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ARDS model

Yujie Jiang, Yi Zeng, Xia Huang, Yueqiu Qin, Weigui Luo, Shulin Xiang, Suren R Sooranna, Liao Pinhu
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by inflammatory injury to the alveolar and capillary barriers that results in impaired gas exchange and severe acute respiratory failure. Nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 has emerged as a regulator of gene expression in inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of ARDS is not clear. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential role of Nur77 and its underlying mechanism in the regulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in LPS-induced A549 cells and an ARDS rat model...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Jia Shi, Jian-Bo Yu, Wei Liu, Dan Wang, Yuan Zhang, Li-Rong Gong, Shu-An Dong, Da-Quan Liu
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most devastating complications of sepsis lacking of effective therapy. Mitochondrial dynamics undergoing continuous fusion and fission play a crucial role in mitochondrial structure and function. Fis1, as a small protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, has been thought to be an important protein mediated mitochondrial fission. During ARDS, alveolar macrophages suffer from increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and also accompanied by disrupted mitochondrial dynamics...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Jonathan A Silversides, Emmet Major, Andrew J Ferguson, Emma E Mann, Daniel F McAuley, John C Marshall, Bronagh Blackwood, Eddy Fan
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether a conservative approach to fluid administration or deresuscitation (active removal of fluid using diuretics or renal replacement therapy) is beneficial following haemodynamic stabilisation of critically ill patients. PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of conservative or deresuscitative fluid strategies in adults and children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the post-resuscitation phase of critical illness...
October 12, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Muhammad Qumar, Ratchaneewan Khiaosa-Ard, Poulad Pourazad, Stefanie U Wetzels, Fenja Klevenhusen, Wolfgang Kandler, Jörg R Aschenbach, Qendrim Zebeli
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline) and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level...
2016: PloS One
Andrew James Paris, Yuhong Liu, Junjie Mei, Ning Dai, Lei Guo, Lynn Spruce, Kristin Hudock, Jacob Brenner, William Zacharias, Hankun Mei, April Slamowitz, Kartik Bhamidipati, Michael F Beers, Steven H Seeholzer, Edward E Morrisey, G Scott Worthen
Alveolar epithelial regeneration is essential for resolution of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although neutrophils have traditionally been considered mediators of epithelial damage, recent studies suggest they promote type II pneumocyte (AT2) proliferation, which is essential for regenerating alveolar epithelium. These studies did not, however, evaluate this relationship in an in vivo model of alveolar epithelial repair following injury. To determine if neutrophils influence alveolar epithelial repair in vivo, we developed a unilateral acid injury model that creates a severe yet survivable injury with features similar to ARDS...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Deme Swaroopa, Kakarla Bhaskar, T Mahathi, Shivakrishna Katkam, Y Satyanarayana Raju, Naval Chandra, Vijay Kumar Kutala
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Studies on potential biomarkers in experimental models of acute lung injury (ALI) and clinical samples from patients with ALI have provided evidence to the pathophysiology of the mechanisms of lung injury and predictor of clinical outcome. Because of the high mortality and substantial variability in outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), identification of biomarkers such as cytokines is important to determine prognosis and guide clinical decision-making...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Xiao Huang, Guiqing Kong, Yan Li, Weiwei Zhu, Haixiao Xu, Xiaohua Zhang, Jiankui Li, Lipeng Wang, Zhongwen Zhang, Yaru Wu, Xiangyong Liu, Xiaozhi Wang
Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, DAC) and 5-azacitidine (Aza), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, possess a wide range of anti-metabolic and anti-cancer activities. This study examined the effects of DAC and Aza on inflammatory and oxidative injuries, as well as on glycocalyx and MAPK signaling pathways, in a LPS-stimulated ARDS mouse model. Results of ELISA revealed that DAC and Aza significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-1β and prevented LPS-induced elevation of myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in serum...
September 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Martin Russ, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Willehad Boemke, Thilo Busch, Roland C E Francis, Philipp A Pickerodt
Various animal models of lung injury exist to study the complex pathomechanisms of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and evaluate future therapies. Severe lung injury with a reproducible deterioration of pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics can be induced in anesthetized pigs using repeated lung lavages with warmed 0.9% saline (50 ml/kg body weight). Including standard respiratory and hemodynamic monitoring with clinically applied devices in this model allows the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies (drugs, modern ventilators, extracorporeal membrane oxygenators, ECMO), and bridges the gap between bench and bedside...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Valeria Puntorieri, Lynda A McCaig, Christopher J Howlett, Li-Juan Yao, James F Lewis, Cory M Yamashita, Ruud A W Veldhuizen
BACKGROUND: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex pulmonary disorder in which the local release of cytokines and chemokines appears central to the pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: Based on the known role of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) in inflammatory processes, the objective was to examine the role of MMP3 in the pathogenesis of ARDS through the modulation of pulmonary inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female and male, wild type (MMP3(+/+)) and knock out (MMP3(-/-)) mice were exposed to two, clinically relevant models of ARDS including (i) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury, and (ii) hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Lung Research
Joel Ramirez, Patrick O'Shaughnessy
The primary objective of this study was to compare the filter performance of a representative selection of uncertified dust masks relative to the filter performance of a set of NIOSH-approved N95 filtering face-piece respirators (FFRs). Five different models of commercially available dust masks were selected for this study. Filter penetration of new dust masks was evaluated against a sodium chloride aerosol. Breathing resistance (BR) of new dust masks and FFRs was then measured for 120 min while challenging the dust masks and FFRs with Arizona road dust (ARD) at 25°C and 30% relative humidity...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Robert P Dickson, Benjamin H Singer, Michael W Newstead, Nicole R Falkowski, John R Erb-Downward, Theodore J Standiford, Gary B Huffnagle
Sepsis and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are major causes of mortality without targeted therapies. Although many experimental and clinical observations have implicated gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of these diseases, culture-based studies have failed to demonstrate translocation of bacteria to the lungs in critically ill patients. Here, we report culture-independent evidence that the lung microbiome is enriched with gut bacteria both in a murine model of sepsis and in humans with established ARDS...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Fumiya Tamura, Toshifumi Sugizaki, Masahiro Kawahara, Keiji Kuba, Yumiko Imai, Tohru Mizushima
RATIONALE: For acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention without alternative, however, MV can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the pathogenesis of both ARDS and VILI. Lecithinized superoxide dismutase (PC-SOD) has overcome limitations of SOD such as low tissue affinity and low stability in plasma. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have examined the effect of PC-SOD on tissue injury, edema and inflammation in the lung and other organs of mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration or MV...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Wei Gao, Ying-Nan Ju
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are particularly susceptible to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). This study investigated the effect of budesonide on VILI in a rat model of inflammatory ARDS. METHODS: Forty eight rats were randomized into three groups (n = 16 each): sham group (S), endotoxin/ventilation group (LV), endotoxin/ventilation/budesonide group (LVB). Rats in the S group received anesthesia only. Rats in the LV and LVB groups received endotoxin to simulate ARDS and were mechanically ventilated for 4 h (tidal volume 30 mL/kg)...
