keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Genetics traumatic brain injury

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104114/newfound-sex-differences-in-axonal-structure-underlie-differential-outcomes-from-in-vitro-traumatic-axonal-injury
#1
Jean-Pierre Dollé, Andrew Jaye, Stewart A Anderson, Hossein Ahmadzadeh, Vivek B Shenoy, Douglas H Smith
Since traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is implicated as a prominent pathology of concussion, we examined potential sex differences in axon structure and responses to TAI. Rat and human neurons were used to develop micropatterned axon tracts in vitro that were genetically either male or female. Ultrastructural analysis revealed for the first time that female axons were consistently smaller with fewer microtubules than male axons. Computational modeling of TAI showed that these structural differences place microtubules in female axons at greater risk of failure during trauma under the same applied loads than in male axons...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095270/pituitary-insufficiency-following-traumatic-thoracic-injury-in-an-adolescent-male-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska, Łukasz Kluczyński, Małgorzata Wilusz, Jacek Pantofliński, Renata Turek-Jabrocka, Dorota Pach, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk
RATIONALE: Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 24-years-old male...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083257/a-combination-antioxidant-therapy-to-inhibit-nox2-and-activate-nrf2-decreases-secondary-brain-damage-and-improves-functional-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Raghavendar Chandran, TaeHee Kim, Suresh L Mehta, Eshwar Udho, Vishal Chanana, Pelin Cengiz, HwuiWon Kim, Chanul Kim, Raghu Vemuganti
Uncontrolled oxidative stress contributes to the secondary neuronal death that promotes long-term neurological dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Surprisingly, both NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) that increases and transcription factor Nrf2 that decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced after TBI. As the post-injury functional outcome depends on the balance of these opposing molecular pathways, we evaluated the effect of TBI on the motor and cognitive deficits and cortical contusion volume in NOX2 and Nrf2 knockout mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081811/transplanted-adult-neural-stem-cells-express-sonic-hedgehog-in-vivo-and-suppress-white-matter-neuroinflammation-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Genevieve M Sullivan, Regina C Armstrong
Neural stem cells (NSCs) delivered intraventricularly may be therapeutic for diffuse white matter pathology after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To test this concept, NSCs isolated from adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) were transplanted into the lateral ventricle of adult mice at two weeks post-TBI followed by analysis at four weeks post-TBI. We examined sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling as a candidate mechanism by which transplanted NSCs may regulate neuroregeneration and/or neuroinflammation responses of endogenous cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016402/disability-and-health-consequences-of-traumatic-brain-injury-national-prevalence
#5
Claire Jourdan, Philippe Azouvi, François Genêt, Nicolas Selly, Loic Josseran, Alexis Schnitzler
OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of traumatic brain injury-related disability and health status in the general population. DESIGN: The French National Survey, conducted in households and institutions, assessed 33,896 adults. Data included sequelae from traumatic brain injury, impairments, current health conditions and uses of health services. Analyses, adjusted for age and gender, compared subjects who declared sequelae from traumatic brain injury (n=479) to the remaining survey population (n=33,287)...
October 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975867/the-pharmacogenomics-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Solomon M Adams, Yvette P Conley, Amy K Wagner, Ruchira M Jha, Robert Sb Clark, Samuel M Poloyac, Patrick M Kochanek, Philip E Empey
Pharmacotherapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) is focused on resuscitation, prevention of secondary injury, rehabilitation and recovery. Pharmacogenomics may play a role in TBI for predicting therapies for sedation, analgesia, seizure prevention, intracranial pressure-directed therapy and neurobehavioral/psychiatric symptoms. Research into genetic predictors of outcomes and susceptibility to complications may also help clinicians to tailor therapeutics for high-risk individuals. Additionally, the expanding use of genomics in the drug development pipeline has provided insight to novel investigational and repurposed medications that may be useful in the treatment of TBI and its complications...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942245/regulatory-role-of-nadph-oxidase-2-in-the-polarization-dynamics-and-neurotoxicity-of-microglia-macrophages-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Jing Wang, Merry W Ma, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Darrell W Brann
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Secondary injuries that develop after the initial trauma contribute to long-lasting neurophysiological deficits. Polarization of microglia/macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory (M1) phenotype may increase the progression of secondary injury following TBI; however, the regulatory and functional mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly defined. In the present study, we showed elevated expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) predominantly in microglia/macrophages at 4- and 7-days after controlled cortical impact in mice...
