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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078622/evidence-that-polycystins-are-involved-in-hydra-cnidocyte-discharge
#1
Susan McLaughlin
Like other cnidarians, the freshwater organism Hydra is characterized by the possession of cnidocytes (stinging cells). Most cnidocytes are located on hydra tentacles, where they are organized along with sensory cells and ganglion cells into battery complexes. The function of the battery complexes is to integrate multiple types of stimuli for the regulation of cnidocyte discharge. The molecular mechanisms controlling the discharge of cnidocytes are not yet fully understood, but it is known that discharge depends on extracellular Ca(2+) and that mechanically induced cnidocyte discharge can be enhanced by the presence of prey extracts and other chemicals...
March 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069433/dual-recognition-activity-of-a-rhamnose-binding-lectin-to-pathogenic-bacteria-and-zooxanthellae-in-stony-coral-pocillopora-damicornis
#2
Zhi Zhou, Xiaopeng Yu, Jia Tang, Yunjie Zhu, Guangmei Chen, Liping Guo, Bo Huang
Rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) is a type of Ca(2+)-independent lectin with tandem repeat carbohydrate-recognition domain, and is crucial for the innate immunity in many invertebrates. In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding RBL in coral Pocillopora damicornis (PdRBL-1) was cloned. The PdRBL-1 protein shared highest amino acid sequence similarity (55%) with the polyp of Hydra vulgaris, and contained a signal peptide and two tandem carbohydrate-recognition domains in which all cysteine residues were conserved...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057045/validation-of-a-new-method-for-the-endoscopic-measurement-of-post-bariatric-gastric-outlet-using-a-standard-guidewire-an-observer-agreement-study
#3
Luiz Gustavo de Quadros, Manoel Dos Passos Galvão Neto, Josemberg Marins Campos, Roberto Luiz Kaiser Junior, Eduardo Grecco, Mario Flamini Junior, Marcelo Falcao de Santana, Idiberto Jose Zotarelli Filho, Adriano Augusto Tomas Vasconcelos Almeida Alexandre
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Between 10 and 20% of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery procedures regain weight secondary to a gastrojejunostomy enlargement. The aim of this study was to validate the interobserver agreement while measuring gastric outlet diameters using a new standard guidewire. METHODS: We selected thirty-five videos of consecutive endoscopic procedures on patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. All videos were evaluated by four raters: two expert endoscopists and two trainees...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012975/prey-dynamics-under-generalist-predator-culling-in-stage-structured-models
#4
Michel Iskin da S Costa, Pedro V Esteves, Lucas Del Bianco Faria, Lucas Dos Anjos
In this paper, by means of mathematical dynamical models we investigate the impacts of predator culling on a prey population structured in two stage classes, juveniles and adults, assuming stage specific predation by two generalist predators with functional responses types 2 and 3 in all possible combinations. According to the chosen set of parameter values, these impacts can manifest through possible demographic Allee effects, sustained population oscillations, alternative stable states (e.g., predator-pit-like behavior) and Hydra effect, which are all discussed, in turn, in terms of species conservation, harvest yield and pest biological control...
December 21, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995409/the-hydra-regeneration-assay-reveals-ecological-risks-in-running-waters-a-new-proposal-to-detect-environmental-teratogenic-threats
#5
Lorenzo Traversetti, Floriano Del Grosso, Valentina Malafoglia, Marco Colasanti, Simona Ceschin, Stefano Larsen, Massimiliano Scalici
The regenerative ability of Hydra vulgaris was tested as potential biomarker for the development of a new eco-toxicological index. The test is based on the regeneration rate and the aberration frequency of the columna (body and adhesive foot) after separation from head and tentacles by a bistoury. Particularly, 45 columnae were submerged in the rearing solution (that is Hydra medium) to have control, and 285 in potential contaminated waters to have treatments, collected from 19 sites along 10 rivers in central Italy...
December 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941639/evolution-of-the-cytolytic-pore-forming-proteins-actinoporins-in-sea-anemones
#6
Jason Macrander, Marymegan Daly
Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria) use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach to investigate how actinoporins have evolved across three superfamilies of sea anemones (Actinioidea, Metridioidea, and Actinostoloidea)...
