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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933582/dynamic-sensitivity-of-corneal-trpm8-receptors-to-menthol-instillation-in-dry-eye-versus-normal-subjects
#1
Peter Corcoran, David A Hollander, George W Ousler, Endri Angjeli, David Rimmer, Keith Lane, Mark B Abelson
PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of corneal cold receptors to a known transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) agonist, menthol, in dry eye and normals, and to determine whether factors such as disease duration or age affect responses. METHODS: Dry eye disease (DED) (N = 33) and normal (N = 15) subjects were randomly assigned to receive Rohto(®) Hydra (0.01% menthol) or Systane(®) Ultra treatments (OU) in a prospective, double-blind, crossover study...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923926/host-modification-of-a-bacterial-quorum-sensing-signal-induces-a-phenotypic-switch-in-bacterial-symbionts
#2
Cleo Pietschke, Christian Treitz, Sylvain Forêt, Annika Schultze, Sven Künzel, Andreas Tholey, Thomas C G Bosch, Sebastian Fraune
Bacterial communities colonize epithelial surfaces of most animals. Several factors, including the innate immune system, mucus composition, and diet, have been identified as determinants of host-associated bacterial communities. Here we show that the early branching metazoan Hydra is able to modify bacterial quorum-sensing signals. We identified a eukaryotic mechanism that enables Hydra to specifically modify long-chain 3-oxo-homoserine lactones into their 3-hydroxy-HSL counterparts. Expression data revealed that Hydra's main bacterial colonizer, Curvibacter sp...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856734/competing-forces-maintain-the-hydra-metaorganism
#3
REVIEW
Peter Deines, Tim Lachnit, Thomas C G Bosch
Our conventional view of multicellular organisms often overlooks the fact that they are metaorganisms. They consist of a host, which is comprised of both a community of self-replicating cells that can compete as well as cooperate and a community of associated microorganisms. This newly discovered complexity raises a profound challenge: How to maintain such a multicellular association that includes independently replicating units and even different genotypes? Here, we identify competing forces acting at the host tissue level, the host-microbe interface, and within the microbial community as key factors to maintain the metaorganism Hydra...
September 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838366/efficacy-of-rosuvastatin-in-children%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-and-association-with-underlying-genetic-mutations
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Evan A Stein, Eldad J Dann, Albert Wiegman, Flemming Skovby, Daniel Gaudet, Etienne Sokal, Min-Ji Charng, Mafauzy Mohamed, Ilse Luirink, Joel S Raichlen, Mattias Sundén, Stefan C Carlsson, Frederick J Raal, John J P Kastelein
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by extremely elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Statin treatment starts at diagnosis, but no statin has been formally evaluated in, or approved for, HoFH children. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the LDL-C efficacy of rosuvastatin versus placebo in HoFH children, and the relationship with underlying genetic mutations...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827642/functional-and-proteomic-analysis-of-ceratonova-shasta-cnidaria-myxozoa-polar-capsules-reveals-adaptations-to-parasitism
#5
Gadi Piriatinskiy, Stephen D Atkinson, Sinwook Park, David Morgenstern, Vera Brekhman, Gilad Yossifon, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
Myxozoa is a diverse, speciose group of microscopic parasites, recently placed within the phylum Cnidaria. Myxozoans are highly reduced in size and complexity relative to free-living cnidarians, yet they have retained specialized organelles known as polar capsules, akin to the nematocyst stinging capsules of free-living species. Whereas in free-living cnidarians the stinging capsules are used for prey capture or defense, in myxozoans they have the essential function of initiating the host infection process...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770685/insulin-igf-signaling-and-life-history-traits-in-response-to-food-availability-and-perceived-density-in-the-cnidarian-hydra-vulgaris
#6
Flóra Sebestyén, Szilárd Póliska, Rita Rácz, Judit Bereczki, Kinga Lénárt, Zoltán Barta, Ádám Z Lendvai, Jácint Tökölyi
Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is thought to be a central mediator of life history traits, but the generality of its role is not clear. Here, we investigated mRNA expression levels of three insulin-like peptide genes, the insulin-like receptor htk7, as well as several antioxidant genes, and the heat-shock protein hsp70 in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Hydra polyps were exposed to a combination of different levels of food and perceived population density to manipulate life history traits (asexual reproduction and oxidative stress tolerance)...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768106/development-of-high-capacity-enterosorbents-for-aflatoxin-b1-and-other-hazardous-chemicals
#7
Meichen Wang, Cody R Maki, Youjun Deng, Yanan Tian, Timothy D Phillips
Previously, a calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) included in the diet of animals has been shown to bind aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and reduce the symptoms of aflatoxicosis. To investigate and improve the capacity and efficacy of clay-based materials as aflatoxin sorbents, we developed and tested calcium and sodium montmorillonite clays amended with nutrients including l-carnitine and choline. Also, we determined the sorption of AfB1 by isothermal analysis and tested the ability of these amended sorbents to protect adult hydra from AfB1 toxicity...
