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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108852/missing-the-target-the-neural-processing-underlying-the-omission-error
#1
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
The omissions are infrequent errors consisting in missing responses to the target stimuli. This is the first study aimed at investigating the brain activities associated with omissions in a decision-making task. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 12 subjects which reported a suitable number of omissions in a visual go/no-go task. We investigated both the pre- and post-stimulus brain activities associated with correct and omitted trials. The electrical neuroimaging technique (BESA) was adopted to extract the anterior insula (aIns) activity associated with the prefrontal P2 component (pP2) peaking about 300 ms after the stimulus and reflecting the stimulus-response mapping process...
January 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088327/cftr-impairment-upregulates-c-src-activity-through-il-1%C3%AE-autocrine-signaling
#2
María Macarena Massip-Copiz, Mariángeles Clauzure, Ángel Gabriel Valdivieso, Tomás Antonio Santa-Coloma
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Previously, we found several genes showing a differential expression in CFDE cells (epithelial cells derived from a CF patient). One corresponded to c-Src; its expression and activity was found increased in CFDE cells, acting as a signaling molecule between the CFTR activity and MUC1 overexpression. Here we report that bronchial IB3-1 cells (CF cells) also showed increased c-Src activity compared to 'CFTR-corrected' S9 cells...
January 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072464/genistein-and-tyrphostin-ag556-decrease-human-atrial-ultra-rapidly-activating-delayed-rectifier-potassium-current-by-inhibiting-egfr-tyrosine-kinase
#3
Guo-Sheng Xiao, Yan-Hui Zhang, Wei Wu, Hai-Ying Sun, Yan Wang, Gui-Rong Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current IKur (encoded by Kv1.5 or KCNA5) plays an important role in human atrial repolarization. The present study investigates the regulation of this current by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique, and immunoprecipitation/western blotting analysis were used to investigate whether the PTK inhibitors genistein, Tyrphostin AG556 (AG556) and PP2 regulate human atrial IKur , and hKv1...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072455/src-and-phospho-fak-kinases-are-activated-by-allopregnanolone-promoting-schwann-cells-motility-morphology-and-myelination
#4
Simona Melfi, Maria Magdalena Montt Guevara, Veronica Bonalume, Massimiliano Ruscica, Alessandra Colciago, Tommaso Simoncini, Valerio Magnaghi
Schwann cells' (SCs) development and maturation require coordinate and complementary interaction among several signals and intracellular pathways. Among factors controlling these processes, the signalling intermediates Src tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are relevant for SCs' fate, participating in regulation of SC adhesion, motility and migration. Recently, the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone (ALLO) was proved to be synthesized by SCs, whereas it acts autocrinally on SC motility and proliferation, which are crucial processes for nerve development, maturation and regeneration...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049238/the-curves-exercise-suppresses-endotoxemia-in-korean-women-with-obesity
#5
Seon Ah Jin, Sun Kyeong Kim, Hee Jung Seo, Mijoo Kim, Kye Taek Ahn, Jun Hyung Kim, Jae Hyeong Park, Jae Hwan Lee, Si Wan Choi, Jin Ok Jeong
Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a worldwide pandemic and associated with high cardiovascular risk. Metabolic endotoxemia (ME) is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism. It triggers toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory adipokines and causes a chronic low grade inflammatory status, which results in cardiovascular risk increase. Exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment to improve prognosis. In this study, we examined the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women and investigated effects of exercise on it...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044939/inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-tumor-cells-by-small-molecule-src-family-kinase-inhibitors
#6
Tobias Bartscht, Benjamin Rosien, Dirk Rades, Roland Kaufmann, Harald Biersack, Hendrik Lehnerta, Hendrik Ungefroren
In a series of studies carried out over the last couple of years in various cell types, it was observed that the experimentally used Src family kinase inhibitors PP1 and PP2 and the clinically used Src/Abl inhibitors AZM475271 and dasatinib are potent inhibitors of TGF-β mediated cellular responses such as Smad and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, Smad-dependent transcriptional activation, growth inhibition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell motility. While for PP1/PP2 it was demonstrated shown that these agents directly inhibit the kinase activity of the TGF-β type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5, the mechanism of the anti-TGF-β effect of AZM475271 and dasatinib is less clear...
January 2, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011194/convergence-of-eicosanoid-and-integrin-biology-role-of-src-in-12-lox-activation
#7
Ashok-Kumar Dilly, Keqin Tang, Yande Guo, Sangeeta Joshi, Prasanna Ekambaram, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Yinlong Cai, Stephanie C Tucker, Kenneth V Honn
12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX) metabolizes arachidonic acid to 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, or 12(S)-HETE, a proinflammatory bioactive lipid implicated in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis. The mechanisms underlying 12-LOX-mediated signaling in cancer progression are still ill-defined. In the present study we demonstrate that 12-LOX phosphorylation and subsequent enzymatic activity occurs after integrin β4 stimulation and Src kinase recruitment to the integrin subunit. Inhibition of Src activity by PP2 or Src dominant-negative mutants reduced 12-LOX tyrosine phosphorylation and 12(S)-HETE production in response to integrin β4 stimulation in A431 cells...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003155/different-proactive-and-reactive-action-control-in-fencers-and-boxers-brain
#8
Valentina Bianco, Francesco Di Russo, Rinaldo Livio Perri, Marika Berchicci
Practicing sport at top level requires excellent physical and cognitive skills. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether specific sport practice may affect the preparation-perception-action stages of processing during a visuo-motor task requiring perceptual discrimination and fast response. We recruited 39 participants (two groups of professional fencers and boxers, and a control group; N=13 for each group) and measured behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a go/no-go task...
