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Regional interdependence

Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Christopher Allen, Krish D Singh, Frederick Verbruggen, Christopher D Chambers
This pre-registered experiment sought to uncover the temporal relationship between the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) during stopping of an ongoing action. Both regions have previously been highlighted as being central to cognitive control of actions, particularly response inhibition. Here we tested which area is activated first during the stopping process using magnetoencephalography, before assessing the relative chronometry of each region using functionally localized transcranial magnetic stimulation...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Florian Douam, Floriane Fusil, Margot Enguehard, Linda Dib, Francesca Nadalin, Loïc Schwaller, Gabriela Hrebikova, Jimmy Mancip, Laurent Mailly, Roland Montserret, Qiang Ding, Carine Maisse, Emilie Carlot, Ke Xu, Els Verhoeyen, Thomas F Baumert, Alexander Ploss, Alessandra Carbone, François-Loïc Cosset, Dimitri Lavillette
Amino-acid coevolution can be referred to mutational compensatory patterns preserving the function of a protein. Viral envelope glycoproteins, which mediate entry of enveloped viruses into their host cells, are shaped by coevolution signals that confer to viruses the plasticity to evade neutralizing antibodies without altering viral entry mechanisms. The functions and structures of the two envelope glycoproteins of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), E1 and E2, are poorly described. Especially, how these two proteins mediate the HCV fusion process between the viral and the cell membrane remains elusive...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Samantha E Smith, Victoria R Tallentire, Lindsey M Pope, Anita H Laidlaw, Jill Morrison
OBJECTIVES: To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. SETTING: All four regions of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Semistructured interviews were coded using template analysis...
March 2, 2018: BMJ Open
Megan M Chang, Danielle Allery Nail, Toni Kazic, Susan J Simmons, Ann E Stapleton
Crop improvement must accelerate to feed an increasing human population in the face of environmental changes. Including anticipated climatic changes with genetic architecture in breeding programs could better optimize improvement strategies. Combinations of drought and nitrogen limitation already occur world-wide. We therefore analyzed the genetic architecture underlying the response of Zea mays to combinations of water and nitrogen stresses. Recombinant inbreds were subjected to nine combinations of the two stresses using an optimized response surface design, and their growth was measured...
March 1, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
M Florencia Iulita, Diane Vallerand, Mélissa Beauvillier, Nathalie Haupert, Corinne A Ulysse, Audrey Gagné, Nathalie Vernoux, Sonia Duchemin, Michaël Boily, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Hélène Girouard
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II), a peptide hormone involved in the development of hypertension, causes systemic and cerebral inflammation, affecting brain regions important for blood pressure control. The cause-and-effect relationship between hypertension and inflammation is two-way, but the role of blood pressure in the induction of cerebral inflammation is less clear. The vulnerability of specific brain regions, particularly those important for memory, is also of interest. METHODS: We used molecular biology approaches, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy to examine the interdependence between the hypertensive and pro-inflammatory effects of Ang II...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Dawn P Andrews, Kari B Odland-Wolf, James May, Russell Baker, Alan Nasypany
Background and Purpose: Secondary impingement syndrome (SIS) is a common complaint in the sporting population particularly among athletes engaging in overhead activities. While symptoms may be present at the shoulder with patients complaining of SIS, spinal alignment or dysfunction can influence scapular positioning and overall shoulder girdle function. As an adjunct therapy to traditional interventions for SIS, thoracic high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrusts have been utilized and correlated with patient reported decreases in pain...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Kristian Semjonov, Maia Salm, Tiina Lipiäinen, Karin Kogermann, Andres Lust, Ivo Laidmäe, Osmo Antikainen, Clare J Strachan, Henrik Ehlers, Jouko Yliruusi, Jyrki Heinämäki
Solid dispersions (SDs) hold a proven potential in formulating poorly water-soluble drugs. The present paper investigates the interfacial phenomena associated with the bulk powder flow, water sorption, wetting and dissolution of the SDs prepared by a modified melt and quench-cooling (QC) method. Poorly water-soluble indomethacin (IND) was QC molten with solubilizing graft copolymer (Soluplus® ) or polyol sugar alcohol (xylitol, XYL). The interfacial interactions of SDs with air/water were found to be reliant on the type (amorphous/crystalline) and amount of the carrier material used...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Tarcilla C Borghesan, Marta Campaner, Tania E Matsumoto, Omar A Espinosa, Victor Razafindranaivo, Fernando Paiva, Julio C Carranza, Nestor Añez, Luis Neves, Marta M G Teixeira, Erney P Camargo
This study is about the inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of trypanosomatids of the genus Angomonas , and their association with Calliphoridae (blowflies) in Neotropical and Afrotropical regions. Microscopic examination of 3,900 flies of various families, mostly Calliphoridae, revealed that 31% of them harbored trypanosomatids. Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) barcoding showed that Angomonas predominated (46%) over the other common trypanosomatids of blowflies of genera Herpetomonas and Wallacemonas ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiangmin Zhang, Kunhong Xiao, Hongda Liu, Lei Song, Jennifer C McGarvey, W Bruce Sneddon, Alessandro Bisello, Peter A Friedman
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and trafficking are essential for cellular function and regulated by phosphorylation, β-arrestin, and ubiquitination. The GPCR parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) exhibits time-dependent reversible ubiquitination. The exact ubiquitination sites in PTHR are unknown, but extend upstream of its intracellular tail. Here, using tandem MS, we identified Lys-388 in the third loop and Lys-484 in the C-terminal tail as primary ubiquitination sites in PTHR. We found that PTHR ubiquitination requires β-arrestin and does not display a preference for β-arrestin1 or 2...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Gemma Victoria Espí-López, Maria-Arantzazu Ruescas-Nicolau, M Luz Sanchez-Sanchez, Anna Arnal-Gómez, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, Elena Marques-Sule
Context • Thoracic manipulation decreases pain and disability. However, when such manipulation is contraindicated, the use of other manual techniques based on the regional interdependence of the thoracic spine, upper ribs, and shoulders is an alternative approach. Objective • The study intended to investigate the immediate changes resulting from 3 manual therapy treatments on spinal mobility, flexibility, comfort, and pain perception in patients with persistent, nonspecific back pain as well as changes in their sense of physical well-being and their perception of change after treatment...
