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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344858/nab-paclitaxel-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-an-update-across-treatment-settings
#1
REVIEW
Adam Brufsky
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review is to discuss recent studies and ongoing trials of nab-paclitaxel in breast cancer and to examine the potential role of nab-paclitaxel as a backbone for immuno-oncology therapies. METHODS: PubMed and selected congress proceedings were searched for studies of nab-paclitaxel in breast cancer published between 2013 and 2015. All phase II and III clinical trials, retrospective analyses, and institutional studies were included...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344661/liposomal-irinotecan-in-gemcitabine-refractory-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-efficacy-safety-and-place-in-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Emma Kipps, Kate Young, Naureen Starling
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease. The majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease with a prognosis of short months. Therapeutic options are limited and until recently, there was no standard second-line chemotherapy option. Liposomal constructs have been engineered to encapsulate chemotherapy thereby preventing premature metabolism, improving distribution and minimizing toxicity. Favourable preclinical data on liposomal irinotecan and early phase trials, led to a recently published phase III trial of liposomal irinotecan in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with metastatic PDAC, who progressed after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344046/long-term-outcomes-of-induction-carboplatin-and-gemcitabine-followed-by-concurrent-radiotherapy-with-low-dose-paclitaxel-and-gemcitabine-for-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung%C3%A2-cancer
#3
Catherine Guilbault, Aurelie Garant, Sergio Faria, Scott Owen, Linda Ofiara, Marie Duclos, Vera Hirsh, Neil Kopek
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is concurrent chemo-radiation (CRT). A regimen of induction carboplatin and gemcitabine followed by CRT was developed at the McGill University Health Centre to prevent delays in treatment initiation. We report the long-term outcomes with this regimen based on a pooled analysis of both protocol patients from a phase II study and nonprotocol patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Outcomes and toxicity data were retrieved for 142 patients with stage III NSCLC: 43 patients treated on protocol between January 2003 and November 2004, and 101 patients treated off-protocol between December 2004 and August 2013...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343352/the-role-of-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Linus C Benjamin, Alison C Tree, David P Dearnaley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is now accepted that prostate cancer has a low alpha/beta ratio, establishing a strong basis for hypofractionation of prostate radiotherapy. This review focuses on the rationale for hypofractionation and presents the evidence base for establishing moderate hypofractionation for localised disease as the new standard of care. The emerging evidence for extreme hypofractionation in managing localized and oligometastatic prostate cancer is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: The 5-year efficacy and toxicity outcomes from four phase III studies have been published within the last 12 months...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342215/efficacy-and-safety-of-nivolumab-in-japanese-patients-with-previously-untreated-advanced-melanoma-a-phase-ii-study
#5
Naoya Yamazaki, Yoshio Kiyohara, Hisashi Uhara, Jiro Uehara, Manabu Fujimoto, Tatsuya Takenouchi, Masaki Otsuka, Hiroshi Uchi, Hironobu Ihn, Hironobu Minami
Treating advanced or recurrent melanoma remains a challenge. Cancer cells can evade the immune system by blocking T-cell activation via overexpression of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) ligands. The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab blocks the inhibitory signal in T cells, thus overcoming the immune resistance of cancer cells. Nivolumab has demonstrated promising anti-cancer activity in various cancers. We conducted a single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in previously untreated Japanese patients with advanced melanoma...
March 25, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337660/topgear-a-randomized-phase-iii-trial-of-perioperative-ecf-chemotherapy-with-or-without-preoperative-chemoradiation-for-resectable-gastric-cancer-interim-results-from-an-international-intergroup-trial-of-the-agitg-trog-eortc-and-cctg
#6
Trevor Leong, B Mark Smithers, Karin Haustermans, Michael Michael, Val Gebski, Danielle Miller, John Zalcberg, Alex Boussioutas, Michael Findlay, Rachel L O'Connell, Jaclyn Verghis, David Willis, Tomas Kron, Melissa Crain, William K Murray, Florian Lordick, Carol Swallow, Gail Darling, John Simes, Rebecca Wong
BACKGROUND: Postoperative chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy using epirubicin/cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (ECF) represent two standards of care for resectable gastric cancer. In the TOPGEAR (Trial Of Preoperative therapy for Gastric and Esophagogastric junction AdenocaRcinoma) trial, we hypothesized that adding preoperative chemoradiation to perioperative ECF will improve survival; however, the safety and feasibility of preoperative chemoradiation have yet to be determined. METHODS: TOPGEAR is an international phase III trial in which patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach were randomized to perioperative ECF alone or with preoperative chemoradiation...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337370/role-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-lung-cancer-and-targeted-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Tie-Cheng Liu, Xin Jin, Yan Wang, Ke Wang
