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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248594/dissecting-common-and-divergent-molecular-pathways-elicited-by-cdse-zns-quantum-dots-in-freshwater-and-marine-sentinel-invertebrates
#1
Alfredo Ambrosone, Modi Roopin, Beatriz Pelaz, Abuelmagd M Abdelmonem, Lisa-Maria Ackermann, Lucia Mattera, Mariateresa Allocca, Angela Tino, Markus Klapper, Wolfgang J Parak, Oren Levy, Claudia Tortiglione
Water ecosystems represent main targets of unintentional contamination of nanomaterials, due to industrial waste or other anthropogenic activities. Nanoparticle insult to living organisms may occur in a sequential way, first by chemical interactions of the material with the target membrane, then by progressive internalisation and interaction with cellular structures and organelles. These events trigger a signal transduction, through which cells modulate molecular pathway in order to respond and survive to the external elicitation...
March 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222982/ecotoxicological-assessment-of-cobalt-using-hydra-model-ros-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-as-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#2
Mohammed Zeeshan, Anbazhagan Murugadas, Surendra Ghaskadbi, Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha
The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187896/hydra-a-web-based-system-for-cardiovascular-analysis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
J Novo, A Hermida, M Ortega, N Barreira, M G Penedo, J E López, C Calvo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is a highly complex process involving an extensive set of clinical trials to support the clinical decision-making process. There are many clinical conditions (e.g. diabetes, obesity, stress, etc.) that can lead to the early diagnosis or establishment of cardiovascular disease. In order to determine all these clinical conditions, a complete set of clinical patient analyses is typically performed, including a physical examination, blood analysis, electrocardiogram, blood pressure (BP) analysis, etc...
February 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185543/an-atlas-of-annotations-of-hydra-vulgaris-transcriptome
#4
Daniela Evangelista, Kumar Parijat Tripathi, Mario Rosario Guarracino
BACKGROUND: RNA sequencing takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies for analyzing RNA transcript counts with an excellent accuracy. Trying to interpret this huge amount of data in biological information is still a key issue, reason for which the creation of web-resources useful for their analysis is highly desiderable. RESULTS: Starting from a previous work, Transcriptator, we present the Atlas of Hydra's vulgaris, an extensible web tool in which its complete transcriptome is annotated...
September 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178519/structural-inheritance-of-the-actin-cytoskeletal-organization-determines-the-body-axis-in-regenerating-hydra
#5
Anton Livshits, Lital Shani-Zerbib, Yonit Maroudas-Sacks, Erez Braun, Kinneret Keren
Understanding how mechanics complement bio-signaling in defining patterns during morphogenesis is an outstanding challenge. Here, we utilize the multicellular polyp Hydra to investigate the role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in morphogenesis. We find that the supra-cellular actin fiber organization is inherited from the parent Hydra and determines the body axis in regenerating tissue segments. This form of structural inheritance is non-trivial because of the tissue folding and dynamic actin reorganization involved...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134991/the-parthenocarpic-hydra-mutant-reveals-a-new-function-for-a-sporocyteless-like-gene-in-the-control-of-fruit-set-in-tomato
#6
Pilar Rojas-Gracia, Edelin Roque, Mónica Medina, Maricruz Rochina, Rim Hamza, María Pilar Angarita-Díaz, Vicente Moreno, Fernando Pérez-Martín, Rafael Lozano, Luis Cañas, José Pío Beltrán, Concepción Gómez-Mena
Fruit set is an essential process to ensure successful sexual plant reproduction. The development of the flower into a fruit is actively repressed in the absence of pollination. However, some cultivars from a few species are able to develop seedless fruits overcoming the standard restriction of unpollinated ovaries to growth. We report here the identification of the tomato hydra mutant that produces seedless (parthenocarpic) fruits. Seedless fruit production in hydra plants is linked to the absence of both male and female sporocyte development...