September 5, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764138/coating-carbon-nanotubes-with-humic-acid-using-an-eco-friendly-mechanochemical-method-application-for-cu-ii-ions-removal-from-water-and-aquatic-ecotoxicity
#8
Francine Côa, Mathias Strauss, Zaira Clemente, Laís L Rodrigues Neto, Josias R Lopes, Rafael S Alencar, Antônio G Souza Filho, Oswaldo L Alves, Vera Lúcia S S Castro, Edison Barbieri, Diego Stéfani T Martinez
In this work, industrial grade multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were coated with humic acid (HA) for the first time by means of a milling process, which can be considered an eco-friendly mechanochemical method to prepare materials and composites. The HA-MWCNT hybrid material was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopies (SEM and STEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), termogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. STEM and AFM images demonstrated that the MWCNTs were efficiently coated by the humic acid, thus leading to an increase of 20% in the oxygen content at the nanotube surface as observed by the XPS data...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733226/allatoregulatory-like-systems-and-changes-in-cytosolic-ca-2-modulate-feeding-behavior-in-hydra
#9
María Eugenia Alzugaray, Jorge Rafael Ronderos
Allatotropin (AT) and allatostatin-C (AST-C) are neuropeptides originally characterized by their ability to modulate the secretion of juvenile hormones in insects. Beyond the allatoregulatory function, these neuropeptides are pleiotropic acting as myoregulators not only in insects, but also in other groups of invertebrates. We have previously proposed the existence of AT and AST-C like systems in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which is a basal group of Metazoa, sharing a common ancestor with Bilateria...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727426/fully-atomistic-a%C3%AE-40-and-a%C3%AE-42-oligomers-in-water-observation-of-porelike-conformations
#10
Matthew J Voelker, Bogdan Barz, Brigita Urbanc
Oligomers formed by amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, yet their structure remains elusive. Of the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, the latter is more strongly associated with AD. Here, we structurally characterized Aβ40 and Aβ42 monomers through pentamers which were converted from previously derived coarse-grained (DMD4B-HYDRA) simulations into all-atom conformations and subjected to explicit-solvent MD. Free energy landscapes revealed that structural differences between Aβ40 and Aβ42 conformations increase with oligomer order up to trimers...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720323/rapid-divergence-of-histones-in-hydrozoa-cnidaria-and-evolution-of-a-novel-histone-involved-in-dna-damage-response-in-hydra
#11
Puli Chandramouli Reddy, Suyog Ubhe, Neha Sirwani, Rasika Lohokare, Sanjeev Galande
Histones are fundamental components of chromatin in all eukaryotes. Hydra, an emerging model system belonging to the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria, provides an ideal platform to understand the evolution of core histone components at the base of eumetazoan phyla. Hydra exhibits peculiar properties such as tremendous regenerative capacity, lack of organismal senescence and rarity of malignancy. In light of the role of histone modifications and histone variants in these processes it is important to understand the nature of histones themselves and their variants in hydra...
June 15, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715393/generation-and-long-term-maintenance-of-nerve-free-hydra
#12
Cassidy M Tran, Sharon Fu, Trevor Rowe, Eva-Maria S Collins
The interstitial cell lineage of Hydra includes multipotent stem cells, and their derivatives: gland cells, nematocytes, germ cells, and nerve cells. The interstitial cells can be eliminated through two consecutive treatments with colchicine, a plant-derived toxin that kills dividing cells, thus erasing the potential for renewal of the differentiated cells that are derived from the interstitial stem cells. This allows for the generation of Hydra that lack nerve cells. A nerve-free polyp cannot open its mouth to feed, egest, or regulate osmotic pressure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709010/eco-aging-stem-cells-and-microbes-are-controlled-by-aging-antagonist-foxo
#13
REVIEW
Benedikt M Mortzfeld, Thomas Cg Bosch
The review highlights the dual role that the conserved master regulator FoxO has in aging by coordinating both stem cell proliferation and antimicrobial peptides, effector molecules of the innate immune system. As observed in non-senescent Hydra, continuously high activity of the transcription factor FoxO contributes to continuous stem cell proliferation and could support robust colonization of epithelia with a stable microbiome. The integration of research from stem cell biology, microbiology and ecology into aging concepts (Eco-Aging) acknowledges the multi-organismic nature of all living beings and presents a new conceptual framework for explaining the process of aging...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695958/identification-and-characterization-of-the-autophagy-related-genes-atg12-and-atg5-in-hydra
#14
Nishikant S Dixit, Bhupendra V Shravage, Surendra Ghaskadbi
