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Patrick Narbonne, Paul S Maddox, Jean-Claude Labbé
Under replete growth conditions, abundant nutrient uptake leads to the systemic activation of insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) and the promotion of stem cell growth/proliferation. Activated IIS can stimulate the ERK/MAPK pathway, the activation of which also supports optimal stem cell proliferation in various systems. Stem cell proliferation rates can further be locally refined to meet the resident tissue's need for differentiated progeny. We have recently shown that the accumulation of mature oocytes in the C...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
I C Moschonas, T F Kellici, T Mavromoustakos, P Stathopoulos, V Tsikaris, V Magafa, A G Tzakos, A D Tselepis
Thrombin is the most potent agonist of human platelets and its effects are primarily mediated through the protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -4. Although PAR-1 has higher affinity for thrombin than PAR-4, both receptors contribute to thrombin-mediated actions on platelets. Recently, a potent and selective PAR-1 antagonist (vorapaxar) was approved for clinical use in selected patients. In contrast, despite the fact that several PAR-4 antagonists have been developed, few of them have been tested in clinical trials...
March 7, 2017: Platelets
Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S Watt, Danny R Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M Rangnekar
The induction of tumor suppressor proteins capable of cancer cell apoptosis represents an attractive option for the re-purposing of existing drugs. We report that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine (CQ), is a robust inducer of Par-4 secretion from normal cells in mice and cancer patients in a clinical trial. CQ-inducible Par-4 secretion triggers paracrine apoptosis of cancer cells and also inhibits metastatic tumor growth. CQ induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires the activation of p53...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
Kevin Brasseur, Nicolas Gévry, Eric Asselin
Gynecological cancers are known for being very aggressive at their advanced stages. Indeed, the survival rate of both ovarian and endometrial cancers is very low when diagnosed lately and the success rate of current chemotherapy regimens is not very efficient. One of the main reasons for this low success rate is the acquired chemoresistance of these cancers during their progression. The mechanisms responsible for this acquired chemoresistance are numerous, including efflux pumps, repair mechanisms, survival pathways (PI3K/AKT, MAPK, EGFR, mTOR, estrogen signaling) and tumor suppressors (P53 and Par-4)...
December 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Priscila de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Adriana Karaoglanovic Carmona, Saara Maria Batista Dos Santos, Bianca Carla Silva Campitelli de Barros, Paloma Korehisa Maza, Rosana Puccia, Erika Suzuki
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is one of the etiological agents of the human systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are expressed in many cell types and comprise a family of G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4), which may be activated by proteases secreted by several pathogens. In the present study, we showed that the pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis secretes components that promote interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion by the lung epithelial cell line A549...
April 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
A Achilles, A Mohring, L Dannenberg, M Grandoch, T Hohlfeld, J W Fischer, B Levkau, M Kelm, T Zeus, A Polzin
Essentials Whether or not dabigatran enhances the risk of myocardial infarction is under discussion. We measured platelet reactivity and thrombin receptor expression in dabigatran patients. Platelet reactivity and thrombin receptor expression is enhanced during dabigatran treatment. This should be considered when choosing the optimal direct oral anticoagulant for individuals. SUMMARY: Background The direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor. Its landmark trial, the RE-LY study, observed a trend towards a higher incidence of myocardial infarctions (MIs) in dabigatran-treated patients...
March 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Zongze Shen, Xing Qin, Ming Yan, Rongrong Li, Gang Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a major component of cancer stroma, play an important role in cancer progression but little is known about how CAFs affect tumorigenesis and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can negatively regulate target mRNA expression at post-transcriptional levels. In head and neck cancer (HNC), our analysis of miRNA arrays showed that miR-7, miR-196 and miR-335 were significantly up-regulated in CAFs when compared with their paired normal fibroblasts (NFs)...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
Michael F Bode, Nigel Mackman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Thrombosis Research
Ingeborg Elisabeth Cernaj
The aim of this hypothesis is to propose a new approach in targeted therapy of cancer: The simultaneous, dual targeting of two single molecules, Par-4 and G6PD, rather than inhibition of full-length signaling pathways. RATIONALE: Targeted inhibition of especially two survival signaling pathways (PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK/ERK) is frequently tried, however, a major breakthrough has not yet been reported. Inhibition of complete pathways naturally goes along with a variety of dose-limiting side effects thus contributing to poor efficacy of the administered drugs...
2016: Cancer Cell International
Jeffrey Q Nguyen, Rosalyn B Irby
The prostate apoptosis response protein 4 (Par-4) is a tumor-suppressor that has been shown to induce cancer-cell selective apoptosis in a variety of cancers. The regulation of Par-4 expression and activity is a relatively understudied area, and identifying novel regulators of Par-4 may serve as novel therapeutic targets. To identify novel regulators of Par-4, a co-immunoprecipitation was performed in colon cancer cells, and co-precipitated proteins were identified by mass-spectometry. TRIM21 was identified as a novel interacting partner of Par-4, and further shown to interact with Par-4 endogenously and through its PRY-SPRY domain...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Martin Ponschab, Martijn van Griensven, Stefan Heitmeier, Volker Laux, Christoph J Schlimp, Andreas Calatzis, Soheyl Bahrami, Heinz Redl, Herbert Schöchl
BACKGROUND: Platelets play a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation and wound healing. Suitable animal models that have the potential to mimic human platelet function are limited. The objective of the current study was to compare platelet aggregation response in the whole blood of baboons and humans using impedance aggregometry. METHODS: Blood was drawn from 24 anesthetised male baboons and 25 healthy volunteers. The platelet aggregation response was determined by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate®)...