December 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803185/the-origin-of-mucosal-immunity-lessons-from-the-holobiont-hydra
#7
REVIEW
Katja Schröder, Thomas C G Bosch
Historically, mucosal immunity-i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism's various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes-has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790207/transitioning-from-microbiome-composition-to-microbial-community-interactions-the-potential-of-the-metaorganism-hydra-as-an-experimental-model
#8
Peter Deines, Thomas C G Bosch
Animals are home to complex microbial communities, which are shaped through interactions within the community, interactions with the host, and through environmental factors. The advent of high-throughput sequencing methods has led to novel insights in changing patterns of community composition and structure. However, deciphering the different types of interactions among community members, with their hosts and their interplay with their environment is still a challenge of major proportion. The emerging fields of synthetic microbial ecology and community systems biology have the potential to decrypt these complex relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787834/cx-dpx-and-pcw-web-servers-for-the-visualization-of-interior-and-protruding-regions-of-protein-structures-in-3d-and-1d
#9
Balázs Ligeti, Roberto Vera, János Juhász, Sándor Pongor
The CX and DPX web-based servers at http://pongor.itk.ppke.hu/bioinfoservices are dedicated to the analysis of protein 3D structures submitted by the users as Protein Data Bank (PDB) files. CX computes an atomic protrusion index, cx that makes it possible to highlight the protruding atoms within a protein 3D structure. DPX calculates a depth index, dpx for buried atoms, and allows one to visualize the distribution of buried residues. CX and DPX visualize 3D structures colored according to the calculated indices and return PDB files that can be visualized using standard programs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693365/hydra-effects-in-discrete-time-models-of-stable-communities
#10
Michael H Cortez
A species exhibits a hydra effect when, counter-intuitively, increased mortality of the species causes an increase in its abundance. Hydra effects have been studied in many continuous time (differential equation) multispecies models, but only rarely have hydra effects been observed in or studied with discrete time (difference equation) multispecies models. In addition most discrete time theory focuses on single-species models. Thus, it is unclear what unifying characteristics determine when hydra effects arise in discrete time models...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661452/profiling-of-adhesive-related-genes-in-the-freshwater-cnidarian-hydra-magnipapillata-by-transcriptomics-and-proteomics
#11
Marcelo Rodrigues, Thomas Ostermann, Leopold Kremeser, Herbert Lindner, Christian Beisel, Eugene Berezikov, Bert Hobmayer, Peter Ladurner
The differentiated ectodermal basal disc cells of the freshwater cnidarian Hydra secrete proteinaceous glue to temporarily attach themselves to underwater surfaces. Using transcriptome sequencing and a basal disc-specific RNA-seq combined with in situ hybridisation a highly specific set of candidate adhesive genes was identified. A de novo transcriptome assembly of 55,849 transcripts (>200 bp) was generated using paired-end and single reads from Illumina libraries constructed from different polyp conditions...
October 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631392/exploring-the-hydration-method-for-loading-sirna-on-liposomes-the-interplay-between-stability-and-biological-activity-in-human-undiluted-ascites-fluid
#12
George R Dakwar, Kevin Braeckmans, Wim Ceelen, Stefaan C De Smedt, Katrien Remaut
Delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is recently gaining tremendous attention for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The present study investigated the potential of different liposomal formulations composed of (2,3-dioleoyloxy-propyl)-trimethylammonium (DOTAP) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) encapsulating siRNA (hydration method) for their ability to knockdown luciferase (Luc) activity in human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. Fluorescence single particle tracking (fSPT) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in human-undiluted ascites fluid obtained from a peritoneal carcinomatosis patient revealed that cationic hydra-lipoplexes (HYDRA-LPXs) and HYDRA-LPXs decorated with stable DSPE-PEG (DSPE HYDRA-LPXs) showed high stability during at least 24 h...
September 8, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566758/the-transcriptome-of-the-zoanthid-protopalythoa-variabilis-cnidaria-anthozoa-predicts-a-basal-repertoire-of-toxin-like-and-venom-auxiliary-polypeptides
#13
Chen Huang, Jean-Étienne Rl Morlighem, Hefeng Zhou, Érica P Lima, Paula B Gomes, Jing Cai, Inchio Lou, Carlos D Pérez, Simon Ming Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids...
