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Regional interdependence

Jeffrey L Ardell, John Andrew Armour
Cardiac control is mediated via a series of reflex control networks involving somata in the (i) intrinsic cardiac ganglia (heart), (ii) intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia (stellate, middle cervical), (iii) superior cervical ganglia, (iv) spinal cord, (v) brainstem, and (vi) higher centers. Each of these processing centers contains afferent, efferent, and local circuit neurons, which interact locally and in an interdependent fashion with the other levels to coordinate regional cardiac electrical and mechanical indices on a beat-to-beat basis...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Benjamin Mason Meier, Averi Chakrabarti
The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan's focus on "a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Michael J Wade, Devin M Drown
We use population genetic models to investigate the cooperative and conflicting synergistic fitness effects between genes from the nucleus and the mitochondrion. By varying fitness parameters, we examine the scope for conflict relative to cooperation among genomes and the utility of the "gene's eye view" analytical approach, which is based on the marginal average fitness of specific alleles. Because sexual conflict can maintain polymorphism of mitochondrial haplotypes, we can explore two types of evolutionary conflict (genomic and sexual) with one epistatic model...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
José Edgardo Dipierri, Alvaro Rodríguez-Larralde, Italo Barrai, Esperanza Gutiérrez Redomero, Concepción Alonso-Rodríguez, Emma Laura Alfaro
In human populations various flexible, labile and interdependent structures (genetic, demographic, socioeconomic) co-exist, each of which can be organized in an hierarchical order corresponding to administrative entities. The relationship between consanguinity, as estimated by random isonymy (F ST), and socioeconomic conditions was analysed at different levels of political and administrative organization in Argentina. From the surnames of 22,666,139 voters from the 2001 electoral roll, F ST was estimated for 510 Argentinian departments...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Urbano L França, Michael L McManus
OBJECTIVE: To provide metrics for quantifying the capability of hospitals and the degree of care regionalization. DATA SOURCE: Administrative database covering more than 10 million hospital encounters during a 3-year period (2012-2014) in Massachusetts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated the condition-specific probabilities of transfer for all acute care hospitals in Massachusetts and devised two new metrics, the Hospital Capability Index (HCI) and the Regionalization Index (RI), for analyzing hospital systems...
October 7, 2016: Health Services Research
Emily L Coderre, Jason F Smith, Walter J B van Heuven, Barry Horwitz
The need to control multiple languages is thought to require domain-general executive control (EC) in bilinguals such that the EC and language systems become interdependent. However, there has been no systematic investigation into how and where EC and language processes overlap in the bilingual brain. If the concurrent recruitment of EC during bilingual language processing is domain-general and extends to non-linguistic EC, we hypothesize that regions commonly involvement in language processing, linguistic EC, and non-linguistic EC may be selectively altered in bilinguals compared to monolinguals...
May 2016: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
Lieselotte Lemoine, Paul Sugarbaker, Kurt Van der Speeten
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Besides the lymphatic and haematogenous routes of dissemination, CRC frequently gives rise to transcoelomic spread of tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity, which ultimately leads to peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). PC is associated with a poor prognosis and bad quality of life for these patients in their terminal stages of disease. A loco-regional treatment modality for PC combining cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal peroperative chemotherapy has resulted in promising clinical results...
September 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Oleg Laptenko, David R Tong, James Manfredi, Carol Prives
The p53 tumor suppressor is a transcription factor (TF) that exerts antitumor functions through its ability to regulate the expression of multiple genes. Within the p53 protein resides a relatively short unstructured C-terminal domain (CTD) that remarkably participates in virtually every aspect of p53 performance as a TF. Because these aspects are often interdependent and it is not always possible to dissect them experimentally, there has been a great deal of controversy about the CTD. In this review we evaluate the significance and key features of this interesting region of p53 and its impact on the many aspects of p53 function in light of previous and more recent findings...
September 23, 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Mark D Whiting, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran
Animal models play a critical role in understanding the biomechanical, pathophysiological, and behavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In preclinical studies, cognitive impairment induced by TBI is often assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM). Frequently described as a hippocampally dependent spatial navigation task, the MWM is a highly integrative behavioral task that requires intact functioning in numerous brain regions and involves an interdependent set of mnemonic and non-mnemonic processes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alexandre Pelé, Gwenn Trotoux, Frédérique Eber, Maryse Lodé, Marie Gilet, Gwenaelle Deniot, Cyril Falentin, Sylvie Nègre, Jérôme Morice, Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin, Anne-Marie Chèvre
Constitutive genomes of allopolyploid species evolve throughout their life span. However, the consequences of long-term alterations on the interdependency between each original genome have not been established. Here, we attempted an approach corresponding to subgenome extraction from a previously sequenced natural allotetraploid, offering a unique opportunity to evaluate plant viability and structural evolution of one of its diploid components. We employed two different strategies to extract the diploid AA component of the Brassica napus variety 'Darmor' (AACC, 2n = 4x = 38) and we assessed the genomic structure of the latest AA plants obtained (after four to five rounds of selection), using a 60K single nucleotide polymorphism Illumina array...
August 30, 2016: New Phytologist
Gabriella R Goshtigian, Brian T Swanson
BACKGROUND: Despite the multidirectional quality of human movement, common measurement procedures used in physical therapy examination are often uni-planar and lack the ability to assess functional complexities involved in daily activities. Currently, there is no widely accepted, validated standard to assess movement quality. The Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA) is one possible system to objectively assess complex functional movements. The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the application of the SFMA as a guide to the examination, evaluation, and management of a patient with non-specific low back pain (LBP)...