December 18, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996167/intracellular-chloride-concentration-changes-modulate-il-1%C3%AE-expression-and-secretion-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cultured-cells
#9
Mariángeles Clauzure, Ángel G Valdivieso, María M Massip-Copiz, Consuelo Mori, Andrea V Dugour, Juan M Figueroa, Tomás A Santa Coloma
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. Several cellular functions are altered in CF cells. However, it is not clear how the CFTR failure induces those alterations. We have found previously several genes differentially expressed in CF cells, including c-Src, MUC1, MTND4 and CISD1 (CFTR-dependent genes). Recently, we also reported the existence of several chloride-dependent genes, among them GLRX5 and RPS27. Here, varying the intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-) ]i of IB3-1 CF bronchial epithelial cells, we show that IL-1β mRNA expression and secretion are also under Cl(-) modulation...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986565/inhibition-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-unmasks-vasoconstriction-and-potentiates-calcium-signaling-in-rat-aorta-smooth-muscle-cells-in-response-to-an-agonist-of-5-ht2b-receptors-bw723c86
#10
Galina Y Mironova, Piotr P Avdonin, Nikolay V Goncharov, Richard O Jenkins, Pavel V Avdonin
In blood vessels, serotonin 5-HT2B receptors mainly mediate relaxation, although their activation by the selective agonist BW723C86 is known to exert contraction of aorta in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME) hypertensive rats [Russel et al., 2002; Banes et al., 2003] and in mice with type 2 diabetes [Nelson et al., 2012]. The unmasking effect on vasoconstriction can be caused by a shift in the balance of tyrosine phosphorylation in smooth muscle cells (SMC) due to oxidative stress induced inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP)...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941902/protective-role-for-lipid-modifications-of-src-family-kinases-against-chromosome-missegregation
#11
Takuya Honda, Shuhei Soeda, Kunihiko Tsuda, Chihiro Yamaguchi, Kazumasa Aoyama, Takao Morinaga, Ryuzaburo Yuki, Yuji Nakayama, Noritaka Yamaguchi, Naoto Yamaguchi
Src-family tyrosine kinases, which are expressed in various cell types, play critical roles in cell signalling at the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane through their lipid modifications. Src-family kinases are cotranslationally myristoylated and posttranslationally palmitoylated in the amino-terminal region. The Src-family member Lyn contains a myristoylation site at glycine-2 and a palmitoylation site at cysteine-3, whereas c-Src has a myristoylation site at glycine-2 but not any palmitoylation sites...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936140/time-dependent-regulation-of-il-2r-%C3%AE-chain-cd25-expression-by-tcr-signal-strength-and-il-2-induced-stat5-signaling-in-activated-human-blood-t-lymphocytes
#12
Alla N Shatrova, Elena V Mityushova, Irina O Vassilieva, Nikolay D Aksenov, Valery V Zenin, Nikolay N Nikolsky, Irina I Marakhova
The expression of the IL-2R α-chain (IL-2Rα) is regulated at the transcriptional level via TCR- and IL-2R-signaling. The question is how to precede in time the activation signals to induce the IL-2Rα expression in native primary T cells. By comparing the effects of selective drugs on the dynamics of CD25 expression during the mitogen stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, we identified distinct Src- and JAK-dependent stages of IL-2Rα upregulation. PP2, a selective inhibitor of TCR-associated Src kinase, prevents CD25 expression at initial stages of T cell activation, prior to the cell growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930693/endothelin-b-receptors-on-primary-chicken-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-and-the-human-mio-m1-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-line-activate-erk-signaling-via-transactivation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptors
#13
Mohammad Harun-Or-Rashid, Dardan Konjusha, Caridad Galindo-Romero, Finn Hallböök
Injury to the eye or retina triggers Müller cells, the major glia cell of the retina, to dedifferentiate and proliferate. In some species they attain retinal progenitor properties and have the capacity to generate new neurons. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling are key regulators of these processes in Müller cells. The extracellular signals that modulate and control these processes are not fully understood. In this work we studied whether endothelin receptor signaling can activate EGFR and ERK signaling in Müller cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926612/inhibitory-effect-of-a-redox-silent-analogue-of-tocotrienol-on-hypoxia-adaptation-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#14
Nobuya Shiozawa, Ryosuke Sugahara, Kozue Namiki, Chiaki Sato, Akira Ando, Ayami Sato, Nantiga Virgona, Tomohiro Yano
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in Western countries and acquires a malignant phenotype, androgen-independent growth. PCa under hypoxia often has resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, an effective therapy against PCa under hypoxia has not yet been established. In this report, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a redox-silent analogue of tocotrienol on the survival of a human androgen-independent PCa cell line (PC3) under hypoxia. We found that the redox-silent analogue exerted a cytotoxic effect on PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner irrespective of either hypoxia or normoxia...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881786/neuronal-dysfunction-in-ipsc-derived-medium-spiny-neurons-from-chorea-acanthocytosis-patients-is-reversed-by-src-kinase-inhibition-and-f-actin-stabilization
