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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115695/a-standardized-tri-trophic-small-scale-system-tricosm-for-the-assessment-of-stressor-induced-effects-on-aquatic-community-dynamics
#1
Verena Riedl, Annika Agatz, Rachel Benstead, Roman Ashauer
Chemical impacts on the environment are routinely assessed in single-species tests. They are employed to measure direct effects on non-target organisms but indirect effects on ecological interactions can only be detected in multi-species tests. Micro- and mesocosms are more complex and environmentally realistic, yet, they are less frequently used for environmental risk assessment because resource demand is high while repeatability and statistical power are often low. Test systems fulfilling regulatory needs (i...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109978/dust-formation-and-wind-acceleration-around-the-aluminum-oxide-rich-agb-star-w-hydrae
#2
Aki Takigawa, Takafumi Kamizuka, Shogo Tachibana, Issei Yamamura
Dust grains, formed around asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, are accelerated by stellar radiation to drive stellar winds, which supply freshly synthesized nuclides to the Galaxy. Silicate is the dominant dust species in space, but ~40% of oxygen-rich AGB stars are thought to have comparable amounts of aluminum oxide dust. Dust formation and the wind-driving mechanism around these oxygen-rich stars, however, are poorly understood. We report on the spatial distributions of AlO and (29)SiO molecules around an aluminum oxide-rich M-type AGB star, W Hydrae, based on observations obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108673/%C3%AE-catenin-acts-in-a-position-independent-regeneration-response-in-the-simple-eumetazoan-hydra
#3
S Gufler, B Artes, H Bielen, I Krainer, M-K Eder, J Falschlunger, A Bollmann, T Ostermann, T Valovka, M Hartl, K Bister, U Technau, B Hobmayer
Wnt/β-Catenin signaling plays crucial roles in regenerative processes in eumetazoans. It also acts in regeneration and axial patterning in the simple freshwater polyp Hydra, whose morphallactic regenerative capacity is unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Previous studies have identified β-catenin as an early response gene activated within the first 30min in Hydra head regeneration. Here, we have studied the role of β-Catenin in more detail. First, we show that nuclear β-Catenin signaling is required for head and foot regeneration...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072192/k-edge-energy-based-calibration-method-for-photon-counting-detectors
#4
Yongshuai Ge, Xu Ji, Ran Zhang, Ke Li, Guang-Hong Chen
In recent years, potential applications of energy-resolved photon counting detectors (PCDs) in the x-ray medical imaging field have been actively investigated. Unlike conventional x-ray energy integration detectors, PCDs count the number of incident x-ray photons within certain energy windows. For PCDs, the interactions between x-ray photons and photoconductor generate electronic voltage pulse signals. The pulse height of each signal is proportional to the energy of the incident photons. By comparing the pulse height with the preset energy threshold values, x-ray photons with specific energies are recorded and sorted into different energy bins...
October 26, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046551/population-extinctions-can-increase-metapopulation-persistence
#5
Jeremy W Fox, David Vasseur, Morgan Cotroneo, Lilian Guan, Franz Simon
Metapopulations persist when local populations are rapidly recolonized following local extinctions. Such persistence requires asynchrony; simultaneous crashes of all populations would leave no source of recolonization. We show theoretically and experimentally that catastrophic population extinctions themselves can promote metapopulation persistence, by preventing spatial synchrony and thus enhancing recolonization. We refer to this behaviour as the 'spatial hydra effect': as with the mythical hydra that grows two new heads when one is removed, extinctions can increase recolonization...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024273/the-first-brain-species-comparisons-and-evolutionary-implications-for-the-enteric-and-central-nervous-systems
#6
REVIEW
J B Furness, M J Stebbing
BACKGROUND: The enteric nervous system (ENS) and the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals both contain integrative neural circuitry and similarities between them have led to the ENS being described as the brain in the gut. PURPOSE: To explore relationships between the ENS and CNS across the animal kingdom. We found that an ENS occurs in all animals investigated, including hydra, echinoderms and hemichordates that do not have a CNS. The general form of the ENS, which consists of plexuses of neurons intrinsic to the gut wall and an innervation that controls muscle movements, is similar in species as varied and as far apart as hydra, sea cucumbers, annelid worms, octopus and humans...
October 11, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988849/oxygen-metabolism-and-regeneration-lessons-from-mice
#7
REVIEW
Ellen Heber-Katz
The discovery that the Murphy Roths Large (MRL) mouse strain is a fully competent, epimorphic tissue regenerator, proved that the machinery of regeneration was preserved through evolution from hydra, to salamanders, to mammals. Such concepts have allowed translation of the biology of amphibians, and their ability to regenerate, to a mammalian context. We identified the ancient hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α pathway, operating through prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), as a central player in mouse regeneration...