Lung cancer is the foremost cause of cancer-related deaths world-wide. Both, the major forms of lung cancer, Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and Small cell lung cancers (SCLC), have responded effectively to chemo-, radiation and adjuvant-therapies. Tumor removal through surgery also appeared as a good therapeutic strategy. However, these therapies demonstrated unfavourable side-effects, and hence novel drugs targeting lung cancer emerged essential. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinases is a key reason for lung cancer progression...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336809/lectin-galactoside-binding-soluble-3-binding-protein-promotes-17-n-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin-resistance-through-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-lung-cancer-cell-line
#8
Jong Kyu Woo, Jeong-Eun Jang, Ju-Hee Kang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon, Hyoung-Chin Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Seun Hyun Oh
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) stabilizing oncoproteins has been an attractive target in cancer therapy. 17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), HSP90 inhibitor, was tested in phase II/III clinical trials, but due to lack of efficacy, clinical evaluation of 17-AAG has achieved limited success which led to resistance to 17-AAG. However, the mechanism of 17-AAG resistance has not clearly been identified. Here, we identified LGALS3BP (Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3 binding protein), a secretory glycoprotein, as a 17-AAG resistance factor...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335886/neoscope-a-randomised-phase-ii-study-of-induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-oxaliplatin-capecitabine-or-carboplatin-paclitaxel-based-pre-operative-chemoradiation-for-resectable-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma
#9
Somnath Mukherjee, Christopher Nicholas Hurt, Sarah Gwynne, David Sebag-Montefiore, Ganesh Radhakrishna, Simon Gollins, Maria Hawkins, Heike I Grabsch, Gareth Jones, Stephen Falk, Ricky Sharma, Andrew Bateman, Rajarshi Roy, Ruby Ray, Jo Canham, Gareth Griffiths, Tim Maughan, Tom Crosby
BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin-capecitabine (OxCap) and carboplatin-paclitaxel (CarPac) based neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) have shown promising activity in localised, resectable oesophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A non-blinded, randomised (1:1 via a centralised computer system), 'pick a winner' phase II trial. Patients with resectable oesophageal adenocarcinoma ≥ cT3 and/or ≥ cN1 were randomised to OxCapRT (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2) day 1, 15, 29; capecitabine 625 mg/m(2) bd on days of radiotherapy) or CarPacRT (carboplatin AUC2; paclitaxel 50 mg/m(2) day 1, 8, 15, 22, 29)...
March 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335647/sorafenib-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#10
Giuseppe Bronte, Daniele Andreis, Sara Bravaccini, Roberta Maltoni, Lorenzo Cecconetto, Alessio Schirone, Alberto Farolfi, Anna Fedeli, Patrizia Serra, Caterina Donati, Dino Amadori, Andrea Rocca
Breast cancer treatment includes many options depending on the tumor clinicopathological profile, which groups breast cancer into various subtypes. Bevacizumab is currently the only drug capable of targeting angiogenesis in breast cancer. Sorafenib has also been studied in combination with other agents. Areas covered: Pharmacological aspects of sorafenib, including results from preclinical studies on breast cancer cells; findings about clinical efficacy and safety in both single-arm and randomized clinical trials; ongoing trials...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334771/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-3-month-dosing-regimen-of-degarelix-in-japanese-patients-with-prostate-cancer-a-phase-ii-maintenance-dose-finding-study
#11
Seiichiro Ozono, Taiji Tsukamoto, Seiji Naito, Yasuo Ohashi, Takeshi Ueda, Tsutomu Nishiyama, Hideki Maeda, Hidehito Kusuoka, Rio Akazawa, Mototsugu Ito, Hideyuki Akaza
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of degarelix 3-month depot in Japanese patients with prostate cancer. Methods: In this Phase II, open-label, parallel-group study, 155 Japanese prostate cancer patients were randomized to treatment with degarelix administered subcutaneously at a maintenance dose of 360 or 480 mg every 84 days for 12 months, after receiving an initial dose of 240 mg. The primary endpoint was the cumulative probability of serum testosterone ≤0...
February 18, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329919/-chemotherapy-for-biliary-tract-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Sang Myung Woo
The term of biliary tract cancer (BTC) refers to all tumors that arise from the biliary tract or the biliary drainage system, including the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts as well as the gallbladder. BTCs are aggressive tumors with limited treatment options and poor overall survival. Currently, surgery remains to be the only potentially curative treatment, and most patients develop recurrence. For advanced tumors, only limited effective treatment modalities exist today. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin is considered as a standard option for advanced biliary cancer...
March 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327986/phase-iii-trial-comparing-3-6-months-of-adjuvant-folfox4-xelox-in-stage-ii-iii-colon-cancer-safety-and-compliance-in-the-tosca-trial
#13
S Lonardi, A Sobrero, G Rosati, M Di Bartolomeo, M Ronzoni, G Aprile, B Massida, M Scartozzi, M Banzi, M G Zampino, F Pasini, P Marchetti, M Cantore, A Zaniboni, L Rimassa, L Ciuffreda, D Ferrari, S Barni, V Zagonel, E Maiello, E Rulli, R Labianca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327934/pazopanib-or-placebo-in-completely-resected-stage-i-nsclc-patients-results-of-the-phase-ii-ifct-0703-trial
#14
B Besse, J Mazières, L Ribassin-Majed, F Barlesi, J Bennouna, R Gervais, L Moreau, H Berard, D Debieuvre, O Molinier, D Moro-Sibilot, P J Souquet, S Jacquot, L Petit, H Lena, J P Pignon, B Lacas, F Morin, B Milleron, G Zalcman, J C Soria
Background: Adjuvant treatment in resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is generally not recommended. Pazopanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR-1/2/3 and PDGFR-α/β. We explored the feasibility and efficacy of adjuvant pazopanib in this population. Patients and methods: In this double-blind phase II/III trial, patients with resected stage I NSCLC were randomized to placebo or pazopanib 800 mg/d (P800) for 6 months with a two-step Fleming design...
