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Alexander Klimovich, Arvid Rehm, Jörg Wittlieb, Eva-Maria Herbst, Ricardo Benavente, Thomas C G Bosch
The cnidarian Hydra is known for its unlimited lifespan and non-senescence, due to the indefinite self-renewal capacity of its stem cells. While proteins of the Lamin family are recognized as critical factors affecting senescence and longevity in human and mice, their putative role in the extreme longevity and non-senescence in long-living animals remains unknown. Here we analyze the role of a single lamin protein in non-senescence of Hydra . We demonstrate that proliferation of stem cells in Hydra is robust against the disturbance of Lamin expression and localization...
May 10, 2018: Aging
Anita Kaliszewicz, Karolina Jarząbek, Justyna Szymańska, Kamil Karaban, Maciej Sierakowski
Hydra, as sit-and-wait predators with limited food selectivity, could serve as model organisms for the analysis of the effect of a particular dietary component on growth and reproduction. We investigated the effect of food quality and of diets enriched with palmitic (PAM) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) on the life history traits of two hydra species: Hydra oligactis and Hydra vulgaris. We tested the hypothesis that a diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can stimulate growth and reproduction in simple metazoans with a sit-and-wait type of predatory strategy...
May 9, 2018: Lipids
Kristina M McIntire, Steven A Juliano
Overcompensation occurs when added mortality increases survival to the next life-cycle stage. Overcompensation can contribute to the Hydra Effect, wherein added mortality increases equilibrium population size. One hypothesis for overcompensation is that added mortality eases density-dependence, increasing survival to adulthood ("temporal separation of mortality and density dependence"). Mortality early in the life cycle is therefore predicted to cause overcompensation, whereas mortality later in the life cycle is not...
May 3, 2018: Ecology
Laila Moreno Ostertag, Xiao Ling, Katrin F Domke, Sapun H Parekh, Markus Valtiner
The surface density of charged sulfonic acid head groups in a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) proton exchange membrane determines the hydrophilicity of the ionic channels and is thus critical for the structuring and transport of water and protons. The mechanism through which the head group density affects the structuring of water and ions is unknown, largely due to experimental challenges in systematically varying the density in an appropriate model system resembling the ionic channels. Here, we present a model system for PFSA membrane ionic channels using self-assembled monolayers with a tunable surface density of sulfonic acid and methyl groups to tune surface hydrophilicity...
April 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Benedikt M Mortzfeld, Jan Taubenheim, Sebastian Fraune, Alexander V Klimovich, Thomas C G Bosch
The aging process is considered to be the result of accumulating cellular deterioration in an individual organism over time. It can be affected by the combined influence of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors including life-style-associated events. In the non-senescent freshwater polyp Hydra , one of the classical model systems for evolutionary developmental biology and regeneration, transcription factor FoxO modulates both stem cell proliferation and innate immunity. This provides strong support for the role of FoxO as a critical rate-of-aging regulator...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thales A F Albuquerque, Luisa Drummond do Val, Aoife Doherty, João Pedro de Magalhães
Cancer is a disease of multicellularity; it originates when cells become dysregulated due to mutations and grow out of control, invading other tissues and provoking discomfort, disability, and eventually death. Human life expectancy has greatly increased in the last two centuries, and consequently so has the incidence of cancer. However, how cancer patterns in humans compare to those of other species remains largely unknown. In this review, we search for clues about cancer and its evolutionary underpinnings across the tree of life...
April 16, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Georg Krohne
Nematocysts are characteristic organelles of the phylum cnidaria. They are designated kleptocnidae when sequestered in animals that feed on cnidaria. Kleptocnidae are known for more than a century. Nevertheless it is still enigmatic how selected nematocyst types survive in the predator and how they reach their final destination in the foreign body. In the free-living Platyhelminth Microstomum lineare the fate of nematocysts of the prey Hydra oligactis was analyzed at the ultrastructural level and by fluorescence microscopy using hydra polyps that had been stained in vivo with the fluorescent dyes TROMI and TRITC...
