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Regional interdependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900022/binding-of-nad-glycohydrolase-to-streptolysin-o-stabilizes-both-toxins-and-promotes-virulence-of-group-a-streptococcus
#1
Jorge J Velarde, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Buket Baddal, Benedicte Bastiat-Sempe, Michael R Wessels
The globally dominant, invasive M1T1 strain of group A Streptococcus (GAS) harbors polymorphisms in the promoter region of an operon that contains the genes encoding streptolysin O (SLO) and NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase), resulting in high-level expression of these toxins. While both toxins have been shown experimentally to contribute to pathogenesis, many GAS isolates lack detectable NADase activity. DNA sequencing of such strains has revealed that reduced or absent enzymatic activity can be associated with a variety of point mutations in nga, the gene encoding NADase; a commonly observed polymorphism associated with near-complete abrogation of activity is a substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 330 (G330D)...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890691/predicting-intentions-of-a-familiar-significant-other-beyond-the-mirror-neuron-system
#2
Stephanie Cacioppo, Elsa Juan, George Monteleone
Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS). The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866441/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-evaluation-of-left-ventricular-myocardial-strain-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
Kimberly Kallianos, Gabriel C Brooks, Kanae Mukai, Florent Seguro de Carvalho, Jing Liu, David M Naeger, Teresa De Marco, Karen G Ordovas
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility of detecting left ventricular (LV) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) strain abnormalities using feature-tracking in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CMR was performed in 16 patients with all groups of PH and in 13 controls. Global and regional peak circumferential strains (%) (which have been shown to be robust by CMR), peak diastolic strain rate (%/s), and dyssynchrony index (ms) were quantified with feature-tracking software...
August 30, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854962/optimized-reduced-representation-bisulfite-sequencing-reveals-tissue-specific-mchh-islands-in-maize
#4
Fei-Man Hsu, Ming-Ren Yen, Chi-Ting Wang, Chien-Yu Lin, Chung-Ju Rachel Wang, Pao-Yang Chen
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays important roles in many regulatory processes in plants. It is economically infeasible to profile genome-wide DNA methylation at a single-base resolution in maize, given its genome size of ~2.5 Gb. As an alternative, we adapted region of interest (ROI)-directed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to survey genome-wide methylation in maize. RESULTS: We developed a pipeline for selecting restriction enzymes in silico and experimentally showed that, in the maize genome, MseI- and CviQI-digested fragments are precisely enriched in promoters and gene bodies, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854358/smc-progressively-aligns-chromosomal-arms-in-caulobacter-crescentus-but-is-antagonized-by-convergent-transcription
#5
Ngat T Tran, Michael T Laub, Tung B K Le
The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complex plays an important role in chromosome organization and segregation in most living organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, SMC is required to align the left and the right arms of the chromosome that run in parallel down the long axis of the cell. However, the mechanism of SMC-mediated alignment of chromosomal arms remains elusive. Here, using genome-wide methods and microscopy of single cells, we show that Caulobacter SMC is recruited to the centromeric parS site and that SMC-mediated arm alignment depends on the chromosome-partitioning protein ParB...
August 29, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830845/brain-connectivity-changes-during-ictal-aggression-a-strangulation-attempt
#6
Fabrice Bartolomei, Stanislas Lagarde, Isabelle Lambert, Agnes Trébuchon, Samuel Médina Villalon, Aileen McGonigal, Christian G Benar
Ictal aggressive behaviour is a rare manifestation of focal seizures. We report an episode of ictal aggression occurring during an intracerebrally recorded seizure (using stereoelectroencephalography) in a patient with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Aggression occurred during the last part of the seizure and was coincident with marked EEG slowing of the frontal regions and persistent ictal activity in the medial temporal lobe. A functional connectivity study (h(2) estimation of interdependencies) showed a bilateral massive hypersynchronization between frontal and temporal regions...
August 22, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812622/species-rich-networks-and-eco-evolutionary-synthesis-at-the-metacommunity-level
#7
Hirokazu Toju, Masato Yamamichi, Paulo R Guimarães, Jens M Olesen, Akihiko Mougi, Takehito Yoshida, John N Thompson
Understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes interdependently structure biosphere dynamics is a major challenge in the era of worldwide ecosystem degradation. However, our knowledge of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' depends largely on findings from simple systems representing limited spatial scales and involving few species. Here we review recent conceptual developments for the understanding of multispecies coevolutionary processes and then discuss how new lines of concepts and methods will accelerate the integration of ecology and evolutionary biology...
