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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813655/making-it-personal-neoantigen-vaccines-in-metastatic-melanoma
#1
Matthew D Hellmann, Alexandra Snyder
Somatic mutations in cancer can be translated into peptides, termed neoantigens, which can be recognized by the immune system as "foreign" epitopes. Two recent studies in Nature (Sahin et al., 2017; Ott et al., 2017) examine the effects of neoantigen vaccines on patients with stage III or IV melanoma and demonstrate immunogenicity and intriguing clinical safety and efficacy data in phase I studies.
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812060/reolysin-and-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Alena C Jaime-Ramirez, Jun-Ge Yu, Enrico Caserta, Ji Young Yoo, Jianying Zhang, Tae Jin Lee, Craig Hofmeister, John H Lee, Bhavna Kumar, Quintin Pan, Pawan Kumar, Robert Baiocchi, Theodoros Teknos, Flavia Pichiorri, Balveen Kaur, Matthew Old
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are emerging as powerful anti-cancer agents and are currently being tested for their safety and efficacy in patients. Reovirus (Reolysin), a naturally occurring non-pathogenic, double-stranded RNA virus, has natural oncolytic activity and is being tested in phase I-III clinical trials in a variety of tumor types. With its recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) orphan drug designation for several tumor types, Reolysin is a potential therapeutic agent for various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), which have a 5-year survival of ∼55%...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809610/phase-iii-study-comparing-a-reduced-dose-of-cabazitaxel-20-mg-m-2-and-the-currently-approved-dose-25-mg-m-2-in-postdocetaxel-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-proselica
#3
Mario Eisenberger, Anne-Claire Hardy-Bessard, Choung Soo Kim, Lajos Géczi, Daniel Ford, Loïc Mourey, Joan Carles, Phillip Parente, Albert Font, Gabriel Kacso, Mustapha Chadjaa, Wenping Zhang, John Bernard, Johann de Bono
Purpose Cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) (C25) significantly improved overall survival (OS) versus mitoxantrone ( P < .001) in postdocetaxel patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the phase III TROPIC study. The phase III PROSELICA study ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01308580) assessed the noninferiority of cabazitaxel 20 mg/m(2) (C20) versus C25 in postdocetaxel patients with mCRPC. Methods Patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, measurability of disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and region, and randomly assigned to receive C20 or C25...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807738/observed-benefit-and-safety-of-aflibercept-in-elderly-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-an-age-based-analysis-from-the-randomized-placebo-controlled-phase-iii-velour-trial
#4
Paul Ruff, Eric Van Cutsem, Radek Lakomy, Jana Prausova, Guy A van Hazel, Vladimir M Moiseyenko, Karen Soussan-Lazard, Emmanuelle Dochy, Emmanuelle Magherini, Teresa Macarulla, Demetris Papamichael
OBJECTIVES: Aflibercept (ziv-aflibercept) significantly improves progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) when added to 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan (FOLFIRI), compared with FOLFIRI alone, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer previously treated with oxaliplatin-based therapy. This subset analysis of the VELOUR study investigates aflibercept plus FOLFIRI versus placebo plus FOLFIRI according to age. METHODS: Efficacy and safety were analyzed by treatment arm and age (≥ or <65years)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807231/bartholin-gland-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Violante Di Donato, Assunta Casorelli, Erlisa Bardhi, Flaminia Vena, Marchetti Claudia, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
INTRODUCTION: Bartholin gland carcinoma is an extremely rare condition. Because of its, phase III trials have not been carried out, there exists no unanimous consensus on treatment and guidelines are missing. METHODS: All studies reporting cases of Bartholin cancer were collected and screened for the evaluations. Baseline characteristics of studies were extracted and were queried in a database. RESULTS: A total number of 133 manuscripts collected were available for the review process, representing a total number of 275 reported cases...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807052/whole-blood-rna-transcript-based-models-can-predict-clinical-response-in-two-large-independent-clinical-studies-of-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-treated-with-the-checkpoint-inhibitor-tremelimumab
#6
Philip Friedlander, Karl Wassmann, Alan M Christenfeld, David Fisher, Chrisann Kyi, John M Kirkwood, Nina Bhardwaj, William K Oh
BACKGROUND: Tremelimumab is an antibody that blocks CTLA-4 and demonstrates clinical efficacy in a subset of advanced melanoma patients. An unmet clinical need exists for blood-based response-predictive gene signatures to facilitate clinically effective and cost-efficient use of such immunotherapeutic interventions. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected in PAXgene® tubes from 210 treatment-naïve melanoma patients receiving tremelimumab in a worldwide, multicenter phase III study (discovery dataset)...
