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ultrasound placental barrier

Sean Sweeney, Andrea Adamcakova-Dodd, Peter S Thorne, Jose G Assouline
Increasing production of nanomaterials in industrial quantities has led to public health concerns regarding exposure, particularly among pregnant women and developing fetuses. Information regarding the barrier capacity of the placenta for various nanomaterials is limited due to challenges working with ex vivo human placentas or in vivo animal models. To facilitate real-time in vivo imaging of placental transport, we have developed a novel, multifunctional nanoparticle, based on a core of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), and functionalized for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and fluorescent microscopy...
2018: PloS One
Guilherme Calvet, Renato S Aguiar, Adriana S O Melo, Simone A Sampaio, Ivano de Filippis, Allison Fabri, Eliane S M Araujo, Patricia C de Sequeira, Marcos C L de Mendonça, Louisi de Oliveira, Diogo A Tschoeke, Carlos G Schrago, Fabiano L Thompson, Patricia Brasil, Flavia B Dos Santos, Rita M R Nogueira, Amilcar Tanuri, Ana M B de Filippis
BACKGROUND: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. METHODS: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation...
June 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Nicole O Alers, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller, Euan M Wallace
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction complicates about 5% of pregnancies and is commonly caused by placental dysfunction. It is associated with increased risks of perinatal mortality and short-term and long-term morbidity, such as cerebral palsy. Chronic in utero hypoxaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress are likely culprits contributing to the long-term neurological sequelae of fetal growth restriction. In this regard, we propose that melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, might mitigate morbidity and/or mortality associated with fetal growth restriction...
December 23, 2013: BMJ Open
X Hua, L-P Zhu, R Li, H Zhong, Y-F Xue, Z-H Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) on the permeability of placental barrier primarily. METHODS: A total of 60 pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 10 groups, including six groups of microbubbles-enhanced ultrasound (varied mechanical index (MI) of 0.13, 1.0 and 1.4 with continuous and intermittent insonation respectively) (US+MB), two groups of ultrasound insonation only (continuous and intermittent insonation respectively) (US), the group of microbubbles only (MB) and the control group...
September 2009: Placenta
Evan R Myers, Douglas C McCrory, Alyssa A Mills, Thomas M Price, Geeta K Swamy, Julierut Tantibhedhyangkul, Jennifer M Wu, David B Matchar
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the evidence regarding the outcomes of interventions used in ovulation induction, superovulation, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) for the treatment of infertility. Short-term outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, multiple gestation, and complications. Long-term outcomes included pregnancy and post-pregnancy complications for both mothers and infants. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration resources. REVIEW METHODS: We included studies published in English from January 2000 through January 2008...
May 2008: Evidence Report/technology Assessment
M Lambropoulou, D Tamiolakis, J Venizelos, V Liberis, G Galazios, P Tsikouras, D Karamanidis, G Petrakis, T Constantinidis, M Menegaki, N Papadopoulos
Placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells) are located close to trophoblastic cells and foetal capillaries, which make them perfect candidates for involvement in regulatory processes within the villous core. Their capacity of producing several cytokines and prostaglandin-synthesising enzymes, and expressing vascular endothelial growth factor, indicate a possible role in placental development and angiogenesis in order to support pregnancy. Common cells to Hofbauer macrophages sharing similar cell surface markers (HLA-A, -B, -C and leukocyte common antigen) have been reported in the stroma, decidua and amnion, indicating additional foetal protection...
December 2006: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
A Perillo, G Bonanno, L Pierelli, S Rutella, G Scambia, S Mancuso
Over the past 10 years, we have become involved in a new research effort and an increasing scientific interest in the field of stem cell-based therapy. We are therefore able to describe different areas in which stem cell research can be applied and developed in gynecology and obstetrics. I) Hematopoietic stem cells have been used to set up therapeutic strategies for the treatment of gynecological solid tumors such as ovarian cancer. In this context different autologous or allogeneic transplantation approaches have been proposed and clinically investigated...
March 2004: Panminerva Medica
C Asteria, O Rajanayagam, T N Collingwood, L Persani, R Romoli, D Mannavola, P Zamperini, F Buzi, F Ciralli, V K Chatterjee, P Beck-Peccoz
A 29-yr-old woman with pituitary resistance to thyroid hormones (PRTH) was found to harbor a novel point mutation (T337A) on exon 9 of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRbeta) gene. She presented with symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism and was successfully treated with 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC) until the onset of pregnancy. This therapy was then discontinued in order to prevent TRIAC, a compound that crosses the placental barrier, from exerting adverse effects on normal fetal development. However, as the patient showed a recurrence of thyrotoxic features after TRIAC withdrawal, we sought to verify, by means of genetic analysis and hormone measurements, whether the fetus was also affected by RTH, in order to rapidly reinstitute TRIAC therapy, which could potentially be beneficial to both the mother and fetus...
February 1999: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
B Contempré, E Jauniaux, R Calvo, D Jurkovic, S Campbell, G M de Escobar
Transfer of maternal thyroxine (T4) to the human fetus near term has recently been demonstrated. We investigated whether maternal thyroid hormone is available to the conceptus during the first trimester of pregnancy as well. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided puncture of the embryonic cavities was performed during the first trimester of pregnancy to obtain coelomic fluid between 6 and 11 weeks, and amniotic fluid between 8 and 11 weeks of pregnancy. T4 was found in coelomic fluid with mean values (+/- SEM) being 961 +/- 193 pmol T4/L (747 +/- 150 pg/mL)...
December 1993: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
A E Donnenfeld, L K Dunn, N C Rose
Multiple congenital anomalies were identified at 16 weeks gestation in one fetus of an unsuspected twin pregnancy while ultrasound examination was performed before routine genetic amniocentesis. Further sonographic studies documented the amniotic band sequence (ABS) and transient oligohydramnios in the affected fetus. The latter finding supports the theory of amnion rupture followed by amniotic fluid leakage through an ineffective chorion barrier as the pathogenesis of compression related anomalies in this syndrome...
April 1985: American Journal of Medical Genetics
K L Thornburg, K J Burry, A K Adams, E P Kirk, J J Faber
Inulin was administered to eight volunteer patients at term gestation over a period of 3 hours before cesarean section. Inulin concentrations were repeatedly measured in maternal plasma, in fetal plasma, and in amniotic fluid at the time of delivery. Total inulin uptake of the conceptus was taken to be the sum of the inulin in the amniotic fluid and in the newborn infant. Amniotic fluid volumes were measured by ultrasound examination, and the distribution volume of inulin in the neonate was assumed to be 180 ml/kg on the basis of animal experiments...
May 1988: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
J C Pons, A M Taburet, E Singlas, J F Delfraissy, E Papiernik
AZT-therapy during pregnancy is actually contraindicated. Two HIV-positive pregnant women who were due to have an induced abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy, were treated with AZT. Blood samples from mothers and fetuses and amniotic fluid samples were taken simultaneously. AZT crossed the placental barrier in the two patients. AZT and GAZT concentrations from the two fetuses were close to those obtained in the two women and in six non-pregnant volunteers.
July 25, 1991: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
T D Bunch, K E Panter, L F James
Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus...
May 1992: Journal of Animal Science
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