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Hydra

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645045/hydra-amphiphiles-using-three-heads-and-one-tail-to-influence-aggregate-formation-and-to-kill-pathogenic-bacteria
#1
Tara M Gallagher, John N Marafino, Brenden K Wimbish, Brandi Volkers, Gabriel Fitzgerald, Kristin McKenna, Jason Floyd, Nicholas T Minahan, Brenna Walsh, Kirstie Thompson, David Bruno, Monica Paneru, Sybelle Djikeng, Stephanie Masters, Suma Haji, Kyle Seifert, Kevin L Caran
Hydra amphiphiles mimic the morphology of the mythical multi-headed creatures for which they are named. Likewise, when faced with a pathogenic bacterium, some hydra derivatives are as destructive as their fabled counterparts were to their adversaries. This report focuses on eight new tricephalic (triple-headed), single-tailed amphiphiles. Each amphiphile has a mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) core, two benzylic trimethylammonium groups and one dimethylalkylammonium group with a linear hydrophobe ranging from short (C8H17) to ultralong (C22H45)...
June 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633361/evolution-of-mirna-tailing-by-3-terminal-uridylyl-transferases-in-metazoa
#2
Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Yehu Moran
In bilaterian animals the 3' ends of microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently modified by tailing and trimming. These modifications affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation by modulating miRNA stability. Here we analyzed data from three non-bilaterian animals: two cnidarians (Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata) and one poriferan (Amphimedon queenslandica). Our analysis revealed that non-bilaterian miRNAs frequently undergo modifications like the bilaterian counterparts: the majority are expressed as different length isoforms and frequent modifications of the 3' end by mono U or mono A tailing are observed...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630355/apical-and-basal-epitheliomuscular-f-actin-dynamics-during-hydra-bud-evagination
#3
Roland Aufschnaiter, Roland Wedlich-Söldner, Xiaoming Zhang, Bert Hobmayer
Bending of 2D cell sheets is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism during animal development and reproduction. A critical player driving cell shape during tissue bending is the actin cytoskeleton. Much of our current knowledge about actin dynamics in whole organisms stems from studies of embryonic development in bilaterian model organisms. Here, we have analysed actin-based processes during asexual bud evagination in the simple metazoan Hydra We created transgenic Hydra strains stably expressing the actin marker Lifeact-GFP in either ectodermal or endodermal epitheliomuscular cells...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617633/when-predators-help-prey-adapt-and-persist-in-a-changing-environment
#4
Matthew M Osmond, Sarah P Otto, Christopher A Klausmeier
To persist in a changing world, populations must adapt. The ability to adapt is influenced by interactions with other species, such as predators. Recent experiments and theory suggest that selective pressures arising from predation may help prey adapt phenotypically to changing environments, but how this influences persistence remains unclear. In particular, it has not yet been shown whether predator-induced adaptation can outweigh predator-imposed reductions in population size, allowing prey to persist when they would otherwise go extinct...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601529/functional-studies-on-the-role-of-notch-signaling-in-hydractinia-development
#5
James M Gahan, Christine E Schnitzler, Timothy Q DuBuc, Liam B Doonan, Justyna Kanska, Sebastian G Gornik, Sofia Barreira, Kerry Thompson, Philipp Schiffer, Andreas D Baxevanis, Uri Frank
The function of Notch signaling was previously studied in two cnidarians, Hydra and Nematostella, representing the lineages Hydrozoa and Anthozoa, respectively. Using pharmacological inhibition in Hydra and a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches in Nematostella, it was shown in both animals that Notch is required for tentacle morphogenesis and for late stages of stinging cell maturation. Surprisingly, a role for Notch in neural development, which is well documented in bilaterians, was evident in embryonic Nematostella but not in adult Hydra...