January 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117771/inducing-complete-polyp-regeneration-from-the-aboral-physa-of-the-starlet-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#7
Patricia Bossert, Gerald H Thomsen
Cnidarians, and specifically Hydra, were the first animals shown to regenerate damaged or severed structures, and indeed such studies arguably launched modern biological inquiry through the work of Trembley more than 250 years ago. Presently the study of regeneration has seen a resurgence using both "classic" regenerative organisms, such as the Hydra, planaria and Urodeles, as well as a widening spectrum of species spanning the range of metazoa, from sponges through mammals. Besides its intrinsic interest as a biological phenomenon, understanding how regeneration works in a variety of species will inform us about whether regenerative processes share common features and/or species or context-specific cellular and molecular mechanisms...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078622/evidence-that-polycystins-are-involved-in-hydra-cnidocyte-discharge
#8
Susan McLaughlin
Like other cnidarians, the freshwater organism Hydra is characterized by the possession of cnidocytes (stinging cells). Most cnidocytes are located on hydra tentacles, where they are organized along with sensory cells and ganglion cells into battery complexes. The function of the battery complexes is to integrate multiple types of stimuli for the regulation of cnidocyte discharge. The molecular mechanisms controlling the discharge of cnidocytes are not yet fully understood, but it is known that discharge depends on extracellular Ca(2+) and that mechanically induced cnidocyte discharge can be enhanced by the presence of prey extracts and other chemicals...
March 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069433/dual-recognition-activity-of-a-rhamnose-binding-lectin-to-pathogenic-bacteria-and-zooxanthellae-in-stony-coral-pocillopora-damicornis
#9
Zhi Zhou, Xiaopeng Yu, Jia Tang, Yunjie Zhu, Guangmei Chen, Liping Guo, Bo Huang
Rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) is a type of Ca(2+)-independent lectin with tandem repeat carbohydrate-recognition domain, and is crucial for the innate immunity in many invertebrates. In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding RBL in coral Pocillopora damicornis (PdRBL-1) was cloned. The PdRBL-1 protein shared highest amino acid sequence similarity (55%) with the polyp of Hydra vulgaris, and contained a signal peptide and two tandem carbohydrate-recognition domains in which all cysteine residues were conserved...
January 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057045/validation-of-a-new-method-for-the-endoscopic-measurement-of-post-bariatric-gastric-outlet-using-a-standard-guidewire-an-observer-agreement-study
#10
Luiz Gustavo de Quadros, Manoel Dos Passos Galvão Neto, Josemberg Marins Campos, Roberto Luiz Kaiser Junior, Eduardo Grecco, Mario Flamini Junior, Marcelo Falcao de Santana, Idiberto Jose Zotarelli Filho, Adriano Augusto Tomas Vasconcelos Almeida Alexandre
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Between 10 and 20% of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery procedures regain weight secondary to a gastrojejunostomy enlargement. The aim of this study was to validate the interobserver agreement while measuring gastric outlet diameters using a new standard guidewire. METHODS: We selected thirty-five videos of consecutive endoscopic procedures on patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. All videos were evaluated by four raters: two expert endoscopists and two trainees...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012975/prey-dynamics-under-generalist-predator-culling-in-stage-structured-models
#11
Michel Iskin da S Costa, Pedro V Esteves, Lucas Del Bianco Faria, Lucas Dos Anjos
In this paper, by means of mathematical dynamical models we investigate the impacts of predator culling on a prey population structured in two stage classes, juveniles and adults, assuming stage specific predation by two generalist predators with functional responses types 2 and 3 in all possible combinations. According to the chosen set of parameter values, these impacts can manifest through possible demographic Allee effects, sustained population oscillations, alternative stable states (e.g., predator-pit-like behavior) and Hydra effect, which are all discussed, in turn, in terms of species conservation, harvest yield and pest biological control...
December 21, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995409/the-hydra-regeneration-assay-reveals-ecological-risks-in-running-waters-a-new-proposal-to-detect-environmental-teratogenic-threats
#12
Lorenzo Traversetti, Floriano Del Grosso, Valentina Malafoglia, Marco Colasanti, Simona Ceschin, Stefano Larsen, Massimiliano Scalici
The regenerative ability of Hydra vulgaris was tested as potential biomarker for the development of a new eco-toxicological index. The test is based on the regeneration rate and the aberration frequency of the columna (body and adhesive foot) after separation from head and tentacles by a bistoury. Particularly, 45 columnae were submerged in the rearing solution (that is Hydra medium) to have control, and 285 in potential contaminated waters to have treatments, collected from 19 sites along 10 rivers in central Italy...
March 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941639/evolution-of-the-cytolytic-pore-forming-proteins-actinoporins-in-sea-anemones
#13
Jason Macrander, Marymegan Daly
Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria) use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach to investigate how actinoporins have evolved across three superfamilies of sea anemones (Actinioidea, Metridioidea, and Actinostoloidea)...