April 8, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Vera L Castro, Zaira Clemente, Claudio Jonsson, Mariana Silva, José Henrique Vallim, Aline Maria Zigiotto de Medeiros, Diego Stéfani T Martinez
The risk assessment of nanomaterials (NMs) is essential for regulatory purposes and for sustainable nanotechnological development. Although the application of the graphene oxide (GO) has been widely exploited, its environmental risk is not well understood since several environmental conditions can affect the behavior and toxicity of it. In the present work, the GO effect from aquatic ecosystems was assessed considering the interaction with humic acid (HA) on nine organisms: Raphidocelis subcapitata (green algae), Lemna minor (aquatic plant), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Daphnia magna (planktonic microcrustacea), Artemia salina (brine shrimp), Chironomus sancticaroli (chironomidae), Hydra attenuata (freshwater polyp), and Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrolaimus sp (nematodes)...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Tanita Wein, Tal Dagan, Sebastian Fraune, Thomas C G Bosch, Thorsten B H Reusch, Nils F Hülter
Most eukaryotic species are colonized by a microbial community - the microbiota - that is acquired during early life stages and is critical to host development and health. Much research has focused on the microbiota biodiversity during the host life, however, empirical data on the basic ecological principles that govern microbiota assembly is lacking. Here we quantify the contribution of colonizer order, arrival time and colonization history to microbiota assembly on a host. We established the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris and its dominant colonizer Curvibacter as a model system that enables the visualization and quantification of colonizer population size at the single cell resolution, in vivo , in real time...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shuting Han, Ekaterina Taralova, Christophe Dupre, Rafael Yuste
Animal behavior has been studied for centuries, but few efficient methods are available to automatically identify and classify behavior. Quantitative behavioral studies have been hindered by the subjective and imprecise nature of human observation, the limitation of human vision and the slow speed of annotating behavioral data. Here we developed an automatic behavior analysis pipeline for the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris using machine learning approaches. We imaged freely behaving Hydra , extracted motion and shape features from the videos, and constructed a dictionary of visual features to classify pre-defined behaviors...
March 28, 2018: ELife
Dmitry S Bogolyubov
The karyosphere, aka the karyosome, is a meiosis-specific structure that represents a "knot" of condensed chromosomes joined together in a limited volume of the oocyte nucleus. The karyosphere is an evolutionarily conserved but morphologically rather "multifaceted" structure. It forms at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase in many animals, from hydra and Drosophila to human. Karyosphere formation is generally linked with transcriptional silencing of the genome. It is believed that karyosphere/karyosome is a prerequisite for proper completion of meiotic divisions and further development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Dimitri Topalis, Sarah Gillemot, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Herpesviruses thymidine kinase (TK) and protein kinase (PK) allow the activation of nucleoside analogues used in anti-herpesvirus treatments. Mutations emerging in these two genes often lead to emergence of drug-resistant strains responsible for life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised populations. In this review, we analyze the binding of different nucleoside analogues to the TK active site of the three α-herpesviruses [Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV)] and present the impact of known mutations on the structure of the viral TKs...
March 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Rubén Ladrera, Joan Gomà, Narcís Prat
This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the impact of Didymosphenia geminata massive growths upon river ecosystem communities' composition and functioning. This is the first study to jointly consider the taxonomic composition and functional structure of diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages in order to determine changes in community structure, and the food web alterations associated with this invasive alga. This study was carried out in the Lumbreras River (Ebro Basin, La Rioja, Northern Spain), which has been affected by a considerable massive growth of D...
2018: PloS One
Stijn Mouton, Magda Grudniewska, Lisa Glazenburg, Victor Guryev, Eugene Berezikov
Animals show a large variability of lifespan, ranging from short-lived as Caenorhabditis elegans to immortal as Hydra. A fascinating case is flatworms, in which reversal of aging by regeneration is proposed, yet conclusive evidence for this rejuvenation-by-regeneration hypothesis is lacking. We tested this hypothesis by inducing regeneration in the sexual free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We studied survival, fertility, morphology, and gene expression as a function of age. Here, we report that after regeneration, genes expressed in the germline are upregulated at all ages, but no signs of rejuvenation are observed...