August 15, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801444/radical-cystectomy-bladder-removal-against-intravesical-bcg-immunotherapy-for-high-risk-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-bravo-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#7
Jamie B Oughton, Heather Poad, Maureen Twiddy, Michelle Collinson, Victoria Hiley, Kathryn Gordon, Mark Johnson, Sunjay Jain, Aidan P Noon, Rohit Chahal, Matt Simms, Mohantha Dooldeniya, Phillip Koenig, Louise Goodwin, Julia M Brown, James W F Catto
INTRODUCTION: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HRNMIBC) is a heterogeneous disease that can be difficult to predict. While around 25% of cancers progress to invasion and metastases, the remaining majority of tumours remain within the bladder. It is uncertain whether patients with HRNMIBC are better treated with intravesical maintenance BCG (mBCG) immunotherapy or primary radical cystectomy (RC). A definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to compare these two different treatments but may be difficult to recruit to and has not been attempted to date...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797482/-principles-modalities-and-indications-of-the-administration-of-radium-in-cancers-focus-on-metastatic-prostate-cancer-state-of-arts
#8
REVIEW
Pauline Bertolaso, Laura Leroy, Marine Gross-Goupil, Olivier Aupee, Alain Ravaud, Guilhem Roubaud, Anne-Laure Cazeau, Sylvestre Le Moulec
Prostate cancer is the first cancer in men and has a specific tropism to bones. This tropism provided the rationale to develop bone targeting radiopharmaceutical agents, such as strontium, samarium and more recently the Radium-223, an alpha-emitter. In a phase III trial, ALSYMPCA, Radium-223 not only improved pain relief, but also impacted on overall survival. Despite an approval by both FDA and EMA, prescription of this agent remains limited by the lack of refund, especially in France. Radium-223 is currently evaluated in several clinical trials (combination with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or hormone therapy) in order to optimize the therapeutic sequences in metastatic bone prostate cancer and argues for being incorporated into the current therapeutic arsenal...
August 7, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794690/gender-related-prognostic-significance-of-clinical-and-biological-tumor-features-in-rectal-cancer-patients-receiving-short-course-preoperative-radiotherapy
#9
Anna Gasinska, Zbigniew Darasz, Agnieszka Adamczyk, Beata Biesaga, Joanna Niemiec, Marian Reinfuss
AIM: To study the prognostic value of clinical and biological features of rectal cancer and potential gender differences in patients' overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (RFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) after short-course preoperative radiotherapy (SCRT) with short or long interval between RT and surgery (break). BACKGROUND: The length of the interval between RT and surgery in SCRT is debatable and gender-related differences in patients survival are not established yet...