January 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782584/self-construal-differences-in-neural-responses-to-negative-social-cues
#8
Belinda J Liddell, Kim L Felmingham, Pritha Das, Thomas J Whitford, Gin S Malhi, Eva Battaglini, Richard A Bryant
Cultures differ substantially in representations of the self. Whereas individualistic cultural groups emphasize an independent self, reflected in processing biases towards centralized salient objects, collectivistic cultures are oriented towards an interdependent self, attending to contextual associations between visual cues. It is unknown how these perceptual biases may affect brain activity in response to negative social cues. Moreover, while some studies have shown that individual differences in self-construal moderate cultural group comparisons, few have examined self-construal differences separate to culture...
August 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779872/embodied-cognition-and-the-cerebellum-perspectives-from-the-dysmetria-of-thought-and-the-universal-cerebellar-transform-theories
#9
Xavier Guell, John D E Gabrieli, Jeremy D Schmahmann
In this report, we analyze the relationship between embodied cognition and current theories of the cerebellum, particularly the Dysmetria of Thought theory and the concept of the Universal Cerebellar Transform (UCT). First, we describe the UCT and the Dysmetria of Thought theories, highlight evidence supporting these hypotheses and discuss their mechanisms, functions and relevance. We then propose the following relationships. (i) The UCT strengthens embodied cognition because it provides an example of embodiment where the nature and intensity of the dependence between cognitive, affective and sensorimotor processes are defined...
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715449/a-unique-enhancer-boundary-complex-on-the-mouse-ribosomal-rna-genes-persists-after-loss-of-rrn3-or-ubf-and-the-inactivation-of-rna-polymerase-i-transcription
#10
Chelsea Herdman, Jean-Clement Mars, Victor Y Stefanovsky, Michel G Tremblay, Marianne Sabourin-Felix, Helen Lindsay, Mark D Robinson, Tom Moss
Transcription of the several hundred of mouse and human Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes accounts for the majority of RNA synthesis in the cell nucleus and is the determinant of cytoplasmic ribosome abundance, a key factor in regulating gene expression. The rRNA genes, referred to globally as the rDNA, are clustered as direct repeats at the Nucleolar Organiser Regions, NORs, of several chromosomes, and in many cells the active repeats are transcribed at near saturation levels. The rDNA is also a hotspot of recombination and chromosome breakage, and hence understanding its control has broad importance...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703327/testing-the-situationism-scale-in-europe-scale-validation-self-regulation-and-regional-differences
#11
Megan E Roberts, Lisa Wagner, Saša Zorjan, Enikö Nèmeth, Désie van Toor, Michał Czaplinski
The term situationism refers to an individual's belief about the importance of a behaviour's context. This study tested whether the degree of situationism expressed by individuals in various regions of Europe was consistent with self-regulation and cross-cultural theories. The English version of a Situationism Scale (measuring beliefs about the relation between the environment and one's own behaviour) was translated into five additional languages: Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian and Slovenian. Young adults (N = 1106, MAge  = 22...
August 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701382/reduced-orbitofrontal-cortical-volume-is-associated-with-interdependent-self-construal
#12
Shinobu Kitayama, Kuniaki Yanagisawa, Ayahito Ito, Ryuhei Ueda, Yukiko Uchida, Nobuhito Abe
Interdependent self-construal refers to a view of the self as embedded in relationships with others. Prior work suggests that this construal is linked to a strong value placed on social obligations and duties. Interdependent people are therefore cognitively attuned to others and various social events in their surroundings while down-regulating their personal goals. In the present work, we examined whether structural properties of the brain predict interdependent self-construal. We performed a structural magnetic resonance imaging on 135 Japanese young adults while assessing (i) independent and interdependent self-construals and (ii) the degree to which individuals form vivid images of external objects (object imagery)...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698367/structure-of-the-arabidopsis-topless-corepressor-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-of-transcriptional-repression
#13
Raquel Martin-Arevalillo, Max H Nanao, Antoine Larrieu, Thomas Vinos-Poyo, David Mast, Carlos Galvan-Ampudia, Géraldine Brunoud, Teva Vernoux, Renaud Dumas, François Parcy
Transcriptional repression involves a class of proteins called corepressors that link transcription factors to chromatin remodeling complexes. In plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, the most prominent corepressor is TOPLESS (TPL), which plays a key role in hormone signaling and development. Here we present the crystallographic structure of the Arabidopsis TPL N-terminal region comprising the LisH and CTLH (C-terminal to LisH) domains and a newly identified third region, which corresponds to a CRA domain. Comparing the structure of TPL with the mammalian TBL1, which shares a similar domain structure and performs a parallel corepressor function, revealed that the plant TPLs have evolved a new tetramerization interface and unique and highly conserved surface for interaction with repressors...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690114/maintenance-of-miranda-localization-in-drosophila-neuroblasts-involves-interaction-with-the-cognate-mrna