February 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
S Venanzi, D Pezzolla, L Cecchini, M Pauselli, A Ricci, A Sordi, B Torquati, G Gigliotti
Use of agricultural and livestock by-products for anaerobic digestion (AD), in total or partial substitution of the maize silage was evaluated from an environmental and economical point of view. The evaluation process included three methodological interdependent and consequential steps: the chemical stage at laboratory and plant level, the environmental and economic steps developing the Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing jointly. The laboratory test showed that the two mixtures prepared with by-products, in partial (MIX A) and total (MIX B) substitution of maize silage, did not show differences in bio-methane production compared to a reference mixture with the 33% of maize silage...
January 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhaohai Bai, Michael R F Lee, Lin Ma, Stewart Ledgard, Oene Oenema, Gerard L Velthof, Wenqi Ma, Mengchu Guo, Zhanqing Zhao, Sha Wei, Shengli Li, Xia Liu, Petr Havlík, Jiafa Luo, Chunsheng Hu, Fusuo Zhang
China has an ever-increasing thirst for milk, with a predicted 3.2-fold increase in demand by 2050 compared to the production level in 2010. What are the environmental implications of meeting this demand, and what is the preferred pathway? We addressed these questions by using a nexus approach, to examine the interdependencies of increasing milk consumption in China by 2050 and its global impacts, under different scenarios of domestic milk production and importation. Meeting China's milk demand in a business as usual scenario will increase global dairy-related (China and the leading milk exporting regions) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 35% (from 565 to 764 Tg CO2eq ) and land use for dairy feed production by 32% (from 84 to 111 million ha) compared to 2010, while reactive nitrogen losses from the dairy sector will increase by 48% (from 3...
February 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Jason O Jaeger, Paul A Oakley, Robert R Moore, Edward P Ruggeroli, Deed E Harrison
[Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP® technique mirror image® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT)...
January 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Tobias Lenz, Alexandr Burilkov
What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of 'diffusion theory' - meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations - we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways...
September 2017: Eur J Int Relat
Mia Y Bothwell, Martha U Gillette
Oxidation-reduction reactions are essential to life as the core mechanisms of energy transfer. A large body of evidence in recent years presents an extensive and complex network of interactions between the circadian and cellular redox systems. Recent advances show that cellular redox state undergoes a ~24-h (circadian) oscillation in most tissues and is conserved across the domains of life. In nucleated cells, the metabolic oscillation is dependent upon the circadian transcription-translation machinery and, vice versa, redox-active proteins and cofactors feed back into the molecular oscillator...
February 2, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Liman Man Wai Li, Junji Ma, Ying Lin, Linlin Fan, Shengqi Zhong, Junkai Yang, Yingyu Huang, Li Gu, Leyi Fan, Siyang Luo, Zhengjia Dai, Xiang Wu
Independent versus interdependent self-construal is a concept that reflects how people perceive the relationship between self and other people, which has been extensively examined across disciplines. However, little evidence on the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of independent versus interdependent self-construal has been reported. Here, in a sample of 51 healthy participants, we used resting-state fMRI and voxel-based functional connectivity analysis [i.e., Functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC)] by measuring the temporal correlation of blood oxygen level-dependent signals between spatially separate brain regions to investigate the neural mechanism of independent versus interdependent self-construal...
January 29, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Mary C Zuniga, Gayatri Raghuraman, Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Resistin, an adipokine with inflammatory properties, has been associated with plaque vulnerability. Vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages are the major cellular components in advanced atherosclerotic plaques and interdependently affect plaque stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistin on the interactions of vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages using co-culture systems. METHODS: Human monocytes were differentiated into macrophages...
January 17, 2018: Surgery
Nagendra K Panduranga, Jianxi Gao, Xin Yuan, H Eugene Stanley, Shlomo Havlin
Cascading failures in complex systems have been studied extensively using two different models: k-core percolation and interdependent networks. We combine the two models into a general model, solve it analytically, and validate our theoretical results through extensive simulations. We also study the complete phase diagram of the percolation transition as we tune the average local k-core threshold and the coupling between networks. We find that the phase diagram of the combined processes is very rich and includes novel features that do not appear in the models studying each of the processes separately...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Garik V Mkrtchyan, Anastasia Graf, Lidia Trofimova, Alexander Ksenofontov, Ludmila Baratova, Victoria Bunik
Glutamate is a key metabolite and major excitatory neurotransmitter, degraded through transformation to 2-oxoglutarate which is further catabolized by 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC). Both the glutamate excitotoxicity and impaired OGDHC activity are hallmarks of neurodegeneration. This work quantifies a relationship between the brain OGDHC activity and glutamate levels, assessing its diagnostic value to characterize (patho)physiology. A moderate to strong positive correlation of the two parameters determined under varied physiological settings (brain regions, seasons, gender, pregnancy, rat line), is revealed...
January 8, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
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