September 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794650/treating-egfr-mutation-resistance-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-role-of-osimertinib
#10
REVIEW
Valentina Mazza, Federico Cappuzzo
The discovery of mutations in EGFR significantly changed the treatment paradigm of patients with EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a particular group of patients with different clinical characteristics and outcome to EGFR-wild-type patients. In these patients, the treatment of choice as first-line therapy is first- or second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as gefitinib, erlotinib, or afatinib. Inevitably, after the initial response, all patients become refractory to these drugs...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794648/cost-analysis-of-adverse-events-associated-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-management-in-france
#11
Christos Chouaid, Delphine Loirat, Emilie Clay, Aurélie Millier, Chloé Godard, Amira Fannan, Laurie Lévy-Bachelot, Eric Angevin
BACKGROUND: Adverse events (AEs) related to medical treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are frequent and need an appropriate costing in health economic models. Nevertheless, data on costs associated with AEs in NSCLC are scarce, particularly since the development of immunotherapy with specific immune-related AEs. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to NSCLC treatments including immunotherapy in France. METHODS: Grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment and reported in at least 1% of patients in Phase III clinical trials for erlotinib, ramucirumab plus docetaxel, docetaxel, pemetrexed plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab, platinum-based chemotherapies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab were identified...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793793/making-oncolytic-virotherapy-a-clinical-reality-the-european-contribution
#12
Margaret R Duffy, Kerry D Fisher, Leonard W Seymour
Oncolytic viruses are quickly moving toward the forefront of modern medicines. The reward for the decades of research invested into developing viral platforms that selectively replicate in and lyse tumour cells whilst sparking anti-cancer adaptive immunity, is presenting in the form of durable therapeutic responses. Whilst it has certainly been a concerted global effort, in this review for the 25th anniversary of the ESGCT we will describe the current status of the major classes of oncolytic viruses, and focus on the contributions made by European researchers...
August 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792245/a-phase-2-study-of-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-ziv-aflibercept-and-radiation-for-the-preoperative-and-adjuvant-treatment-of-patients-with-stage-ii-iii-rectal-cancer
#13
Johanna C Bendell, Dana Thompson, Brian M Hemphill, David Wenk, Chris Earwood, Cassie M Lane, Andrew Kennedy
BACKGROUND: This phase II study combined aflibercept with preoperative chemoradiation for patients with stage II/III rectal cancer, followed by mFOLFOX6/aflibercept. METHODS: Patients received preoperative 5-FU (days 1-43), radiation (weeks 1-6), and aflibercept (days 1-15) each 28 day cycle for 6 weeks. Six weeks following the last aflibercept dose, patients underwent surgical resection. Four cycles of mFOLFOX6 plus aflibercept began 8 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: Common treatment-related toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, and mucositis...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791634/targeting-her2-in-advanced-breast-cancer
#14
Xiaofu Zhu, Anil Abraham Joy
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a human oncogene that is amplified in approximately 20% of breast cancers, and portends a worse prognosis if not treated with anti-HER2 agents. The advent of targeted anti-HER2 therapies has dramatically improved disease control and survival in patients with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer, and is now considered standard of care in the first-line setting and beyond. This review summarizes the currently available data on targeted anti-HER2 therapies from completed randomized phase III clinical trials, and briefly discusses emerging advances that will address unmet needs in metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789681/study-protocol-on-comparative-effectiveness-of-mindfulness-meditation-and-qigong-on-psychophysiological-outcomes-for-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Rainbow T H Ho, Adrian H Y Wan, Jessie S M Chan, S M Ng, K F Chung, Cecilia L W Chan
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer imposes threats to patients' well-being. Although most physical symptoms can be managed by medication, psychosocial stressors may complicate survival and hamper quality of life. Mindfulness and Qigong, two kinds of mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, has been found effective in symptoms management, improving mental health, and reducing stress. With these potential benefits, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the comparative effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin intervention on the bio-psychosocial wellbeing of people with colorectal cancer...