August 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Fabrice Bartolomei, Francesca Bonini, Elsa Vidal, Agnes Trébuchon, Stanislas Lagarde, Isabelle Lambert, Aileen McGonigal, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Christian G Benar
An effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on cortical synchronization has been postulated but remains to be verified. In this study we investigated the impact of VNS on functional connectivity (Fc) using direct intracerebral recordings (stereotactic EEG, SEEG). Five patients with epilepsy who underwent SEEG recordings during ongoing VNS therapy were investigated. Interdependencies between twenty-six selected bipolar SEEG channels were estimated by nonlinear regression analysis during ON and OF periods of stimulation...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Lisa Hanna, Stephen D Gill, Laura Newstead, Melanie Hawkins, Richard H Osborne
BACKGROUND: Personally controlled electronic health records (PCEHRs) are being implemented throughout Australia; yet few studies have investigated patients' experiences of using a PCEHR. AIM: To explore patients' experiences and perspectives of using a locally developed PCEHR implemented in an Australian health service. METHOD: Twelve patients completed individual semi-structured telephone interviews, which underwent inductive analysis. RESULTS: Participants described two main interdependent advantages of PCEHRs: improved quality of healthcare through better information sharing and enhanced patient capacity for self-management...
August 2, 2016: HIM Journal
Andrzej Kowalski, Jan Pałyga
In this review, the structural aspects of linker H1 histones are presented as a background for characterization of the factors influencing their function in animal and human chromatin. The action of H1 histone variants is largely determined by dynamic alterations of their intrinsically disordered tail domains, posttranslational modifications and allelic diversification. The interdependent effects of these factors can establish dynamic histone H1 states that may affect the organization and function of chromatin regions...
July 14, 2016: Biology of the Cell
Saori Takeuchi, Rie Murai, Hideki Shimazu, Yoshikazu Isomura, Tatsuya Mima, Toru Tsujimoto
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The sleep spindle has been implicated in thalamic sensory gating, cortical development, and memory consolidation. These multiple functions may depend on specific spatiotemporal emergence and interactions with other spindles and other forms of brain activity. Therefore, we measured sleep spindle cortical distribution, regional heterogeneity, synchronization, and phase relationships with other electroencephalographic components in freely moving primates. METHODS: Transcortical field potentials were recorded from Japanese monkeys via telemetry and were analyzed using the Hilbert-Huang transform...
2016: Sleep
Vivian L Vignoles, Ellinor Owe, Maja Becker, Peter B Smith, Matthew J Easterbrook, Rupert Brown, Roberto González, Nicolas Didier, Diego Carrasco, Maria Paz Cadena, Siugmin Lay, Seth J Schwartz, Sabrina E Des Rosiers, Juan A Villamar, Alin Gavreliuc, Martina Zinkeng, Robert Kreuzbauer, Peter Baguma, Mariana Martin, Alexander Tatarko, Ginette Herman, Isabelle de Sauvage, Marie Courtois, Ragna B Garðarsdóttir, Charles Harb, Inge Schweiger Gallo, Paula Prieto Gil, Raquel Lorente Clemares, Gabriella Campara, George Nizharadze, Ma Elizabeth J Macapagal, Baland Jalal, David Bourguignon, Jianxin Zhang, Shaobo Lv, Aneta Chybicka, Masaki Yuki, Xiao Zhang, Agustín Espinosa, Aune Valk, Sami Abuhamdeh, Benjamin Amponsah, Emre Özgen, E Ülkü Güner, Nil Yamakoğlu, Phatthanakit Chobthamkit, Tom Pyszczynski, Pelin Kesebir, Elvia Vargas Trujillo, Paola Balanta, Boris Cendales Ayala, Silvia H Koller, Jas Laile Jaafar, Nicolay Gausel, Ronald Fischer, Taciano L Milfont, Ersin Kusdil, Selinay Çağlar, Said Aldhafri, M Cristina Ferreira, Kassahun Habtamu Mekonnen, Qian Wang, Márta Fülöp, Ana Torres, Leoncio Camino, Flávia Cristina Silveira Lemos, Immo Fritsche, Bettina Möller, Camillo Regalia, Claudia Manzi, Maria Brambilla, Michael Harris Bond
Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Tomas Kron, Joerg Lehmann, Peter B Greer
Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy...
July 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Lars-Anders Carlson, Yun Bai, Sarah C Keane, Jennifer A Doudna, James H Hurley
HIV-1 Gag selects and packages a dimeric, unspliced viral RNA in the context of a large excess of cytosolic human RNAs. As Gag assembles on the plasma membrane, the HIV-1 genome is enriched relative to cellular RNAs by an unknown mechanism. We used a minimal system consisting of purified RNAs, recombinant HIV-1 Gag and giant unilamellar vesicles to recapitulate the selective packaging of the 5' untranslated region of the HIV-1 genome in the presence of excess competitor RNA. Mutations in the CA-CTD domain of Gag which subtly affect the self-assembly of Gag abrogated RNA selectivity...
2016: ELife
Jacqueline M Dresch, Rowan G Zellers, Daniel K Bork, Robert A Drewell
A long-standing objective in modern biology is to characterize the molecular components that drive the development of an organism. At the heart of eukaryotic development lies gene regulation. On the molecular level, much of the research in this field has focused on the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to regulatory regions in the genome known as cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). However, relatively little is known about the sequence-specific binding preferences of many TFs, especially with respect to the possible interdependencies between the nucleotides that make up binding sites...
2016: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
Sariya Dechamethakun, Masaaki Muramatsu
Cardiometabolic diseases are characterized as a combination of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension and abdominal obesity. This cluster of abnormalities individually and interdependently leads to atherosclerosis and CVD morbidity and mortality. In the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a series of cardiometabolic disease-associated variants that can collectively explain a small proportion of the variability...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
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