November 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971724/multiplexed-nanomedicine-for-brain-tumors-nanosized-hercules-to-tame-our-lernaean-hydra-inside
#8
Wojciech K Panek, Omar F Khan, Dou Yu, Maciej S Lesniak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951596/a-secreted-antibacterial-neuropeptide-shapes-the-microbiome-of-hydra
#9
René Augustin, Katja Schröder, Andrea P Murillo Rincón, Sebastian Fraune, Friederike Anton-Erxleben, Eva-Maria Herbst, Jörg Wittlieb, Martin Schwentner, Joachim Grötzinger, Trudy M Wassenaar, Thomas C G Bosch
Colonization of body epithelial surfaces with a highly specific microbial community is a fundamental feature of all animals, yet the underlying mechanisms by which these communities are selected and maintained are not well understood. Here, we show that sensory and ganglion neurons in the ectodermal epithelium of the model organism hydra (a member of the animal phylum Cnidaria) secrete neuropeptides with antibacterial activity that may shape the microbiome on the body surface. In particular, a specific neuropeptide, which we call NDA-1, contributes to the reduction of Gram-positive bacteria during early development and thus to a spatial distribution of the main colonizer, the Gram-negative Curvibacter sp...
September 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946035/dna-repair-enzyme-ape1-from-evolutionarily-ancient-hydra-reveals-redox-activity-exclusively-found-in-mammalian-ape1
#10
Komal Pekhale, Gauri Haval, Nusrat Perween, Giulia Antoniali, Gianluca Tell, Surendra Ghaskadbi, Saroj Ghaskadbi
Only mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) has been reported to possess both DNA repair and redox activities. C terminal of the protein is required for base excision repair, while the redox activity resides in the N terminal due to cysteine residues at specific positions. APE1s from other organisms studied so far lack the redox activity in spite of having the N terminal domain. We find that APE1 from the Cnidarian Hydra exhibits both endonuclease and redox activities similar to mammalian APE1...
September 18, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933582/dynamic-sensitivity-of-corneal-trpm8-receptors-to-menthol-instillation-in-dry-eye-versus-normal-subjects
#11
Peter Corcoran, David A Hollander, George W Ousler, Endri Angjeli, David Rimmer, Keith Lane, Mark B Abelson
PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of corneal cold receptors to a known transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) agonist, menthol, in dry eye and normals, and to determine whether factors such as disease duration or age affect responses. METHODS: Dry eye disease (DED) (N = 33) and normal (N = 15) subjects were randomly assigned to receive Rohto(®) Hydra (0.01% menthol) or Systane(®) Ultra treatments (OU) in a prospective, double-blind, crossover study...
November 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923926/host-modification-of-a-bacterial-quorum-sensing-signal-induces-a-phenotypic-switch-in-bacterial-symbionts
#12
Cleo Pietschke, Christian Treitz, Sylvain Forêt, Annika Schultze, Sven Künzel, Andreas Tholey, Thomas C G Bosch, Sebastian Fraune
Bacterial communities colonize epithelial surfaces of most animals. Several factors, including the innate immune system, mucus composition, and diet, have been identified as determinants of host-associated bacterial communities. Here we show that the early branching metazoan Hydra is able to modify bacterial quorum-sensing signals. We identified a eukaryotic mechanism that enables Hydra to specifically modify long-chain 3-oxo-homoserine lactones into their 3-hydroxy-HSL counterparts. Expression data revealed that Hydra's main bacterial colonizer, Curvibacter sp...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856734/competing-forces-maintain-the-hydra-metaorganism
#13
REVIEW
Peter Deines, Tim Lachnit, Thomas C G Bosch
Our conventional view of multicellular organisms often overlooks the fact that they are metaorganisms. They consist of a host, which is comprised of both a community of self-replicating cells that can compete as well as cooperate and a community of associated microorganisms. This newly discovered complexity raises a profound challenge: How to maintain such a multicellular association that includes independently replicating units and even different genotypes? Here, we identify competing forces acting at the host tissue level, the host-microbe interface, and within the microbial community as key factors to maintain the metaorganism Hydra...
