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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785143/pilot-study-of-the-antifibrotic-effects-of-the-multikinase-inhibitor-pacritinib-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-fibrosis
#1
Suliman Al-Fayoumi, Taishi Hashiguchi, Yuka Shirakata, John Mascarenhas, Jack W Singer
Background: Fibrotic diseases result from an exuberant response to chronic inflammation. Myelofibrosis is the end result of inflammation in bone, caused by an inflammatory process triggered by production of abnormal myeloid cells driven by mutations affecting the JAK-STAT pathway. Inflammatory cytokine overproduction leads to increased mesenchymal cell proliferation, culminating in fibrosis. Although JAK2 inhibitors, such as the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib and the JAK2/FLT3/CSF1R/IRAK1 inhibitor pacritinib suppress abnormal clone expansion in myelofibrosis, ruxolitinib does not appear to prevent or reverse bone-marrow fibrosis in most patients...
2018: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784193/adjuvant-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-targeted-therapy-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-pooled-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Maxine Sun, Lorenzo Marconi, Tim Eisen, Bernard Escudier, Rachel H Giles, Naomi B Haas, Lauren C Harshman, David I Quinn, James Larkin, Sumanta K Pal, Thomas Powles, Christopher W Ryan, Cora N Sternberg, Robert Uzzo, Toni K Choueiri, Axel Bex
CONTEXT: Contradictory data exist with regard to adjuvant vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted therapy in surgically managed patients for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the current evidence regarding the therapeutic benefit (disease-free survival [DFS] and overall survival [OS]) and grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) for adjuvant VEGFR-targeted therapy for resected localized RCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A critical review of PubMed/Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library in January 2018 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement was performed...
May 18, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783587/re-randomized-phase-iii-trial-of-adjuvant-pazopanib-versus-placebo-after-nephrectomy-in-patients-with-localized-or-locally-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782648/patient-preferences-for-topical-treatment-of-actinic-keratoses-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#4
D Kopasker, A Kwiatkowski, R N Matin, C A Harwood, F Ismail, J T Lear, J Thomson, Z Hasan, G N Wali, A Milligan, L Crawford, I Ahmed, H Duffy, C M Proby, P F Allanson
BACKGROUND: Treatment of actinic keratoses (AK) is a potentially effective strategy for prevention of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). However, the patient perspective on potential benefits of AK treatment in terms of skin cancer reduction has received little attention to date. OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate patient preferences for AK topical treatments using a discrete choice experiment (DCE); (2) To evaluate patient willingness to trade between clinical benefit and medical burden...
May 21, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776344/risk-factors-for-esophageal-fistula-in-thoracic-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-invading-adjacent-organs-treated-with-definitive-chemoradiotherapy-a-monocentric-case-control-study
#5
Takeshi Kawakami, Takahiro Tsushima, Katsuhiro Omae, Hirofumi Ogawa, Hiromichi Shirasu, Yosuke Kito, Yukio Yoshida, Satoshi Hamauchi, Akiko Todaka, Nozomu Machida, Tomoya Yokota, Kentaro Yamazaki, Akira Fukutomi, Yusuke Onozawa, Hirofumi Yasui
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for unresectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) without distant metastasis is definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT), in which the incidence of esophageal fistula (EF) is reported to be 10-12%. An ad hoc analysis of JCOG0303, a phase II/III trial of dCRT for patients with unresectable ESCC (including non-T4b), suggested that esophageal stenosis is a risk factor for EF. However, risk factors for EF in patients limited to T4b ESCC treated with dCRT have yet to be clarified...
May 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756633/immunotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-scientific-rationale-current-treatment-options-and-future-directions
#6
Uta Rothschild, Laurent Muller, Axel Lechner, Hans A Schlösser, Dirk Beutner, Heinz Läubli, Alfred Zippelius, Sacha I Rothschild
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a frequent tumour arising from multiple anatomical subsites in the head and neck region. The treatment for early-stage disease is generally single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy. The treatment for locally advanced tumours is multimodal. For recurrent/metastatic HNSCC palliative chemotherapy is standard of care. The prognosis is limited and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. HNSCC evades immune responses through multiple resistance mechanisms...
May 14, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756398/survival-without-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-selected-patients-with-stage-ii-and-iii-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-after-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-alone
#7
Jia-Shing Wu, Yu-Chen Tsai, James Jer-Min Jian, Hsin-Hsuan Chen, Cheng-Fang Horng, Skye Hung-Chun Cheng
BACKGROUND: The role of adjuvant chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is controversial. We report our phase II prospective study of withholding adjuvant chemotherapy in a subgroup of patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage II and III NPC with low risk for metastasis. METHODS: Between April 1998 and December 2008, 263 patients with stage II (AJCC 1997 T2aN0, T1-T2aN1; AJCC 2010 T1N1) NPC or stage III (AJCC 1997 T1-T2aN2; AJCC 2010 T1N2) NPC were enrolled...