December 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803185/the-origin-of-mucosal-immunity-lessons-from-the-holobiont-hydra
#14
REVIEW
Katja Schröder, Thomas C G Bosch
Historically, mucosal immunity-i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism's various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes-has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790207/transitioning-from-microbiome-composition-to-microbial-community-interactions-the-potential-of-the-metaorganism-hydra-as-an-experimental-model
#15
Peter Deines, Thomas C G Bosch
Animals are home to complex microbial communities, which are shaped through interactions within the community, interactions with the host, and through environmental factors. The advent of high-throughput sequencing methods has led to novel insights in changing patterns of community composition and structure. However, deciphering the different types of interactions among community members, with their hosts and their interplay with their environment is still a challenge of major proportion. The emerging fields of synthetic microbial ecology and community systems biology have the potential to decrypt these complex relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787834/cx-dpx-and-pcw-web-servers-for-the-visualization-of-interior-and-protruding-regions-of-protein-structures-in-3d-and-1d
#16
Balázs Ligeti, Roberto Vera, János Juhász, Sándor Pongor
The CX and DPX web-based servers at http://pongor.itk.ppke.hu/bioinfoservices are dedicated to the analysis of protein 3D structures submitted by the users as Protein Data Bank (PDB) files. CX computes an atomic protrusion index, cx that makes it possible to highlight the protruding atoms within a protein 3D structure. DPX calculates a depth index, dpx for buried atoms, and allows one to visualize the distribution of buried residues. CX and DPX visualize 3D structures colored according to the calculated indices and return PDB files that can be visualized using standard programs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693365/hydra-effects-in-discrete-time-models-of-stable-communities
#17
Michael H Cortez
A species exhibits a hydra effect when, counter-intuitively, increased mortality of the species causes an increase in its abundance. Hydra effects have been studied in many continuous time (differential equation) multispecies models, but only rarely have hydra effects been observed in or studied with discrete time (difference equation) multispecies models. In addition most discrete time theory focuses on single-species models. Thus, it is unclear what unifying characteristics determine when hydra effects arise in discrete time models...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661452/profiling-of-adhesive-related-genes-in-the-freshwater-cnidarian-hydra-magnipapillata-by-transcriptomics-and-proteomics
#18
Marcelo Rodrigues, Thomas Ostermann, Leopold Kremeser, Herbert Lindner, Christian Beisel, Eugene Berezikov, Bert Hobmayer, Peter Ladurner
The differentiated ectodermal basal disc cells of the freshwater cnidarian Hydra secrete proteinaceous glue to temporarily attach themselves to underwater surfaces. Using transcriptome sequencing and a basal disc-specific RNA-seq combined with in situ hybridisation a highly specific set of candidate adhesive genes was identified. A de novo transcriptome assembly of 55,849 transcripts (>200 bp) was generated using paired-end and single reads from Illumina libraries constructed from different polyp conditions...
October 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631392/exploring-the-hydration-method-for-loading-sirna-on-liposomes-the-interplay-between-stability-and-biological-activity-in-human-undiluted-ascites-fluid
#19
George R Dakwar, Kevin Braeckmans, Wim Ceelen, Stefaan C De Smedt, Katrien Remaut
Delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is recently gaining tremendous attention for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The present study investigated the potential of different liposomal formulations composed of (2,3-dioleoyloxy-propyl)-trimethylammonium (DOTAP) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) encapsulating siRNA (hydration method) for their ability to knockdown luciferase (Luc) activity in human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. Fluorescence single particle tracking (fSPT) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in human-undiluted ascites fluid obtained from a peritoneal carcinomatosis patient revealed that cationic hydra-lipoplexes (HYDRA-LPXs) and HYDRA-LPXs decorated with stable DSPE-PEG (DSPE HYDRA-LPXs) showed high stability during at least 24 h...
April 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566758/the-transcriptome-of-the-zoanthid-protopalythoa-variabilis-cnidaria-anthozoa-predicts-a-basal-repertoire-of-toxin-like-and-venom-auxiliary-polypeptides
#20
Chen Huang, Jean-Étienne Rl Morlighem, Hefeng Zhou, Érica P Lima, Paula B Gomes, Jing Cai, Inchio Lou, Carlos D Pérez, Simon Ming Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids...
October 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
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