#15
Nancy Stanslowsky, Peter Reinhardt, Hannes Glass, Norman Kalmbach, Maximilian Naujock, Niko Hensel, Verena Lübben, Arun Pal, Anna Venneri, Francesca Lupo, Lucia De Franceschi, Peter Claus, Jared Sterneckert, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann, Florian Wegner
: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by red blood cell acanthocytes and striatal neurodegeneration. Recently, severe cell membrane disturbances based on depolymerized cortical actin and an elevated Lyn kinase activity in erythrocytes from ChAc patients were identified. How this contributes to the mechanism of neurodegeneration is still unknown. To gain insight into the pathophysiology, we established a ChAc patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell model and an efficient differentiation protocol providing a large population of human striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the main target of neurodegeneration in ChAc...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867260/tracking-sentence-comprehension-test-retest-reliability-in-people-with-aphasia-and-unimpaired-adults
#16
Jennifer E Mack, Andrew Zu-Sern Wei, Stephanie Gutierrez, Cynthia K Thompson
PURPOSE: Visual-world eyetracking is increasingly used to investigate online language processing in normal and language impaired listeners. Tracking changes in eye movements over time also may be useful for indexing language recovery in those with language impairments. Therefore, it is critical to determine the test-retest reliability of results obtained using this method. METHODS: Unimpaired young adults and people with aphasia took part in two eyetracking sessions spaced about one week apart...
November 2016: Journal of Neurolinguistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802416/src-kinases-regulate-glutamatergic-input-to-hypothalamic-presympathetic-neurons-and-sympathetic-outflow-in-hypertension
#17
Xin Qiao, Jing-Jing Zhou, De-Pei Li, Hui-Lin Pan
The elevated sympathetic outflow associated with hypertension is maintained by increased N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Synaptic NMDAR activity is tightly regulated by protein kinases, including the Src family of tyrosine kinases. We determined whether Src kinases play a role in increased NMDAR activity of PVN neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla and in elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)...
January 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796759/increased-src-family-kinase-activity-disrupts-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-impairs-remote-fear-memory-in-forebrain-shp2-deficient-mice
#18
Xunyi Yan, Bin Zhang, Wen Lu, Lin Peng, Qian Yang, Wei Cao, Shen Lin, Wenyue Yu, Xiaoming Li, Yuehai Ke, Shengtian Li, Wei Yang, Jianhong Luo
Src homolog domain-containing phosphatase 2 (Shp2) signals a variety of cellular and physiological functions including learning and memory. Dysregulation of ERK signaling is known to be responsible for the cognitive deficits associated with gain-of-function mutated Shp2 mimicking Noonan syndrome. However, here, we report that CaMKIIα-cre induced knockout (CaSKO) of Shp2 in hippocampal pyramidal neurons resulted in increased Src activity, upregulated phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at Y1325 of GluN2A and at Y1472 of GluN2B, disrupted the balance of synaptic transmission, and impaired long-term potentiation and remote contextual fear memory...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793680/purification-physico-chemical-characterization-and-thermodynamics-of-chitooligosaccharide-binding-to-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-phloem-lectin
#19
Pavan Kumar Nareddy, Kishore Babu Bobbili, Musti J Swamy
A chitooligosaccharide-specific lectin has been purified from the phloem exudate of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) by affinity chromatography on chitin. The molecular weight of the cucumber phloem lectin (CPL) was determined as 51912.8Da by mass spectrometry whereas SDS-PAGE yielded a single band with a subunit mass of 26kDa, indicating that the protein is a homodimer. Peptide mass fingerprinting studies strongly suggest that CPL is identical to the 26kDa phloem protein 2 (PP2) from cucumber. CD spectroscopy indicated that CPL is a predominantly β-sheets protein...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784696/serine-threonine-phosphatases-and-aquaporin-2-regulation-in-renal-collecting-duct
#20
Sophia M LeMaire, Viswanathan Raghuram, Cameron R Grady, Christina M Pickering, Chung-Lin Chou, Ezigbobiara N Umejiego, Mark A Knepper
Phosphorylation of the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel at four COOH-terminal serines plays a central role in the regulation of water permeability of the renal collecting duct. The level of phosphorylation at these sites is determined by a balance between phosphorylation by protein kinases and dephosphorylation by phosphatases. The phosphatases that dephosphorylate AQP2 have not been identified. Here, we use large-scale data integration techniques to identify serine-threonine phosphatases likely to interact with AQP2 in renal collecting duct principal cells...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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