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process in eukaryotic cells that is involved in the degradation of cytoplasmic contents including organelles via the lysosome. Hydra is an early metazoan which exhibits simple tissue grade organization, a primitive nervous system, and is one of the classical non-bilaterian models extensively used in evo-devo research. Here, we describe the characterization of two core autophagy genes, Atg12 and Atg5, from hydra. In silico analyses including sequence similarity, domain analysis, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate the conservation of these genes across eukaryotes...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662098/molecular-cloning-and-biochemical-characterization-of-two-cation-chloride-cotransporter-subfamily-members-of-hydra-vulgaris
#15
Anna-Maria Hartmann, Lucie I Pisella, Igor Medina, Hans Gerd Nothwang
Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) comprise secondary active membrane proteins mainly mediating the symport of cations (Na+, K+) coupled with chloride (Cl-). They are divided into K+-Cl- outward transporters (KCCs), the Na+-K+-Cl- (NKCCs) and Na+-Cl- (NCCs) inward transporters, the cation chloride cotransporter interacting protein CIP1, and the polyamine transporter CCC9. KCCs and N(K)CCs are established in the genome since eukaryotes and metazoans, respectively. Most of the physiological and functional data were obtained from vertebrate species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653810/the-piwi-pirna-pathway-road-to-immortality
#16
Ádám Sturm, András Perczel, Zoltán Ivics, Tibor Vellai
Despite its medical, social, and economic significance, understanding what primarily causes aging, that is, the mechanisms of the aging process, remains a fundamental and fascinating problem in biology. Accumulating evidence indicates that a small RNA-based gene regulatory machinery, the Piwi-piRNA pathway, represents a shared feature of nonaging (potentially immortal) biological systems, including the germline, somatic cancer stem cells, and certain 'lower' eukaryotic organisms like the planarian flatworm and freshwater hydra...
October 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645045/hydra-amphiphiles-using-three-heads-and-one-tail-to-influence-aggregate-formation-and-to-kill-pathogenic-bacteria
#17
Tara M Gallagher, John N Marafino, Brenden K Wimbish, Brandi Volkers, Gabriel Fitzgerald, Kristin McKenna, Jason Floyd, Nicholas T Minahan, Brenna Walsh, Kirstie Thompson, David Bruno, Monica Paneru, Sybelle Djikeng, Stephanie Masters, Suma Haji, Kyle Seifert, Kevin L Caran
Hydra amphiphiles mimic the morphology of the mythical multi-headed creatures for which they are named. Likewise, when faced with a pathogenic bacterium, some hydra derivatives are as destructive as their fabled counterparts were to their adversaries. This report focuses on eight new tricephalic (triple-headed), single-tailed amphiphiles. Each amphiphile has a mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) core, two benzylic trimethylammonium groups and one dimethylalkylammonium group with a linear hydrophobe ranging from short (C8H17) to ultralong (C22H45)...
September 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633361/evolution-of-mirna-tailing-by-3-terminal-uridylyl-transferases-in-metazoa
#18
Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Yehu Moran
In bilaterian animals the 3' ends of microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently modified by tailing and trimming. These modifications affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation by modulating miRNA stability. Here, we analyzed data from three nonbilaterian animals: two cnidarians (Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata) and one poriferan (Amphimedon queenslandica). Our analysis revealed that nonbilaterian miRNAs frequently undergo modifications like the bilaterian counterparts: the majority are expressed as different length isoforms and frequent modifications of the 3' end by mono U or mono A tailing are observed...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630355/apical-and-basal-epitheliomuscular-f-actin-dynamics-during-hydra-bud-evagination
#19
Roland Aufschnaiter, Roland Wedlich-Söldner, Xiaoming Zhang, Bert Hobmayer
Bending of 2D cell sheets is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism during animal development and reproduction. A critical player driving cell shape during tissue bending is the actin cytoskeleton. Much of our current knowledge about actin dynamics in whole organisms stems from studies of embryonic development in bilaterian model organisms. Here, we have analyzed actin-based processes during asexual bud evagination in the simple metazoan Hydra We created transgenic Hydra strains stably expressing the actin marker Lifeact-GFP in either ectodermal or endodermal epitheliomuscular cells...
August 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617633/when-predators-help-prey-adapt-and-persist-in-a-changing-environment
#20
Matthew M Osmond, Sarah P Otto, Christopher A Klausmeier
To persist in a changing world, populations must adapt. The ability to adapt is influenced by interactions with other species, such as predators. Recent experiments and theory suggest that selective pressures arising from predation may help prey adapt phenotypically to changing environments, but how this influences persistence remains unclear. In particular, it has not yet been shown whether predator-induced adaptation can outweigh predator-imposed reductions in population size, allowing prey to persist when they would otherwise go extinct...
July 2017: American Naturalist
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