February 23, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327932/integrated-safety-analysis-of-rolapitant-with-coadministered-drugs-from-phase-ii-iii-trials-an-assessment-of-cyp2d6-or-bcrp-inhibition-by-rolapitant
#15
S Barbour, T Smit, X Wang, D Powers, S Arora, V Kansra, M Aapro, J Herrstedt
Background: Rolapitant, a long-acting neurokinin (NK) 1 receptor antagonist (RA), has demonstrated efficacy in prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients administered moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Unlike other NK 1 RAs, rolapitant does not inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, but it does inhibit CYP2D6 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). To analyze potential drug-drug interactions between rolapitant and concomitant medications, this integrated safety analysis of four double-blind, randomized phase II or III studies of rolapitant examined adverse events by use versus non-use of drug substrates of CYP2D6 or BCRP...
February 23, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327923/heart-dose-exposure-as-prognostic-marker-after-radiotherapy-for-resectable-stage-iiia-b-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-trial
#16
M Guberina, W Eberhardt, M Stuschke, T Gauler, F Heinzelmann, D Cheufou, M Kimmich, G Friedel, H Schmidberger, K Darwiche, V Jendrossek, M Schuler, G Stamatis, C Pöttgen
BACKGROUND: Heart exposure to ionizing irradiation can cause ischemic heart disease. The partial heart volume receiving ≥5 Gy (heartV5) was supposed to be an independent prognostic factor for survival after radiochemotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). But validation of the latter hypothesis is needed under the concurrent risks of lung cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The ESPATUE phase III trial recruited patients with potentially operable IIIA(N2)/selected IIIB NSCLC between 01/2004 and 01/2013...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327089/uniform-fdg-pet-guided-gradient-dose-prescription-to-reduce-late-radiation-toxicity-upgrade-rt-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-clinical-trial-with-dose-reduction-to-the-elective-neck-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Sven van den Bosch, Tim Dijkema, Martina C Kunze-Busch, Chris H J Terhaard, Cornelis P J Raaijmakers, Patricia A H Doornaert, Frank J P Hoebers, Marije R Vergeer, Bas Kreike, Oda B Wijers, Wim J G Oyen, Johannes H A M Kaanders
BACKGROUND: In definitive radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, clinically uninvolved cervical lymph nodes are irradiated with a so-called 'elective dose' in order to achieve control of clinically occult metastases. As a consequence of high-resolution diagnostic imaging, occult tumor volume has significantly decreased in the last decades. Since the elective dose is dependent on occult tumor volume, the currently used elective dose may be higher than necessary. Because bilateral irradiation of the neck contributes to dysphagia, xerostomia and hypothyroidism in a dose dependent way, dose de-escalation to these regions can open a window of opportunity to reduce toxicity and improve quality of life after treatment...
March 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326839/entinostat-a-promising-treatment-option-for-patients-with-advanced-breast-cancer
#18
Roisin M Connolly, Michelle A Rudek, Richard Piekarz
Entinostat is a synthetic benzamide derivative histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which potently and selectively inhibits class I and IV HDAC enzymes. This action promotes histone hyperacetylation and transcriptional activation of specific genes, with subsequent inhibition of cell proliferation, terminal differentiation and apoptosis. This oral HDAC inhibitor has been evaluated in Phase I and II trials in patients with advanced malignancies, and is in general well tolerated. Entinostat does not currently have regulatory approval for clinical use; however promising preclinical and clinical data exist in hormone-resistant breast cancer...
March 9, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325267/enzastaurin-a-lesson-in-drug-development
#19
REVIEW
T Bourhill, A Narendran, R N Johnston
Enzastaurin is an orally administered drug that was intended for the treatment of solid and haematological cancers. It was initially developed as an isozyme specific inhibitor of protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ), which is involved in both the AKT and MAPK signalling pathways that are active in many cancers. Enzastaurin had shown encouraging preclinical results for the prevention of angiogenesis, inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis as well as showing limited cytotoxicity within phase I clinical trials...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323658/changing-face-of-metastatic-prostate-cancer-the-law-of-diminishing-returns-holds-true
#20
Ulka N Vaishampayan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer presents with a multitude of faces. It ranges from localized cancers staying quiescent for many years during active surveillance to the raging diffuse liver metastases causing terminal disease. The incidence of metastatic disease is increasing. This review will highlight some of the recent developments as well as ongoing challenges of managing advanced prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant strides are being made in managing metastatic prostate cancer...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
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