May 13, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744672/efficacy-and-safety-of-neoadjuvant-treatment-with-bevacizumab-liposomal-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-and-paclitaxel-combination-in-locally-regionally-advanced-her2-negative-grade-iii-at-premenopausal-status-breast-cancer-a-phase-ii-study
#8
Ekaterini C Tampaki, Athanasios Tampakis, Constantinos E Alifieris, Dimitrios Krikelis, Anastasia Pazaiti, Michalis Kontos, Dimitrios T Trafalis
BACKGROUND: In the era of personalized therapy, targeted treatment in specific patient populations is mandated. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant treatment on locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) with a monoclonal agent against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), bevacizumab plus chemotherapy combination of liposomal doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel (PLAC-B). METHODS: Patients enrolled were at premenopausal status and characterized by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, hormone-receptor positive (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-positive [ER/PR+]) or triple-negative (TNBC), LABC (T > 3 cm), with high-grade ductal carcinoma...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741773/phase-2-trial-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-and-transoral-endoscopic-surgery-with-risk-adapted-adjuvant-therapy-for-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#9
Jared M Weiss, Juneko E Grilley-Olson, Allison Mary Deal, Jose P Zevallos, Bhishamjit S Chera, Jennifer Paul, Mary Fleming Knowles, Dmitriy Usenko, Mark C Weissler, Samip Patel, David N Hayes, Trevor Hackman
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of induction chemotherapy, surgery, and pathology-guided adjuvant therapy to treat transorally resectable squamous head and neck cancer. METHODS: Patients had squamous head and neck cancer that was resectable by the transoral route and advanced-stage disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III-IV, T3-T4 tumors, and/or positive lymph nodes). They received treatment with weekly carboplatin at an area under the curve of 2, plus paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 , and daily lapatinib 1000mg for 6 weeks followed by surgical resection...
May 9, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731919/elevated-growth-differentiating-factor-15-expression-predicts-long-term-benefit-of-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-5-fluorouracil-induction-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-oral-cancer
#10
Xiao Tang, Yong-Jie Hu, Wu-Tong Ju, Yong Fu, Wen-Wen Sun, Ying Liu, Yi-Ran Tan, Li-Zhen Wang, Jiang Li, Yao-Yao Tu, Chen-Ping Zhang, Zhi-Yuan Zhang, Lai-Ping Zhong
Our previous phase 3 trial (NCT01542931) failed to demonstrate improved survival when docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) induction chemotherapy was introduced prior to surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term predictive value of GDF15 expression for potential personalized treatment strategies in OSCC. A total of 256 patients with stage III/IVA OSCC from our phase 3 trial were enrolled in the present study...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728867/check-point-inhibitors-a-new-era-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Mohamed Alsharedi, Heather Katz
In the United States, the estimated number of new cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is approximately 65,000 case with about 15,000 deaths in the year of 2018 (Siegel et al. in CA Cancer J Clin 68(1):7, 2018). RCC as an immunogenic malignancy is supported by many theories and facts which include tumor richness of lymphocytes infiltrate, the occurrence of spontaneous tumor regression, and the proved effect of traditional immunotherapy (Finke et al. in J Immunother 11(1):1-11, 1992), all these factors support the potential therapeutic effect of the novel immunotherapeutic agents in RCC...
May 4, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714652/real-world-evidence-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Jeffrey Graham, Daniel Yc Heng
Real-world evidence has played an important role in expanding our knowledge on the treatment and prognostication of advanced renal cell carcinoma. This type of data has been particularly helpful in providing a better understanding of groups that are traditionally excluded from randomized controlled trials. The International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) represents the largest collection of real-world data on patients with advanced kidney cancer treated with targeted therapies. The IMDC prognostic model has been used to stratify patients in contemporary clinical trials and to provide risk-directed treatment selection in everyday clinical practice...
March 1, 2018: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693189/gallic-acid-sensitizes-paclitaxel-resistant-human-ovarian-carcinoma-cells-through-an-increase-in-reactive-oxygen-species-and-subsequent-downregulation-of-erk-activation
#13
Jessica Nayelli Sánchez-Carranza, J Fernando Díaz, Mariano Redondo-Horcajo, Isabel Barasoain, Laura Alvarez, Pedro Lastres, Antonio Romero-Estrada, Patricio Aller, Leticia González-Maya
Paclitaxel (PTX) is currently used as a front-line chemotherapeutic agent for several types of cancer, including ovarian carcinoma; however, PTX-resistance frequently arises through multiple mechanisms. The development of new strategies using natural compounds and PTX in combination has been the aim of several prior studies, in order to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we found the following: (i) gallic acid (GA), a phenolic compound, potentiated the capacity of PTX to decrease proliferation and to cause G2/M cycle arrest in the PTX-resistant A2780AD ovarian cancer cell line; (ii) GA exerted a pro-oxidant action by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and co-treatment with the antioxidant agent N‑acetyl-L‑cysteine (NAC) prevented GA+PTX-induced cell proliferation inhibition and G2/M phase arrest; (iii) PTX stimulated ERK phosphorylation/activation, and co-treatment with the MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98049 potentiated the proliferation inhibition and G2/M phase arrest; (iv) and finally, GA abrogated the PTX-induced stimulation of ERK phosphorylation, a response that was prevented by co-treatment with NAC...