June 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530202/effect-of-age-and-blood-pressure-on-determination-of-normal-fluid-status-in-a-general-population-using-whole-body-and-calf-bioimpedance-techniques
#6
Fansan Zhu, Samer R Abbas, Peter Kotanko, Nathan W Levin
Normal fluid status (dry weight) can be identified by hydration markers established in the healthy population. The general population average could be influenced by age with its accompanying physiological changes and/or illness. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of age and systolic blood pressure (SBP) on these markers; (2) to compare mean values of hydration markers as assessed by different bioimpedance techniques. Subjects from the general population (n  =  212, males 105, 57...
June 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503088/restoring-trail-induced-apoptosis-using-naturopathy-hercules-joins-hand-with-nature-to-triumph-over-lernaean-hydra
#7
REVIEW
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Cosmo Damiano Gadaleta, Girolamo Ranieri, Sundas Fayyaz, Ilaria Marech
Cancer is a multifaceted disease. Our deepened knowledge about genetic and biological mechanisms of cancer cells presents an opportunity to explore the inter-individual differences in the body's ability to metabolize and respond to different nutrients. It is becoming progressively more understandable that the deregulation of several signaling pathways and the alterations in apoptotic response are some of the major determinants that underpin carcinogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-mediated signaling has gained a remarkable appreciation because of its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells leaving normal cells intact...
February 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482661/insights-into-formation-and-structure-of-a%C3%AE-oligomers-cross-linked-via-tyrosines
#8
Shuting Zhang, Dillion M Fox, Brigita Urbanc
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is hypothesized to be triggered by amyloid β-protein (Aβ) assembly into oligomers. Oligomer size distributions of both predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, can be determined in vitro using cross-linking followed by gel electrophoresis. Cross-linking, which can occur in vivo in the presence of copper and hydrogen peroxide, was recently shown to stabilize Aβ oligomers by inhibiting their conversion into fibrils. Whereas several studies showed that cross-linking is facilitated by dityrosine bond formation, the molecular-level mechanism of cross-linking remains unclear...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441559/hydra-imaging-nerve-nets-in-action
#9
Ni Ji, Steven W Flavell
Mapping whole-brain activity during behavior represents one of the biggest and most exciting challenges of systems neuroscience. New research has taken advantage of the unique biology of an ancient organism to bring us a step closer to that goal.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416816/scalable-electrophysiology-in-intact-small-animals-with-nanoscale-suspended-electrode-arrays
#10
Daniel L Gonzales, Krishna N Badhiwala, Daniel G Vercosa, Benjamin W Avants, Zheng Liu, Weiwei Zhong, Jacob T Robinson
Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires invasive dissections and is low-throughput. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the first extracellular recordings of body-wall muscle electrophysiology inside an intact roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411398/bud-detachment-in-hydra-requires-activation-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-and-a-rho-rock-myosin-ii-signaling-pathway-to-ensure-formation-of-a-basal-constriction
#11
Oliver Holz, David Apel, Patrick Steinmetz, Ellen Lange, Simon Hopfenmüller, Kerstin Ohler, Stefanie Sudhop, Monika Hassel
BACKGROUND: Hydra propagates asexually by exporting tissue into a bud, which detaches 4 days later as a fully differentiated young polyp. Prerequisite for detachment is activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling. The mechanism which enables constriction and tissue separation within the monolayered ecto- and endodermal epithelia is unknown. RESULTS: Histological sections and staining of F-actin by phalloidin revealed conspicuous cell shape changes at the bud detachment site indicating a localized generation of mechanical forces and the potential enhancement of secretory functions in ectodermal cells...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366745/non-overlapping-neural-networks-in-hydra-vulgaris
#12
Christophe Dupre, Rafael Yuste
To understand the emergent properties of neural circuits, it would be ideal to record the activity of every neuron in a behaving animal and decode how it relates to behavior. We have achieved this with the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris, using calcium imaging of genetically engineered animals to measure the activity of essentially all of its neurons. Although the nervous system of Hydra is traditionally described as a simple nerve net, we surprisingly find instead a series of functional networks that are anatomically non-overlapping and are associated with specific behaviors...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341397/degradation-of-textile-dyes-by-cyanobacteria
#13
Priscila Maria Dellamatrice, Maria Estela Silva-Stenico, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de Moraes, Marli Fátima Fiore, Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro
Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331473/mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-the-epileptic-brain-taking-on-the-lernaean-hydra
#14
Steve Danzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248594/dissecting-common-and-divergent-molecular-pathways-elicited-by-cdse-zns-quantum-dots-in-freshwater-and-marine-sentinel-invertebrates
#15
Alfredo Ambrosone, Modi Roopin, Beatriz Pelaz, Abuelmagd M Abdelmonem, Lisa-Maria Ackermann, Lucia Mattera, Mariateresa Allocca, Angela Tino, Markus Klapper, Wolfgang J Parak, Oren Levy, Claudia Tortiglione
Water ecosystems represent main targets of unintentional contamination of nanomaterials, due to industrial waste or other anthropogenic activities. Nanoparticle insult to living organisms may occur in a sequential way, first by chemical interactions of the material with the target membrane, then by progressive internalisation and interaction with cellular structures and organelles. These events trigger a signal transduction, through which cells modulate molecular pathway in order to respond and survive to the external elicitation...
