Krumsiek, Anna Artati, Henri Wallaschofski, Matthias Nauck, Karsten Suhre, Jerzy Adamski, Nele Friedrich
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) is known for its various physiological and severe pathophysiological effects on human metabolism, however underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unsolved. To reveal possible molecular mechanisms mediating these effects, for the first time we associated serum IGF-I levels with multi-fluid untargeted metabolomics data. METHODS: Plasma/urine samples of 995 non-diabetic participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were characterized by mass spectrometry...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Srijita Sen-Chowdhry, Daniel Jacoby, James C Moon, William J McKenna
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder, affecting 1 in 500 individuals worldwide. Existing epidemiological studies might have underestimated the prevalence of HCM, however, owing to limited inclusion of individuals with early, incomplete phenotypic expression. Clinical manifestations of HCM include diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, ischaemia, atrial fibrillation, abnormal vascular responses and, in 5% of patients, progression to a 'burnt-out' phase characterized by systolic impairment...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Junxin Wang, Fang Chen, Santiago J Arconada-Alvarez, James Hartanto, Li-Peng Yap, Ryan Park, Fang Wang, Ivetta Vorobyova, Grant Dagliyan, Peter S Conti, Jesse V Jokerst
Heparin anticoagulation therapy is an indispensable feature of clinical care yet has a narrow therapeutic window and is the second most common intensive care unit (ICU) medication error. The active partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) monitors heparin but suffers from long turnaround times, a variable reference range, limited utility with low molecular weight heparin, and poor correlation to dose. Here, we describe a photoacoustic imaging technique to monitor heparin concentration using methylene blue as a simple and Federal Drug Administration-approved contrast agent...
September 28, 2016: Nano Letters
Markus Schwaiger, Karl Kunze, Christoph Rischpler, Stephan G Nekolla
After the successful introduction of PET/CT as a multimodality imaging technique, PET/MR has subsequently emerged as an attractive instrumentation for applications in neurology, oncology, and cardiology. Simultaneous data acquisition combining structural, functional, and molecular imaging provides a unique platform to link various aspects of cardiac performance for the non-invasive characterization of cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Specifically, tissue characterization by MR techniques with and without contrast agents allows for functional parameters such as LGE, myocardial perfusion, and T1 maps as well as an estimate of extracellular volume...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Thomas Hellmut Schindler
With the recent advent of PET/MRI scanners, the combination of molecular imaging with a variety of known and novel PET radiotracers, the high spatial resolution of MRI, and its potential for multi-parametric imaging are anticipated to increase the diagnostic accuracy in cardiovascular disease detection, while providing novel mechanistic insights into the initiation and progression of the disease state. For the time being, cardiac PET/MRI emerges as potential clinical tool in the identification and characterization of infiltrative cardiac diseases, such as sarcoidosis, acute or chronic myocarditis, and cardiac tumors, respectively...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Carolin Reimann, Julia Brangsch, Federico Colletini, Thula Walter, Bernd Hamm, Rene M Botnar, Marcus R Makowski
This review summarizes the current status of molecular imaging of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the context of atherosclerosis. Apart from cellular components, the ECM of the atherosclerotic plaque plays a relevant role during the initiation of atherosclerosis and its' subsequent progression. Important structural and signaling components of the ECM include elastin, collagen and fibrin. However, the ECM not only plays a structural role in the arterial wall but also interacts with different cell types and has important biological signaling functions...
September 14, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Sedigheh Rezaeianpour, Atefeh Hajiagha Bozorgi, Abolghasem Moghimi, Ameneh Almasi, Saeed Balalaie, Sorour Ramezanpour, Sanaz Nasoohi, Seyed Mohammad Mazidi, Parham Geramifar, Ahmad Bitarafan-Rajabi, Soraya Shahhosseini
PURPOSE: Many patients worldwide suffer from cardiovascular diseases for which an underlying factor is thrombosis. Devising a molecular imaging technique for early detection of thrombosis in a clinical setting is highly recommended. Because fibrin is a major constituent of clots and is present in all types of thrombi but absent in circulation, it is a highly specific and sensitive target for molecular imaging of thrombi. It is assumed that cyclization of peptides will improve the receptor binding affinity and stability of the peptide...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Hayk Simonyan, Chansol Hurr, Colin N Young
Bioluminescence imaging is an effective tool for in vivo investigation of molecular processes. We have demonstrated the applicability of bioluminescence imaging to spatiotemporally monitor gene expression in cardioregulatory brain nuclei during the development of cardiovascular disease, via incorporation of firefly luciferase into living animals, combined with exogenous d-luciferin substrate administration. Nevertheless, d-luciferin uptake into the brain tissue is low, which decreases the sensitivity of bioluminescence detection, particularly when considering small changes in gene expression in tiny central areas...
October 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
James T Thackeray, Frank M Bengel
The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling...
December 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Thorsten Derlin, Johannes Thiele, Desiree Weiberg, James T Thackeray, Klaus Püschel, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Lukas Aguirre Dávila, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Günter Daum, Frank M Bengel, Udo Schumacher
OBJECTIVE: Intraplaque neovascularization contributes to the progression and rupture of atherosclerotic lesions. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is strongly expressed by endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature and plays a major role in hypoxia-induced neovascularization in rodent models of benign diseases. We hypothesized that GCPII expression may play a role in intraplaque neovascularization and may represent a target for imaging of atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine frequency, pattern, and clinical correlates of vessel wall uptake of a (68)Ga-GCPII ligand for positron emission tomographic imaging...