May 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Thana Sutthibutpong, Christian Matek, Craig Benham, Gabriel G Slade, Agnes Noy, Charles Laughton, Jonathan P K Doye, Ard A Louis, Sarah A Harris
It is well established that gene regulation can be achieved through activator and repressor proteins that bind to DNA and switch particular genes on or off, and that complex metabolic networks determine the levels of transcription of a given gene at a given time. Using three complementary computational techniques to study the sequence-dependence of DNA denaturation within DNA minicircles, we have observed that whenever the ends of the DNA are constrained, information can be transferred over long distances directly by the transmission of mechanical stress through the DNA itself, without any requirement for external signalling factors...
September 22, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Bernardo Amisa Panka, Harm-Jan de Grooth, Angeliquè Spoelstra-de Man, Mark Looney, Pieter-Roel Tuinman
BACKGROUND: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threating disorder that contributes significantly to critical illness. No specific pharmacological interventions directed at lung injury itself, have proven effective in improving outcome of patients with ARDS. Platelet activation was identified as a key component in ARDS pathophysiology and may provide an opportunity for preventive and therapeutic strategies. We hypothesize that use of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) may prevent and/ or attenuate lung injury...
September 19, 2016: Shock
Jiping Zhao, Hao Yu, Yudong Liu, Sara A Gibson, Zhaoqi Yan, Xin Xu, Amit Gaggar, Pui-Kai Li, Chenglong Li, Shi Wei, Etty N Benveniste, Hongwei Qin
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are diseases with high mortality. Macrophages and neutrophils are responsible for inflammatory responses in ALI and ARDS, which are characterized by excessive production of proinflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma. Aberrant activation of the JAK/STAT pathway is critical for persistent inflammation in many conditions such as infection and autoimmunity. Given the importance of the STAT3 transcription factor in activating macrophages and neutrophils, and augmenting inflammation, we investigated the therapeutic potential of inhibiting STAT3 activity using the small molecule STAT3 inhibitor, LLL12...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Walker M McHugh, William W Russell, Andrew J Fleszar, Paul E Rodenhouse, Skyler P Rietberg, Lei Sun, Thomas P Shanley, Timothy T Cornell
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both adult and pediatric intensive care units. A key event in the development of ARDS is neutrophil recruitment into the lungs leading to tissue damage and destruction. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is the major human chemokine responsible for neutrophil recruitment into the lungs. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) has been shown to be a key regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which control the production of IL-8...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Elizabeth R Pfoh, Amy W Wozniak, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Victor D Dinglas, Pedro A Mendez-Tellez, Carl Shanholtz, Nancy D Ciesla, Peter J Pronovost, Dale M Needham
PURPOSE: Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are at high risk for new or ongoing physical declines after hospital discharge. The objective of our study was to evaluate the epidemiology of physical declines over 5-year follow-up and identify patients at risk for decline. METHODS: This multi-site prospective cohort study evaluated ARDS survivors who completed a physical status assessment at 3 or 6 months post-discharge. Three measures were evaluated: muscle strength (Medical Resource Council sumscore); exercise capacity [6-min walk test (6MWT)]; physical functioning [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 survey)]...
October 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Imo P Aisiku, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Pratik Doshi, Julia S Benoit, Shankar Gopinath, Jerry C Goodman, Claudia S Robertson
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk of the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). TBI and ARDS pathophysiologic mechanisms are known to independently involve significant inflammatory responses. The literature on the association between plasma inflammatory cytokines and ARDS in patients with TBI is sparse. METHODS: The study was a secondary analysis of the safety of a randomized trial of erythropoietin and transfusion threshold in patients with severe TBI...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Tyler J Wellman, Nicolas de Prost, Mauro Tucci, Tilo Winkler, Rebecca M Baron, Piotr Filipczak, Benjamin Raby, Jen-Hwa Chu, R Scott Harris, Guido Musch, Luiz F Dos Reis Falcao, Vera Capelozzi, Jose G Venegas, Marcos F Vidal Melo
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition comprising diffuse lung edema and alveolar damage. ARDS frequently results from regional injury mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether detectable inflammation precedes lung edema and opacification and whether topographically differential gene expression consistent with heterogeneous injury occurs in early ARDS. The authors aimed to determine the temporal relationship between pulmonary metabolic activation and density in a large animal model of early ARDS and to assess gene expression in differentially activated regions...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
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