June 2018: Aging Cell
Athanasios Saratzis, Virginia Chiocchia, Ahmad Jiffry, Neelam Hassanali, Surjeet Singh, Christopher H Imray, Matthew J Bown, Asif Mahmood
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Up to 25% of patients undergoing elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) develop acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with short and long-term morbidity and mortality. There is no high quality randomised evidence regarding prevention of EVAR related AKI. METHODS: A novel AKI prevention strategy for EVAR was devised, based on best evidence and an expert consensus group. This included a bolus of high dose sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) immediately before EVAR (1 mL/kg of 8...
May 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Michael J Layden
To understand the ancestral and evolved roles of zic homologs, it is important to reconstruct the putative roles of ancient zic homologs in the animal phylogeny. Most studies of zic genes have been conducted in model systems that are members of the bilaterian phylum. However, two additional phyla have zic homologs encoded in their genomes. The three animal phyla that contain zic homologs all share a common ancestor and collectively are termed the parahoxozoans (cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish), placozoans (Trichoplax adhaerens), and bilaterians (chordates, insects, nematodes, annelids, echinoderms, etc...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Philip M C Davy, Richard C Allsopp, Timothy A Donlon, Brian J Morris, Donald Craig Willcox, Bradley J Willcox
Aging is a complex, multifactorial process with significant plasticity. While several biological pathways appear to influence aging, few genes have been identified that are both evolutionarily conserved and have a strong impact on aging and age-related phenotypes. The FoxO3 gene (FOXO3), and its homologs in model organisms, appears especially important, forming a key gene in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-signaling pathway, and influencing life span across diverse species. We highlight some of the key findings that are associated with FoxO3 protein, its gene and homologs in relation to lifespan in different species, and the insights these findings might provide about the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that modulate aging and longevity in humans...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Lauren E Friedman, Thomas D Gilmore, John R Finnerty
Nematostella vectensis is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, a lineage that includes anemones, corals, hydras, and jellyfishes. This estuarine anemone is an excellent model system for investigating the evolution of stress tolerance because it is easy to collect in its natural habitat and to culture in the laboratory, and it has a sequenced genome. Additionally, there is evidence of local adaptation to environmental stress in different N. vectensis populations, and abundant protein-coding polymorphisms have been identified, including polymorphisms in proteins that are implicated in stress responses...
2018: PloS One
Hui-Na Liu, Ning-Ning Guo, Tian-Tian Wang, Wang-Wei Guo, Meng-Ting Lin, Ming-Yi Huang-Fu, Mohammad Reza Vakili, Wen-Hong Xu, Jie-Jian Chen, Qi-Chun Wei, Min Han, Afsaneh Lavasanifar, Jian-Qing Gao
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle for chemotherapy. In a previous study, we have successfully synthesized a novel doxorubicin (DOX) derivative modified by triphenylphosphonium (TPP) to realize mitochondrial delivery of DOX and showed the potential of this compound to overcome DOX resistance in MDA-MB-435/DOX cells. (1) To introduce specificity for DOX-TPP to cancer cells, here we report on the conjugation of DOX-TPP to hyaluronic acid (HA) by hydrazone bond with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as the acid-responsive linker, producing HA- hydra-DOX-TPP nanoparticles...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Maria Rita Fumagalli, Stefano Zapperi, Caterina A M La Porta
While almost all animals are able to at least partially replace some lost parts, regeneration abilities vary considerably across species. Here we study gene expression patterns in distantly related species to investigate conserved regeneration strategies. To this end, we collect from the literature transcriptomic data obtained during the regeneration of three species ( Hydra magnipapillata, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Apostichopus japonicus ), and compare them with gene expression during regeneration in vertebrates and mammals...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
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