September 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Chiara Verdelli, Sabrina Corbetta
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the third most common endocrine disease. Kidney is a target of both chronic elevated PTH and calcium in PHPT. The classic PHPT complications of symptomatic kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis have become rare and the PHPT current presentation is asymptomatic with uncertain and long lasting progression. Nonetheless, the routinely use of imaging and of biochemical determinations have revealed the frequent occurrence of asymptomatic kidney stones, hypercalciuria and reduced kidney function in asymptomatic PHPT patients...
September 6, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Furong Tian, João Conde, Chenchen Bao, Yunsheng Chen, James Curtin, Daxiang Cui
The application of plasmonic-enhanced Raman imaging of cancer cells and drug delivery is gaining momentum. Here, we propose a new theranostic strategy based on an efficient plasmonic-tunable Raman/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy imaging, to simultaneously evaluate the anticancer drug scattering cellular imaging and the Raman scattering molecular vibration signals in living cells. This technique allows to monitoring the drug release throughout the cell cycle and in vivo biodistribution and biocompatibility with low dose drug therapy (200 μg/mL) and low toxicity effect...
November 2016: Biomaterials
Selda Goktas, Fazil E Uslu, William J Kowalski, Erhan Ermek, Bradley B Keller, Kerem Pekkan
The role of hemodynamic forces within the embryo as biomechanical regulators for cardiovascular morphogenesis, growth, and remodeling is well supported through the experimental studies. Furthermore, clinical experience suggests that perturbed flow disrupts the normal vascular growth process as one etiology for congenital heart diseases (CHD) and for fetal adaptation to CHD. However, the relationships between hemodynamics, gene expression and embryonic vascular growth are poorly defined due to the lack of concurrent, sequential in vivo data...
2016: PloS One
Anne S Ersbøll, Peter Damm, Finn Gustafsson, Niels G Vejlstrup, Marianne Johansen
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare but potentially fatal disease defined by heart failure towards the end of pregnancy or in the months following delivery. We aim to raise awareness of the condition and give the clinician an overview of current knowledge on the mechanisms of pathophysiology, diagnostics and clinical management MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic literature searches were performed in PubMed and Embase up to June 2016. Cohorts of more than 20 women with PPCM conducted after 2000 were selected to report contemporary outcomes and prognostic data...
August 22, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Ihab Abd-Elrahman, Hisanori Kosuge, Tommy Wises Sadan, Yael Ben-Nun, Karen Meir, Chen Rubinstein, Matthew Bogyo, Michael V McConnell, Galia Blum
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, mainly due to an increasing prevalence of atherosclerosis characterized by inflammatory plaques. Plaques with high levels of macrophage infiltration are considered "vulnerable" while those that do not have significant inflammation are considered stable; cathepsin protease activity is highly elevated in macrophages of vulnerable plaques and contributes to plaque instability. Establishing novel tools for non-invasive molecular imaging of macrophages in plaques could aid in preclinical studies and evaluation of therapeutics...
2016: PloS One
Christakis Constantinides, Kathy Murphy
To-this-date, the exact molecular, cellular, and integrative physiological mechanisms of anesthesia remain largely unknown. Published evidence indicates that anesthetic effects are multifocal and occur in a time-dependent and coordinated manner, mediated via central, local, and peripheral pathways. Their effects can be modulated by a range of variables, and their elicited end-effect on the integrative physiological response is highly variable. This review summarizes the major cellular and molecular sites of anesthetic action with a focus on the paradigm of isoflurane (ISO) - the most commonly used anesthetic nowadays - and its use in prolonged in vivo rodent studies using imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Adam K McDiarmid, Sven Plein, Heather J Ross
Improvements in survival after cardiac transplantation have in part been driven by improved graft surveillance. Graft surveillance relies mainly on 3 techniques: coronary angiography, endomyocardial biopsy and echocardiography. Developments in invasive and non-invasive imaging technology have revolutionized assessment of the heart in both health and disease, offering new insights into tissue composition and myocardial metabolism. Herein we aim to review the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques, and summarize the evidence in the following 5 fields of cardiac imaging after transplantation: cardiovascular magnetic resonance; computed tomography; positron emission tomography; single-photon emission computed tomography; and optical coherence tomography and molecular imaging techniques...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Despina Bournele, Dimitris Beis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The most significant risk factors associated with the development of heart diseases include genetic and environmental factors such as hypertension, high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Coronary artery disease accounts for the highest percentage of CVD deaths and stroke, cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, heart valve defects and arrhythmias follow. The causes, prevention, and treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies published on a weekly basis...
August 8, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Gianfranco Sinagra, Marco Anzini, Naveen L Pereira, Rossana Bussani, Gherardo Finocchiaro, Jozef Bartunek, Marco Merlo
Myocarditis is a polymorphic disease characterized by great variability in clinical presentation and evolution. Patients presenting with severe left ventricular dysfunction and life-threatening arrhythmias represent a demanding challenge for the clinician. Modern techniques of cardiovascular imaging and the exhaustive molecular evaluation of the myocardium with endomyocardial biopsy have provided valuable insight into the pathophysiology of this disease, and several clinical registries have unraveled the disease's long-term evolution and prognosis...
September 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Anthony Gramolini, Edward Lau, Peter P Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2016: Circulation
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