April 18, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689631/novel-approaches-for-molecular-targeted-therapy-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
REVIEW
Yuji Eso, Hiroyuki Marusawa
Systemic chemotherapy using a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor is an established treatment for advanced-stage tumors in various organs. Comprehensive genomic analyses using next-generation sequencing technology revealed the intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), and provided evidence for the use of therapeutic agents effective against multiple targets in tumor cells. Recently, the efficacy and safety of a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lenvatinib, was confirmed by a randomized global phase III trial and thus lenvatinib was approved as first-line therapy for HCC, providing a new therapeutic option for patients in an advanced stage...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685552/coefficient-of-variation-on-gd-eob-mr-imaging-correlation-with-the-presence-of-early-stage-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#15
Jung Hun Lee, Youe Ree Kim, Guy Mok Lee, Jong Hyun Ryu, Eun Young Cho, Young Hwan Lee, Kwon-Ha Yoon
PURPOSE: To study whether the measurement of hepatic fibrosis on gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the coefficient of variation (CV) might be correlated with the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 104 patients with and without CHB, who were divided into 4 groups: control group, CHB without liver cirrhosis (LC; Group I), CHB with LC (Group II), and CHB with LC and HCC (Group III)...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667066/population-exposure-response-analysis-of-cabozantinib-efficacy-and-safety-endpoints-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma
#16
Steven Lacy, Jace Nielsen, Bei Yang, Dale Miles, Linh Nguyen, Matt Hutmacher
BACKGROUND: In the phase III METEOR trial, tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and overall survival compared to everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who had received prior VEGFR inhibitor therapy. In METEOR, RCC patients started at a daily 60-mg cabozantinib tablet (Cabometyx™) dose but could reduce to 40- or 20-mg to achieve a tolerated exposure. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Exposure-response (ER) models were developed to characterize the relationship between cabozantinib at clinically relevant exposures in RCC patients enrolled in METEOR and efficacy (PFS and tumor response) and safety endpoints...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666026/cervical-cancer-state-of-the-science-from-angiogenesis-blockade-to-checkpoint-inhibition
#17
REVIEW
Lindsey E Minion, Krishnansu S Tewari
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as a therapeutic target in several malignancies, including cervical cancer. Chemotherapy doublets combined with the fully humanized monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, now constitute first-line therapy for women struggling with recurrent/metastatic cervical carcinoma. Regulatory approval for this indication was based on the phase III randomized trial, GOG 240, which demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival when bevacizumab was added to chemotherapy: 17...
March 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662541/cabozantinib-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-adults-following-prior-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-targeted-therapy-clinical-trial-evidence-and-experience
#18
REVIEW
Susanne Osanto, Tom van der Hulle
Cabozantinib is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that potently inhibits MET and AXL, both associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), next to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, KIT, FLT3 and RET. Chronic treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeting sunitinib upregulates MET and AXL in RCC, indicating that cabozantinib may be particularly effective in patients with advanced RCC whose disease progressed on prior VEGFR-targeted treatment...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652817/selenium-in-radiation-oncology-15-years-of-experiences-in-germany
#19
REVIEW
Ralph Muecke, Oliver Micke, Lutz Schomburg, Jens Buentzel, Klaus Kisters, Irenaeus A Adamietz
Introduction: Se measurement and supplementation in radiation oncology is a controversial issue. The German Working Group Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Oncology (AKTE) has conducted a number of studies on this issue, which are summarized in this review. Strategies have been tested and developed, aiming to stratify the patients with a potential need for supplemental Se and how best to monitor Se supplementation with respect to health effects and risks. Methods: We analyzed blood and tissue Se-levels of different tumor patients ( n = 512)...
April 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650896/-the-combination-of-molecular-targeted-agents-with-radiotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#20
Mitsuhiro Furuta, Tomoya Yokota
Concurrent cisplatin based chemoradiotherapy(CRT)is the standard of care for patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck(LA-SCCHN). Based on the Bonner trial showing the superiority of cetuximab plus radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone, cetuximab based bioradiotherapy(BRT)is considered as an alternative for patients with LA-SCCHN. However, the non-inferiority of BRT compared to CRT has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, severe mucositis and dermatitis induced by BRT cannot be neglected...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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