March 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222982/ecotoxicological-assessment-of-cobalt-using-hydra-model-ros-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-as-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#16
Mohammed Zeeshan, Anbazhagan Murugadas, Surendra Ghaskadbi, Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha
The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD...
May 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187896/hydra-a-web-based-system-for-cardiovascular-analysis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
J Novo, A Hermida, M Ortega, N Barreira, M G Penedo, J E López, C Calvo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is a highly complex process involving an extensive set of clinical trials to support the clinical decision-making process. There are many clinical conditions (e.g. diabetes, obesity, stress, etc.) that can lead to the early diagnosis or establishment of cardiovascular disease. In order to determine all these clinical conditions, a complete set of clinical patient analyses is typically performed, including a physical examination, blood analysis, electrocardiogram, blood pressure (BP) analysis, etc...
February 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185543/an-atlas-of-annotations-of-hydra-vulgaris-transcriptome
#18
Daniela Evangelista, Kumar Parijat Tripathi, Mario Rosario Guarracino
BACKGROUND: RNA sequencing takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies for analyzing RNA transcript counts with an excellent accuracy. Trying to interpret this huge amount of data in biological information is still a key issue, reason for which the creation of web-resources useful for their analysis is highly desiderable. RESULTS: Starting from a previous work, Transcriptator, we present the Atlas of Hydra's vulgaris, an extensible web tool in which its complete transcriptome is annotated...
September 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178519/structural-inheritance-of-the-actin-cytoskeletal-organization-determines-the-body-axis-in-regenerating-hydra
#19
Anton Livshits, Lital Shani-Zerbib, Yonit Maroudas-Sacks, Erez Braun, Kinneret Keren
Understanding how mechanics complement bio-signaling in defining patterns during morphogenesis is an outstanding challenge. Here, we utilize the multicellular polyp Hydra to investigate the role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in morphogenesis. We find that the supra-cellular actin fiber organization is inherited from the parent Hydra and determines the body axis in regenerating tissue segments. This form of structural inheritance is non-trivial because of the tissue folding and dynamic actin reorganization involved...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134991/the-parthenocarpic-hydra-mutant-reveals-a-new-function-for-a-sporocyteless-like-gene-in-the-control-of-fruit-set-in-tomato
#20
Pilar Rojas-Gracia, Edelin Roque, Mónica Medina, Maricruz Rochina, Rim Hamza, María Pilar Angarita-Díaz, Vicente Moreno, Fernando Pérez-Martín, Rafael Lozano, Luis Cañas, José Pío Beltrán, Concepción Gómez-Mena
Fruit set is an essential process to ensure successful sexual plant reproduction. The development of the flower into a fruit is actively repressed in the absence of pollination. However, some cultivars from a few species are able to develop seedless fruits overcoming the standard restriction of unpollinated ovaries to growth. We report here the identification of the tomato hydra mutant that produces seedless (parthenocarpic) fruits. Seedless fruit production in hydra plants is linked to the absence of both male and female sporocyte development...
January 30, 2017: New Phytologist
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