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Qing He, Yuan Gao, Zhuye Jie, Xinlei Yu, Janne Marie Laursen, Liang Xiao, Ying Li, Lingling Li, Faming Zhang, Qiang Feng, Xiaoping Li, Jinghong Yu, Chuan Liu, Ping Lan, Ting Yan, Xin Liu, Xun Xu, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lise Madsen, Susanne Brix, Jianping Wang, Karsten Kristiansen, Huijue Jia
Background: The inflammatory intestinal disorder Crohn's disease (CD) has become a health challenge worldwide. The gut microbiota closely interacts with the host immune system, but its functional impact in CD is unclear. Except for studies on a small number of CD patients, analyses of the gut microbiota in CD have used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Here we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to provide a detailed characterization of the compositional and functional features of the CD microbiota, comprising also unannotated bacteria, and investigated its modulation by exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN)...
June 26, 2017: GigaScience
Benjamin C Sun, Rita F Redberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Yonggang Yang, Donglin Li, Chaozheng Li, YuFang Liu, Kai Jiang
Researchers have proposed different effective mechanisms of hydrogen bonding (HB) on the fluorescence of 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) and its derivatives. Herein, excited state transition and dynamics analysis confirm that the fluorescence of PD (a derivative of PRODAN with ethyl replaced by 3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropan) emits from the planar intramolecular charge transfer (PICT) state rather than twist ICT (TICT) state, because the fluorescence emission and surface hopping from the TICT state to the twist ground (T-S0) state is energy forbidden...
June 23, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
M Sh Zoromba
A new (p-toluidine) oligomer (PTO) was facile synthesized and economically routed via chemical oxidative polymerization by potassium dichromate as an initiator in an acidic aqueous medium at room temperature. The characterization of (p-toluidine) oligomer (PTO) has been described by various techniques including Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), UV-Visible measurements, Mass spectra, H NMR, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Solvatochromism of PTO was studied in different polaritiy solvents such as acetic acid, acetone, dimethyl formamide, ethanol, isopropanol, chloroform, p-xylene, dichloromethane and carbon teterachloride...
June 22, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Lily Robinson, Ivanka Prichard, Alyssa Nikolaidis, Claire Drummond, Murray Drummond, Marika Tiggemann
Recent studies have documented a shift in the cultural ideal of physical attractiveness, with women subscribing to a visibly toned ideal that emphasises health and fitness. The present study experimentally investigated the impact of athletic and muscular fitness-idealised images compared to traditional thin ideal images on women's body dissatisfaction and exercise behaviour, under the framework of Social Comparison Theory. Participants were 106 female undergraduate students randomly assigned to view one of three sets of images (thin ideal, athletic ideal, or muscular ideal) followed by a bout of exercise...
June 24, 2017: Body Image
Gala True, Leslie B Alexander, Celia B Fisher
Community researchers are laypersons who conduct research activities in their own communities. In addiction and HIV research, community researchers are valued for their insider status and knowledge. At the same time, their presence on the research team raises concerns about coercion and confidentiality when community researchers and participants know each other personally, and the work of navigating between the worlds of research and community leads to moral distress and burnout for some community researchers...
June 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Fanhao Song, Fengchang Wu, Fei Guo, Hao Wang, Weiying Feng, Min Zhou, Yanghui Deng, Yingchen Bai, Baoshan Xing, John P Giesy
In aquatic environments, pH can control environmental behaviors of fulvic acid (FA) via regulating hydrolysis of functional groups. Sub-fractions of FA, eluted using pyrophosphate buffers with initial pHs of 3.0 (FA3), 5.0 (FA5), 7.0 (FA7), 9.0 (FA9) and 13.0 (FA13), were used to explore interactions between the various, operationally defined, FA fractions and protons, by use of EEM-PARAFAC analysis. Splitting of peaks (FA3 and FA13), merging of peaks (FA7), disappearance of peaks (FA9 and FA13), and red/blue-shifting of peaks were observed during fluorescence titration...