#14
Anne Ramat, Matthew Hannaford, Jens Januschke
How cells position their proteins is a key problem in cell biology. Targeting mRNAs to distinct regions of the cytoplasm contributes to protein localization by providing local control over translation. Here, we reveal that an interdependence of a protein and cognate mRNA maintains asymmetric protein distribution in mitotic Drosophila neural stem cells. We tagged endogenous mRNA or protein products of the gene miranda that is required for fate determination with GFP. We find that the mRNA localizes like the protein it encodes in a basal crescent in mitosis...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683440/genetics-of-cerebellar-and-neocortical-expansion-in-anthropoid-primates-a-comparative-approach
#15
Peter W Harrison, Stephen H Montgomery
What adaptive changes in brain structure and function underpin the evolution of increased cognitive performance in humans and our close relatives? Identifying the genetic basis of brain evolution has become a major tool in answering this question. Numerous cases of positive selection, altered gene expression or gene duplication have been identified that may contribute to the evolution of the neocortex, which is widely assumed to play a predominant role in cognitive evolution. However, the components of the neocortex co-evolve with other functionally interdependent regions of the brain, most notably in the cerebellum...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673972/fancm-brca1-and-blm-cooperatively-resolve-the-replication-stress-at-the-alt-telomeres
#16
Xiaolei Pan, William C Drosopoulos, Louisa Sethi, Advaitha Madireddy, Carl L Schildkraut, Dong Zhang
In the mammalian genome, certain genomic loci/regions pose greater challenges to the DNA replication machinery (i.e., the replisome) than others. Such known genomic loci/regions include centromeres, common fragile sites, subtelomeres, and telomeres. However, the detailed mechanism of how mammalian cells cope with the replication stress at these loci/regions is largely unknown. Here we show that depletion of FANCM, or of one of its obligatory binding partners, FAAP24, MHF1, and MHF2, induces replication stress primarily at the telomeres of cells that use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway as their telomere maintenance mechanism...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669754/the-impact-of-gut-hormones-on-the-neural-circuit-of-appetite-and-satiety-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Davide Zanchi, Antoinette Depoorter, Laura Egloff, Sven Haller, Laura Mählmann, Undine E Lang, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety. Of the 349 studies published before July 2016 identified in the database search, 40 were included (27 on healthy and 13 on obese subjects)...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635103/uncovering-the-dispersion-history-adaptive-evolution-and-selection-of-wheat-in-china
#18
Yong Zhou, Zhongxu Chen, Mengping Cheng, Jian Chen, Tingting Zhu, Rui Wang, Yaxi Liu, Pengfei Qi, Guoyue Chen, Qiantao Jiang, Yuming Wei, Ming-Cheng Luo, Eviatar Nevo, Robin G Allaby, Dengcai Liu, Jirui Wang, Jan Dvorák, Youliang Zheng
Wheat was introduced to China approximately 4500 years ago, where it adapted over a span of time to various environments in agro-ecological growing zones. We investigated 717 Chinese and 14 Iranian/Turkish geographically diverse, locally adapted wheat landraces with 27,933 DArTseq (for 717 landraces) and 312,831 Wheat660K (for a subset of 285 landraces) markers. This study highlights the adaptive evolutionary history of wheat cultivation in China. Environmental stresses and independent selection efforts have resulted in considerable genome-wide divergence at the population level in Chinese wheat landraces...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632527/assessment-of-postoperative-analgesic-drug-efficacy-method-of-data-analysis-is-critical
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lars Peter Kloster Andersen, Ismail Gögenur, Henrik Torup, Jacob Rosenberg, Mads Utke Werner
BACKGROUND: Pain intensity ratings and opioid consumption (OC) are ubiquitous indicators of pain in postoperative trials of the efficacy of interventional procedures. Unfortunately, consensus on the appropriate statistical handling of these outcomes has not been reached. The aim of this article was, therefore, to reexamine original data obtained from a postoperative analgesic drug trial, applying a collection of standard statistical methods in analgesic outcome assessments. Furthermore, a modified integrated assessment method of these outcomes was evaluated...
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631600/inhibition-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-by-ureidosulfonamide-inhibitor-u104-reduces-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-but-does-not-modulate-daunorubicin-or-cisplatin-cytotoxicity
#20
Anne Riemann, Antje Güttler, Verena Haupt, Henri Wichmann, Sarah Reime, Matthias Bache, Dirk Vordermark, Oliver Thews
Carbonic anhydrase IX has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapy. It is highly up-regulated in hypoxic regions and mediates pH regulation critical for tumor cell survival as well as extracellular acidification of the tumor microenvironment which promotes tumor aggressiveness via various mechanisms, such as augmenting metastatic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the complex interdependency between CA IX and the tumor microenvironment in prostate tumor cells in concern of potential therapeutic implications...
June 19, 2017: Oncology Research
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