October 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553110/extracellular-fluid-management-and-hypertension-in-urban-dwelling-versus-rural-dwelling-hemodialysis-patients
#14
Marcello Tonelli, Anita Lloyd, Neesh Pannu, Scott Klarenbach, Pietro Ravani, Kailash Jindal, Jennifer MacRae, Larry Unsworth, Braden Manns, Brenda Hemmelgarn
BACKGROUND: Rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients have less frequent contact with nephrologists than urban-dwelling patients, and are known to have higher mortality. We hypothesized that rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients would have more evidence of poorly controlled extracellular fluid volume (ECVF) than otherwise similar urban-dwellers. METHODS: We studied prevalent hemodialysis patients within a single renal program in Alberta, Canada and assessed ECFV using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549399/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-the-hydra-monster-of-recreational-drugs
#15
Anders Helander, Matilda Bäckberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531602/sex-polyps-and-medusae-determination-and-maintenance-of-sex-in-cnidarians
#16
Stefan Siebert, Celina E Juliano
Mechanisms of sex determination vary greatly among animals. Here we survey what is known in Cnidaria, the clade that forms the sister group to Bilateria and shows a broad array of sexual strategies and sexual plasticity. This observed diversity makes Cnidaria a well-suited taxon for the study of the evolution of sex determination, as closely related species can have different mechanisms, which allows for comparative studies. In this review, we survey the extensive descriptive data on sexual systems (e.g. gonochorism and hermaphroditism) and the plasticity of sex in various cnidarian taxa...
August 17, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498796/de-novo-assembly-of-the-transcriptome-of-turritopsis-a-jellyfish-that-repeatedly-rejuvenates
#17
Yoshinori Hasegawa, Takashi Watanabe, Masaki Takazawa, Osamu Ohara, Shin Kubota
In most animals, aging is an irreversible process; however the species Turritopsis sp. has been observed to undergo a rejuvenation process as many as 14 times. In the present study, we used multiplexed RNA libraries to obtain the transcriptome from four developmental stages (St) of Turritopsis sp., including (I) immature medusa, (II) dumpling, (III) dumpling with a short stolon, and (IV) polyp, which had recently rejuvenated. A total of 4.02 billion paired-end reads were assembled de novo, yielding 90,327 contigs...
August 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491450/resource-allocation-and-post-reproductive-degeneration-in-the-freshwater-cnidarian-hydra-oligactis-pallas-1766
#18
Jácint Tökölyi, Zsófia Ősz, Flóra Sebestyén, Zoltán Barta
Freshwater hydra are among the few animal groups that show negligible senescence and can maintain high survival and reproduction rates when kept under stable conditions in the laboratory. Yet, one species of Hydra (H. oligactis) undergoes a senescence-like process in which polyps degenerate and die after sexual reproduction. The ultimate factors responsible for this phenomenon are unclear. High mortality in reproducing animals could be the consequence of increased allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of somatic maintenance...
June 23, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487666/-morphometric-and-histochemical-characteristics-of-the-thyroid-gland-after-administration-of-hydra-peptide-morphogen
#19
V V Kulayeva, V L Bykov
The effect of Hydra peptide morphogen (HPM) on quantitative histochemical and morphometric parameters of the thyroid gland (TG) was studied. The experiments were conducted on 40 outbred albino male mice weighing 20-25 g, which were injected intraperitoneally with HPM at the dose of 100 μg/kg of body weight per day for 5 days. Relative volumes occupied by the epithelium (E), including its follicular (E(f)), interfollicular (E(i)) components, and colloid (C) were determined using stereological method on TG transverse sections...
2016: Morfologi︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479546/hydrozoan-insights-in-animal-development-and-evolution
#20
Lucas Leclère, Richard R Copley, Tsuyoshi Momose, Evelyn Houliston
The fresh water polyp Hydra provides textbook experimental demonstration of positional information gradients and regeneration processes. Developmental biologists are thus familiar with Hydra, but may not appreciate that it is a relatively simple member of the Hydrozoa, a group of mostly marine cnidarians with complex and diverse life cycles, exhibiting extensive phenotypic plasticity and regenerative capabilities. Hydrozoan species offer extensive opportunities to address many developmental mechanisms relevant across the animal kingdom...
July 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
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