August 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780479/q-twist-analysis-of-patients-with-metastatic-castrate-naive-prostate-cancer-treated-by-androgen-deprivation-therapy-with-or-without-docetaxel-in-the-randomised-phase-iii-getug-afu-15-trial
#16
P Marino, P Sfumato, F Joly, K Fizazi, S Oudard, S Culine, M Habibian, J-M Boher, G Gravis
BACKGROUND: Early chemotherapy has recently become a new standard of care for patients with metastatic castrate-naive prostate cancer (mCNPC). The survival benefit is evident in patients with high-volume disease, but less clear in those with low-volume disease. Here, we assessed the trade-offs between toxicity and survival using a Quality-adjusted Time Without Symptoms of disease and Toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This analysis was performed from the data of the Genito-Urinary Oncology Group (GETUG)-AFU 15 phase III trial evaluating the benefits of docetaxel (D) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT alone in 385 mCNPC patients...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780466/carboplatin-versus-two-doses-of-cisplatin-in-combination-with-gemcitabine-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-results-from-a-british-thoracic-oncology-group-randomised-phase-iii-trial
#17
David Ferry, Lucinda Billingham, Hugh Jarrett, David Dunlop, Penella J Woll, Marianne Nicolson, Riyaz Shah, Joyce Thompson, James Spicer, D Muthukumar, Geraldine Skailes, Pauline Leonard, A D Chetiyawardana, Paula Wells, Conrad Lewanski, Barbara Crosse, Michelle Hill, Piers Gaunt, Kenneth O'Byrne
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is standard treatment for the majority of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The trial investigates the importance of the choice of platinum agent and dose of cisplatin in relation to patient outcomes. METHODS: The three-arm randomised phase III trial assigned patients with chemo-naïve stage IIIB/IV NSCLC in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 of a 3-week cycle with cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) (GC80) or cisplatin 50 mg/m(2) (GC50) or carboplatin AUC6 (GCb6) for a maximum of four cycles...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774461/phase-ii-trial-of-bevacizumab-with-dose-dense-paclitaxel-as-first-line-treatment-in-patients-with-advanced-ovarian-cancer
#18
Nicole D Fleming, Robert L Coleman, Celestine Tung, Shannon N Westin, Wei Hu, Yunjie Sun, Priya Bhosale, Mark F Munsell, Anil K Sood
OBJECTIVES: To assess the tolerability and efficacy of bevacizumab with carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel as first-line adjuvant therapy for advanced stage ovarian cancer. METHODS: After IRB approval, this single-institution, phase II study enrolled patients with stage III or IV epithelial ovarian cancer after primary cytoreductive surgery to treatment with carboplatin (AUC 5), weekly paclitaxel (80mg/m2), and bevacizumab (15mg/kg) every 3weeks for at least 6cycles...
July 31, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768681/death-talk-and-relief-of-death-related-distress-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#19
Ekaterina An, Erica Wennberg, Rinat Nissim, Christopher Lo, Sarah Hales, Gary Rodin
OBJECTIVES: The circumstances of advanced cancer heighten the need for affected individuals to communicate mortality-related concerns, although there may be obstacles to such communication. Managing Cancer and Living Meaningfully(CALM) is a supportive-expressive therapy designed to address such barriers and to facilitate communication of mortality-related concerns in patients and caregivers facing advanced disease. This study explores death-related distress in patients with advanced cancer and the perceived influence of CALM therapy on overcoming barriers to communication of this distress...
August 2, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768570/primary-cytoreductive-surgery-and-adjuvant-hormonal-monotherapy-in-women-with-advanced-low-grade-serous-ovarian-carcinoma-reducing-overtreatment-without-compromising-survival
#20
Amanda N Fader, Jennifer Bergstrom, Amelia Jernigan, Edward J Tanner, Kara Long Roche, Rebecca L Stone, Kimberly L Levinson, Stephanie Ricci, Stephanie Wethingon, Tian-Li Wang, Ie-Ming Shih, Bin Yang, Gloria Zhang, Deborah K Armstrong, Stephanie Gaillard, Chad Michener, Robert DeBernardo, Peter G Rose
OBJECTIVES: Women with advanced-stage, low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSC) have low chemotherapy response rates and poor overall survival. Most LGSC tumors overexpress hormone receptors, which represent a potential treatment target. Our study objective was to determine the outcomes of patients with advanced-stage LGSC treated with primary cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hormone therapy (HT). METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at two academic cancer centers...
July 30, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
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