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Dmitry S Bogolyubov
The karyosphere, aka the karyosome, is a meiosis-specific structure that represents a "knot" of condensed chromosomes joined together in a limited volume of the oocyte nucleus. The karyosphere is an evolutionarily conserved but morphologically rather "multifaceted" structure. It forms at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase in many animals, from hydra and Drosophila to human. Karyosphere formation is generally linked with transcriptional silencing of the genome. It is believed that karyosphere/karyosome is a prerequisite for proper completion of meiotic divisions and further development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Dimitri Topalis, Sarah Gillemot, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Herpesviruses thymidine kinase (TK) and protein kinase (PK) allow the activation of nucleoside analogues used in anti-herpesvirus treatments. Mutations emerging in these two genes often lead to emergence of drug-resistant strains responsible for life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised populations. In this review, we analyze the binding of different nucleoside analogues to the TK active site of the three α-herpesviruses [Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)] and present the impact of known mutations on the structure of the viral TKs...
March 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Rubén Ladrera, Joan Gomà, Narcís Prat
This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the impact of Didymosphenia geminata massive growths upon river ecosystem communities' composition and functioning. This is the first study to jointly consider the taxonomic composition and functional structure of diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages in order to determine changes in community structure, and the food web alterations associated with this invasive alga. This study was carried out in the Lumbreras River (Ebro Basin, La Rioja, Northern Spain), which has been affected by a considerable massive growth of D...
2018: PloS One
Stijn Mouton, Magda Grudniewska, Lisa Glazenburg, Victor Guryev, Eugene Berezikov
Animals show a large variability of lifespan, ranging from short-lived as Caenorhabditis elegans to immortal as Hydra. A fascinating case is flatworms, in which reversal of aging by regeneration is proposed, yet conclusive evidence for this rejuvenation-by-regeneration hypothesis is lacking. We tested this hypothesis by inducing regeneration in the sexual free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We studied survival, fertility, morphology, and gene expression as a function of age. Here, we report that after regeneration, genes expressed in the germline are upregulated at all ages, but no signs of rejuvenation are observed...
February 28, 2018: Aging Cell
Athanasios Saratzis, Virginia Chiocchia, Ahmad Jiffry, Neelam Hassanali, Surjeet Singh, Christopher H Imray, Matthew J Bown, Asif Mahmood
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Up to 25% of patients undergoing elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) develop acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with short and long-term morbidity and mortality. There is no high quality randomised evidence regarding prevention of EVAR related AKI. METHODS: A novel AKI prevention strategy for EVAR was devised, based on best evidence and an expert consensus group. This included a bolus of high dose sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) immediately before EVAR (1 mL/kg of 8...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Michael J Layden
To understand the ancestral and evolved roles of zic homologs, it is important to reconstruct the putative roles of ancient zic homologs in the animal phylogeny. Most studies of zic genes have been conducted in model systems that are members of the bilaterian phylum. However, two additional phyla have zic homologs encoded in their genomes. The three animal phyla that contain zic homologs all share a common ancestor and collectively are termed the parahoxozoans (cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish), placozoans (Trichoplax adhaerens), and bilaterians (chordates, insects, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, etc...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Philip M C Davy, Richard C Allsopp, Timothy A Donlon, Brian J Morris, Donald Craig Willcox, Bradley J Willcox
Aging is a complex, multifactorial process with significant plasticity. While several biological pathways appear to influence aging, few genes have been identified that are both evolutionarily conserved and have a strong impact on aging and age-related phenotypes. The FoxO3 gene (FOXO3), and its homologs in model organisms, appears especially important, forming a key gene in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-signaling pathway, and influencing life span across diverse species. We highlight some of the key findings that are associated with FoxO3 protein, its gene and homologs in relation to lifespan in different species, and the insights these findings might provide about the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that modulate aging and longevity in humans...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Lauren E Friedman, Thomas D Gilmore, John R Finnerty
Nematostella vectensis is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, a lineage that includes anemones, corals, hydras, and jellyfishes. This estuarine anemone is an excellent model system for investigating the evolution of stress tolerance because it is easy to collect in its natural habitat and to culture in the laboratory, and it has a sequenced genome. Additionally, there is evidence of local adaptation to environmental stress in different N. vectensis populations, and abundant protein-coding polymorphisms have been identified, including polymorphisms in proteins that are implicated in stress responses...
2018: PloS One
Hui-Na Liu, Ning-Ning Guo, Tian-Tian Wang, Wang-Wei Guo, Meng-Ting Lin, Ming-Yi Huang-Fu, Mohammad Reza Vakili, Wen-Hong Xu, Jie-Jian Chen, Qi-Chun Wei, Min Han, Afsaneh Lavasanifar, Jian-Qing Gao
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle for chemotherapy. In a previous study, we have successfully synthesized a novel doxorubicin (DOX) derivative modified by triphenylphosphonium (TPP) to realize mitochondrial delivery of DOX and showed the potential of this compound to overcome DOX resistance in MDA-MB-435/DOX cells.1 To introduce specificity for DOX-TPP to cancer cells, here we report on the conjugation of DOX-TPP to hyaluronic acid (HA) by hydrazone bond with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as the acid-responsive linker, producing HA-hydra-DOX-TPP nanoparticles...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Maria Rita Fumagalli, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
While almost all animals are able to at least partially replace some lost parts, regeneration abilities vary considerably across species. Here we study gene expression patterns in distantly related species to investigate conserved regeneration strategies. To this end, we collect from the literature transcriptomic data obtained during the regeneration of three species (Hydra magnipapillata, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Apostichopus japonicus), and compare them with gene expression during regeneration in vertebrates and mammals...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
Aldo Nicosia, Carmelo Bennici, Girolama Biondo, Salvatore Costa, Marilena Di Natale, Tiziana Masullo, Calogera Monastero, Maria Antonietta Ragusa, Marcello Tagliavia, Angela Cuttitta
Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure...