November 2016: Thrombosis Research
Michael F Bode, Nigel Mackman
INTRODUCTION: Mice with a complete absence of tissue factor (TF) die during embryonic development whereas mice with low levels of TF (Low-TF mice) survive to adulthood. Low-TF mice exhibit spontaneous hemorrhage in various organs, including the lung. In contrast, mice can survive without protease-activated receptor (PAR)-4, which is the major thrombin receptor on mouse platelets. We determined the effect of combining a deficiency PAR-4 (primary hemostasis) with a deficiency in TF (secondary hemostasis) on embryonic development and survival of adult mice...
October 2016: Thrombosis Research
Abdulhameed Al-Ghabkari, Jing-Ti Deng, Paul C McDonald, Shoukat Dedhar, Mana Alshehri, Michael P Walsh, Justin A MacDonald
The selectivity of (4Z)-2-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl)-4-(pyridin-3-ylmethylidene)-1,3-oxazol-5-one (DI) for zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was previously described by in silico computational modeling, screening a large panel of kinases, and determining the inhibition efficacy. Our assessment of DI revealed another target, the Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCKII). In vitro studies showed DI to be a competitive inhibitor of ROCKII (Ki, 132 nM with respect to ATP). This finding was supported by in silico molecular surface docking of DI with the ROCKII ATP-binding pocket...
2016: Scientific Reports
Reyaz Ur Rasool, Debasis Nayak, Souneek Chakraborty, Archana Katoch, Mir Mohd Faheem, Hina Amin, Anindya Goswami
Prostate apoptotic response 4 (Par-4) is coined as a therapeutic protein since owing to its diverse physiologically relevant properties, especially in the cancer perspective. Albeit, Par-4 expression is not restricted to any specific tissue/organ, apart from cell death promotion (due to challenging threats), the other biological role of Par-4 is convincingly emerging. In the recent years, several laboratories have intended to dissect the signaling or mechanisms involved in Par-4 activation to augment apoptosis cascades but new developments in Par-4 research have widened its therapeutic potential...
December 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Ji-Ye Han, Yun-Ji Lim, Ji-Ae Choi, Jung-Hwan Lee, Sung-Hee Jo, Sung-Man Oh, Chang-Hwa Song
Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that forms a complex with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) to induce apoptosis. Previously, we reported that ER stress-induced apoptosis is a critical host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We sought to understand the role of Par-4 during ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. Par-4 and GRP78 protein levels increased in response Mtb (strain: H37Ra) infection. Furthermore, Par-4 and GRP78 translocate to the surface of Mtb H37Ra-infected macrophages and induce apoptosis via caspase activation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nikita Joshi, Anna K Kopec, Jessica L Ray, James P Luyendyk
Emerging evidence supports a protective effect of platelets in experimental cholestatic liver injury and cholangiofibrosis. Coagulation-mediated platelet activation has been shown to inhibit experimental chronic cholestatic liver necrosis and biliary fibrosis. This occurs through thrombin-mediated activation of protease activated receptor-4 (PAR-4) in mice. However, it is not known whether other pathways of platelet activation, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-mediated receptor P2Y12 activation is also protective...
July 15, 2016: Toxicology
Ibtissem Ghouzali, Saïda Azhar, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Philippe Ducrotté, Pierre Déchelotte, Moïse Coëffier
Protease activated receptors (PARs) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) regulate inflammatory response in intestinal cells. We aimed to elucidate putative connections between PARs and UPS pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were treated by agonist peptides of PARs and/or IL-1β and/or proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib or MG132. Inflammatory response was evaluated by measuring IL-8 production. Proteasome activities were also evaluated. We showed that PAR-1 and -2 activation increased release of IL-8 compared with vehicle and independently of IL-1β...
October 2016: Cytokine
Suman Suman, Trinath P Das, Jim Moselhy, Deeksha Pal, Venkatesh Kolluru, Houda Alatassi, Murali K Ankem, Chendil Damodaran
We previously reported that withaferin A (WA), a natural compound, deters prostate cancer by inhibiting AKT while inducing apoptosis. In the current study, we examined its chemopreventive efficacy against carcinogenesis in the prostate using the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Two distinct sets of experiments were conducted. To determine whether WA delays tumor progression, it was given before cancer onset, at week 6, and until week 44. To determine its effect after the onset of prostate cancer, it was given from weeks 12 to 35...
August 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Wu QiNan, Gan XiaGuang, Lei XiaoTian, Deng WuQuan, Zhang Ling, Chen Bing
Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4)/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Eileen Colella, Shaolin Li, Richard Roy
When faced with suboptimal growth conditions, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae can enter a diapause-like stage called "dauer" that is specialized for dispersal and survival. The decision to form a dauer larva is controlled by three parallel signaling pathways, whereby a compromise of TGFβ, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, or insulin/IGF-like signaling (ILS) results in dauer formation. Signals from these pathways converge on DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor that triggers the changes required to initiate dauer formation...
August 2016: Genetics
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