September 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838366/efficacy-of-rosuvastatin-in-children%C3%A2-with%C3%A2-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-and-association-with-underlying-genetic-mutations
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Evan A Stein, Eldad J Dann, Albert Wiegman, Flemming Skovby, Daniel Gaudet, Etienne Sokal, Min-Ji Charng, Mafauzy Mohamed, Ilse Luirink, Joel S Raichlen, Mattias Sundén, Stefan C Carlsson, Frederick J Raal, John J P Kastelein
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by extremely elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Statin treatment starts at diagnosis, but no statin has been formally evaluated in, or approved for, HoFH children. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the LDL-C efficacy of rosuvastatin versus placebo in HoFH children, and the relationship with underlying genetic mutations...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827642/functional-and-proteomic-analysis-of-ceratonova-shasta-cnidaria-myxozoa-polar-capsules-reveals-adaptations-to-parasitism
#15
Gadi Piriatinskiy, Stephen D Atkinson, Sinwook Park, David Morgenstern, Vera Brekhman, Gilad Yossifon, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
Myxozoa is a diverse, speciose group of microscopic parasites, recently placed within the phylum Cnidaria. Myxozoans are highly reduced in size and complexity relative to free-living cnidarians, yet they have retained specialized organelles known as polar capsules, akin to the nematocyst stinging capsules of free-living species. Whereas in free-living cnidarians the stinging capsules are used for prey capture or defense, in myxozoans they have the essential function of initiating the host infection process...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770685/insulin-igf-signaling-and-life-history-traits-in-response-to-food-availability-and-perceived-density-in-the-cnidarian-hydra-vulgaris
#16
Flóra Sebestyén, Szilárd Póliska, Rita Rácz, Judit Bereczki, Kinga Lénárt, Zoltán Barta, Ádám Z Lendvai, Jácint Tökölyi
Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is thought to be a central mediator of life history traits, but the generality of its role is not clear. Here, we investigated mRNA expression levels of three insulin-like peptide genes, the insulin-like receptor htk7, as well as several antioxidant genes, and the heat-shock protein hsp70 in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Hydra polyps were exposed to a combination of different levels of food and perceived population density to manipulate life history traits (asexual reproduction and oxidative stress tolerance)...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768106/development-of-high-capacity-enterosorbents-for-aflatoxin-b1-and-other-hazardous-chemicals
#17
Meichen Wang, Cody R Maki, Youjun Deng, Yanan Tian, Timothy D Phillips
Previously, a calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) included in the diet of animals has been shown to bind aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) and reduce the symptoms of aflatoxicosis. To investigate and improve the capacity and efficacy of clay-based materials as aflatoxin sorbents, we developed and tested calcium and sodium montmorillonite clays amended with nutrients including l-carnitine and choline. Also, we determined the sorption of AfB1 by isothermal analysis and tested the ability of these amended sorbents to protect adult hydra from AfB1 toxicity...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764138/coating-carbon-nanotubes-with-humic-acid-using-an-eco-friendly-mechanochemical-method-application-for-cu-ii-ions-removal-from-water-and-aquatic-ecotoxicity
#18
Francine Côa, Mathias Strauss, Zaira Clemente, Laís L Rodrigues Neto, Josias R Lopes, Rafael S Alencar, Antônio G Souza Filho, Oswaldo L Alves, Vera Lúcia S S Castro, Edison Barbieri, Diego Stéfani T Martinez
In this work, industrial grade multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were coated with humic acid (HA) for the first time by means of a milling process, which can be considered an eco-friendly mechanochemical method to prepare materials and composites. The HA-MWCNT hybrid material was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopies (SEM and STEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), termogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. STEM and AFM images demonstrated that the MWCNTs were efficiently coated by the humic acid, thus leading to an increase of 20% in the oxygen content at the nanotube surface as observed by the XPS data...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733226/allatoregulatory-like-systems-and-changes-in-cytosolic-ca-2-modulate-feeding-behavior-in-hydra
#19
María Eugenia Alzugaray, Jorge Rafael Ronderos
Allatotropin (AT) and allatostatin-C (AST-C) are neuropeptides originally characterized by their ability to modulate the secretion of juvenile hormones in insects. Beyond the allatoregulatory function, these neuropeptides are pleiotropic acting as myoregulators not only in insects, but also in other groups of invertebrates. We have previously proposed the existence of AT and AST-C like systems in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which is a basal group of Metazoa, sharing a common ancestor with Bilateria...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727426/fully-atomistic-a%C3%AE-40-and-a%C3%AE-42-oligomers-in-water-observation-of-porelike-conformations
#20
Matthew J Voelker, Bogdan Barz, Brigita Urbanc
Oligomers formed by amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, yet their structure remains elusive. Of the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, the latter is more strongly associated with AD. Here, we structurally characterized Aβ40 and Aβ42 monomers through pentamers which were converted from previously derived coarse-grained (DMD4B-HYDRA) simulations into all-atom conformations and subjected to explicit-solvent MD. Free energy landscapes revealed that structural differences between Aβ40 and Aβ42 conformations increase with oligomer order up to trimers...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
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