January 11, 2018: Genes
Qiwen Liao, Shengnan Li, Shirley Weng In Siu, Binrui Yang, Chen Huang, Judy Yuet-Wa Chan, Jean-Étienne Morlighem, Clarence Tsun Ting Wong, Gandhi Radis-Baptista, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee
Palythoa caribaeorum (class Anthozoa) is a zoanthid that together jellyfishes, hydra, and sea anemones, which are venomous and predatory, belongs to the Phyllum Cnidaria. The distinguished feature in these marine animals is the cnidocytes in the body tissues, responsible for toxin production and injection that are used majorly for prey capture and defense. With exception for other anthozoans, the toxin cocktails of zoanthids have been scarcely studied and are poorly known. Here, based on the analysis of P. caribaeorum transcriptome, numerous predicted venom-featured polypeptides were identified, including allergens, neurotoxins, membrane-active and Kunitz-like peptides (PcKuz)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
John C Bythell, Barbara E Brown, Thomas B L Kirkwood
Hydra is emerging as a model organism for studies of ageing in early metazoan animals, but reef corals offer an equally ancient evolutionary perspective as well as several advantages, not least being the hard exoskeleton which provides a rich fossil record as well as a record of growth and means of ageing of individual coral polyps. Reef corals are also widely regarded as potentially immortal at the level of the asexual lineage and are assumed not to undergo an intrinsic ageing process. However, putative molecular indicators of ageing have recently been detected in reef corals...
December 28, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Thomas J Mooney, Ceiwen Pease, Melanie Trenfield, Rick van Dam, Andrew J Harford
There is limited data concerning the toxicity of ammonia in fresh soft-waters. Ammonia toxicity is largely dependent on pH and temperature. The USEPA have derived equations to adjust species toxicity estimates based on changes in pH and temperature. It has been reported that the pH-ammonia toxicity relationship, derived by the USEPA, may differ in waters with low ionic concentrations due to the absence of potentially ameliorative ionic constituents. The present study aimed to assess the pH-ammonia toxicity relationship for the tropical green hydra, Hydra viridissima, across a range of pH in a natural water with low ionic content...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Tiffany T Locke, Winnie H Shi, Robert E Steele, Eva-Maria S Collins
Cell sorting, whereby a heterogeneous cell mixture organizes into distinct tissues, is a fundamental patterning process in development. Hydra is a powerful model system for carrying out studies of cell sorting in three dimensions, because of its unique ability to regenerate after complete dissociation into individual cells. The physicists Alfred Gierer and Hans Meinhardt recognized Hydra's self-organizing properties more than 40 years ago. However, what drives cell sorting during regeneration of Hydra from cell aggregates is still debated...
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Daniel J Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Flavia Vitale, Daniel G Vercosa, Alexander V Rodriguez, Sushma Sri Pamulapati, Frederik Seibt, Eric Lewis, J Stephen Yan, Krishna Badhiwala, Mohammed Adnan, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Michael Beierlein, Caleb Kemere, Matteo Pasquali, Jacob T Robinson
Soft and conductive nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanowire scaffolds have expanded the family of ultraflexible microelectrodes that can bend and flex with the natural movement of the brain, reduce the inflammatory response, and improve the stability of long-term neural recordings. However, current methods to implant these highly flexible electrodes rely on temporary stiffening agents that temporarily increase the electrode size and stiffness thus aggravating neural damage during implantation, which can lead to cell loss and glial activation that persists even after the stiffening agents are removed or dissolve...
January 10, 2018: Nano Letters
Fionn Murphy, Brian Quinn
Microplastic pollution has been a growing concern in the aquatic environment for several years. The abundance of microplastics in the environment has invariably led them to interact with a variety of different aquatic species. The small size of microplastics may make them bioavailable to a great range of species however, the impact this may have is not fully understood. Much of the research on microplastic pollution has focused on the marine environment and species with little research undertaken in freshwater...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
Brent Keeling, Michael E Halkos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Nathan J Kenny, Jasper M de Goeij, Didier M de Bakker, Casey G Whalen, Eugene Berezikov, Ana Riesgo
Regeneration is an essential process for all multicellular organisms, allowing them to recover effectively from internal and external injury. This process has been studied extensively in a medical context in vertebrates, with pathways often investigated mechanistically, both to derive increased understanding and as potential drug targets for therapy. Several species from other parts of the metazoan tree of life, including Hydra, planarians and echinoderms, noted for their regenerative capabilities, have previously been targeted for study...
November 29, 2017: Marine Genomics
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