June 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Zhao, Kristy Brown, Ronald K H Liem
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy is the most prevalent inherited peripheral neuropathy and is associated with over 90 causative genes. Mutations in neurofilament light polypeptide gene, NEFL cause CMT2E, an axonal form of CMT that results in abnormal structures and/or functions of peripheral axons in spinal cord motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons. We have previously generated and characterized a knock-in mouse model of CMT2E with the N98S mutation in Nefl that presented with multiple inclusions in spinal cord neurons...
2017: PloS One
Osman Riaz, Adeel Aqil, Ashim Mannan, Fahad Hossain, Mubusher Ali, Gautam Chakrabarty, Graham Radcliffe
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantitatively assess the outcomes of studies, comparing the use of Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) and the quadriceps tendon-bone (QTB) autografts when reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant articles published between January 1980 and January 2015 for the purpose of identifying studies comparing BPTB and QTB autografts for ACL reconstruction. Included studies were assessed regarding their methodological quality before analysis...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Nikki Traylor-Knowles, Noah H Rose, Elizabeth A Sheets, Stephen R Palumbi
Corals respond to heat pulses that cause bleaching with massive transcriptional change, but the immediate responses to stress that lead up to these shifts have never been detailed. Understanding these early signals could be important for identifying the regulatory mechanisms responsible for bleaching and how these mechanisms vary between more and less resilient corals. Using RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and sampling every 30 minutes during a short-term heat shock, we found that components of the transcriptome were significantly upregulated within 90 min and after a temperature increase of +2 °C...
April 2017: Biological Bulletin
Bohumil Štíbr, Oleg L Tok, Josef Holub
The principles of a new α-shift correlation (ASC) NMR method are demonstrated on a model series of substituted derivatives of o-carborane for which reliable NMR data are available. This graphical method revealed an acceptable linear correlation between α((11)B) or α((13)C) shifts and those induced by substituents in unsubstituted (u) positions of the carborane cluster. The linearity holds for all nuclei involved in skeletal bonding: Δδ(N)u = g × α (where N = (11)B, (13)C, and (1)H). The factor g (slope of the correlation line × 10(2)) becomes an important measure of sensitivity of a given cage position to substituent changes...
June 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Ania S Sergeenko, Jeffrey S Ovens, Daniel B Leznoff
The coordination polymers [Cu(H2O)2(μ2-NC)4PtX2] (X = Cl, Br) form networks of square grid sheets that align in a staggered manner with one another via weak X···X interactions. Upon stepwise dehydration, the layers fuse, forming a 3-D network of distorted cubes. The materials were tested for visible vapochromic, Raman, and IR response to dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, and pyridine. Analyte-bound coordination polymers of the form Cu(analyte)2[PtX2(CN)4] were structurally characterized by PXRD and found to form layers of square grids that align through X···X interactions...
June 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Botao Ji, Yossef E Panfil, Uri Banin
For visible range emitting particles which are relevant for display and additional applications, Cd-chalcogenide nanocrystals have reached the highest degree of control and performance. Considering potential toxicity and regulatory limitations, there is a challenge to successfully develop Cd-free emitting nanocrystals and in particular, heterostructures with desirable properties. Herein, we report a colloidal synthesis of fluorescent heavy-metal free Zn-chalcogenide semiconductor nanodumbbells (NDBs), in which ZnSe tips were selectively grown on the apexes of ZnTe rods as evidenced by a variety of methods...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
Hans-Ulrich Reissig, Stefan Schoder, Scheghajeh Kord Daoroun Kalai
Starting from 3-alkoxy-2-aryl-substituted pyrroles and aromatic aldehydes, a collection of new dipyrromethenes was prepared. Under the standard conditions of Treibs, these were converted into the corresponding boron dipyrromethenes (BODIPYs). Compounds of this type with alkoxy groups at C-3 position of both pyrrole subunits are new and hence the photophysical properties of this collection of novel dipyrromethenes and BODIPY dyes were investigated. The dipyrromethenes show absorption maxima up to 596 nm and emissions of up to 677 nm...
June 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
S V Trukhanov, A V Trukhanov, V G Kostishyn, L V Panina, An V Trukhanov, V A Turchenko, D I Tishkevich, E L Trukhanova, O S Yakovenko, L Yu Matzui
BaFe12-xGaxO19 (x ≤ 1.2) hexaferrites were synthesized via the usual ceramic technology. It has been established that with an increase in x, the unit cell and magnetic parameters monotonically decrease. The frequency of natural ferromagnetic resonance firstly decreases from 49.6 GHz down to 49.1 GHz when x = 0.6, and then it increases up to 50.5 GHz. The line width monotonically increases from 3.5 GHz up to 5 GHz. The peak amplitude of the resonant curve changes slightly with the exception of when x = 0.9, when it reaches -16 dB...
June 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Erin L Sternburg, Kristen C Dias, Fedor V Karginov
The CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system has revolutionized biology by allowing for precise genome editing with little effort. Guided by a single guide RNA (sgRNA) that confers specificity, the Cas9 protein cleaves both DNA strands at the targeted locus. The DNA break can trigger either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR). NHEJ can introduce small deletions or insertions which lead to frame-shift mutations, while HDR allows for larger and more precise perturbations. Here, we present protocols for generating knockout cell lines by coupling established CRISPR/Cas9 methods with two options for downstream selection/screening...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Qiujie Zhao, Lin Xu, Xiaoyan Sun, Kai Zhang, Huimin Shen, Yanan Tian, Fengkai Sun, Yanqing Li
Several studies have revealed that MFG-E8 (milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8) is related to tumour development and progression. However, the relationship between MFG-E8 expression and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients and the role of MFG-E8 in colorectal cancer invasion and progression remain unknown. In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess MFG-E8 expression in colorectal cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Colorectal cancer RNAseq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project were downloaded and MFG-E8 expression was analysed...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Silvia Medina, Noelia Villarrubia, Susana Sainz de la Maza, José Lifante, Lucienne Costa-Frossard, Ernesto Roldán, Carmen Picón, José C Álvarez-Cermeño, Luisa M Villar
BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism of action of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) treatment in MS remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the changes in the blood lymphocyte profile of MS patients predicting no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) status after DMF treatment. METHODS: We studied blood lymphocyte subsets of 64 MS patients treated with DMF at baseline and after 6 months of treatment by flow cytometry. NEDA (41 patients) or ongoing disease activity (ODA, 23 patients) were monitored after a year of follow-up...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Joanna K Kowalska, Brahamjot Nayyar, Julian A Rees, Christine E Schiewer, Sonny C Lee, Julie A Kovacs, Franc Meyer, Thomas Weyhermüller, Edwige Otero, Serena DeBeer
Herein, a systematic study of a series of molecular iron model complexes has been carried out using Fe L2,3-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopies. This series spans iron complexes of increasing complexity, starting from ferric and ferrous tetrachlorides ([FeCl4](-/2-)), to ferric and ferrous tetrathiolates ([Fe(SR)4](-/2-)), to diferric and mixed-valent iron-sulfur complexes [Fe2S2R4](2-/3-). This test set of compounds is used to evaluate the sensitivity of both Fe L2,3-edge XAS and XMCD spectroscopy to oxidation state and ligation changes...
June 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Jayanta Hazarika, Ashok Kumar
In the present work, we report a low cost and scalable oil-water interfacial polymerization method to synthesize one dimensional (1-D) highly conducting polypyrrole (PPy) nanofibers doped with p-Toluenesulfonic (p-TSA) and hydrochloric (HCl) acids. Polymerization of pyrrole (monomer) has been carried out at the interface formed between the immiscible oil and aqueous water droplets under constant magnetic stirring at room temperature. Formation of smaller diameter (16-20 nm) PPy nanofibers has been confirmed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies and average diameter of p-TSA doped PPy nanofibers is found to be smaller than that of HCl doped nanofibers...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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