September 21, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935338/soft-tissue-surgery-for-adults-with-nonfunctional-spastic-hands-following-central-nervous-system-lesions-a-retrospective-study
#8
Laure Gatin, Alexis Schnitzler, Fabien Calé, Guillaume Genêt, Philippe Denormandie, François Genêt
PURPOSE: Soft tissue surgery for upper extremity contractures can improve hygiene, pain, and appearance in adults with central nervous system lesions. The goal of such interventions is highly individual; thus, goal attainment scaling (GAS; a method of scoring the extent to which patient's individual goals are achieved [5 levels] in the course of intervention and using T score values) is pertinent to evaluate outcome. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of soft tissue surgery for upper extremity muscle contractures in patients with central nervous system lesions using GAS...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933223/genetic-and-histological-alterations-reveal-key-role-of-prostaglandin-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-1-and-2-in-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-neuroinflammation-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-rats-exposed-to-moderate-fluid-percussion-injury
#9
Hideki Shojo, Cesario V Borlongan, Tadashi Mabuchi
After the initial insult in traumatic brain injury (TBI), secondary neurodegeneration occurs that is intimately associated with neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin (PG) synthases and cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 may contribute to inflammation in the brain. Temporal and spatial expression features of PG and COX1 and 2 following trauma may guide the development of antineuroinflammation strategies. Here, we examined PG synthase signaling and COX1 and 2 gene expression levels and COX-1- and 2-positive cell types and their temporal localization in TBI-induced brain in an effort to reveal their participation in the disease's evolving neuroinflammation...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930945/effects-of-propranolol-and-clonidine-on-brain-edema-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-endothelial-glycocalyx-disruption-following-fluid-percussion-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#10
Gustav Folmer Genét, Peter Bentzer, Morten Bagge Hansen, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Pär Ingemar Johansson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury causes a disruption of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx layer that is associated with an overactivation of the sympathoadrenal system. We hypothesized that early and unselective beta-blockade with propranolol alone or in combination with the alfa2-agonist clonidine would decrease brain edema, blood-brain-barrier permeability and glycocalyx disruption at 24 hours after trauma. METHODS: We subjected fifty-three adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to lateral fluid-percussion brain injury and randomized infusion with propranolol (n=16), propranolol+clonidine (n=16), vehicle (n=16) or sham (n=5) for 24 hours...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921694/protease-activated-receptor-2-controls-myelin-development-resiliency-and-repair
#11
Hyesook Yoon, Maja Radulovic, Grant Walters, Alex R Paulsen, Kristen Drucker, Phillip Starski, Jianmin Wu, David P Fairlie, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Oligodendrocytes are essential regulators of axonal energy homeostasis and electrical conduction and emerging target cells for restoration of neurological function. Here we investigate the role of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a unique protease activated G protein-coupled receptor, in myelin development and repair using the spinal cord as a model. Results demonstrate that genetic deletion of PAR2 accelerates myelin production, including higher proteolipid protein (PLP) levels in the spinal cord at birth and higher levels of myelin basic protein and thickened myelin sheaths in adulthood...
December 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874921/functional-medicine-approach-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Alice C Richer
Background: The U.S. military has seen dramatic increases in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among military personnel due to the nature of modern-day conflicts. Conventional TBI treatment for secondary brain injuries has suboptimal success rates, and patients, families, and healthcare professionals are increasingly turning to alternative medicine treatments. Objective: Effective treatments for the secondary injury cascades that occur after an initial brain trauma are unclear at this time. The goal of successful treatment options for secondary TBI injuries is to reduce oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inflammation while supporting mitochondrial functions and repair of membranes, synapses, and axons...
August 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841884/early-post-traumatic-seizures-are-associated-with-valproic-acid-plasma-concentrations-and-ugt1a6-cyp2c9-genetic-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Yirui Sun, Jian Yu, Qiang Yuan, Xing Wu, Xuehai Wu, Jin Hu
BACKGROUND: Seizure is a common complication for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line antiepileptic drug, though its metabolism is affected by genetic polymorphisms and varies between individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate such association and to explore its influence on the occurrence of early post-traumatic seizure. METHODS: A prospective case control study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 recruiting adult patients with severe TBI...
August 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826581/uncommon-causes-of-cerebral-microbleeds
#14
REVIEW
Nariman Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Varun Chandi Pulakanti, Ramin Zand
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. METHODS: We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. RESULTS: CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea...
October 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780733/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-increases-synaptic-protein-levels-via-the-mapk-erk-signaling-pathway-and-nrf2-trx-axis-following-the-transplantation-of-neural-stem-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Tao Chen, Yu Wu, Yuzi Wang, Jigao Zhu, Haiying Chu, Li Kong, Liangwei Yin, Haiying Ma
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in promoting the growth, differentiation, survival and synaptic stability of neurons. Presently, the transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is known to induce neural repair to some extent after injury or disease. In this study, to investigate whether NSCs genetically modified to encode the BDNF gene (BDNF/NSCs) would further enhance synaptogenesis, BDNF/NSCs or naive NSCs were directly engrafted into lesions in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
November 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753497/disease-modifying-effect-of-atipamezole-in-a-model-of-post-traumatic-epilepsy
#16
Jari Nissinen, Pedro Andrade, Teemu Natunen, Mikko Hiltunen, Tarja Malm, Katja Kanninen, Joana I Soares, Olena Shatillo, Jukka Sallinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Treatment of TBI remains a major unmet medical need, with 2.5 million new cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year in Europe and 1.5 million in the USA. This single-center proof-of-concept preclinical study tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic neurostimulation with proconvulsants, either atipamezole, a selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, or the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist SR141716A, as monotherapy would improve functional recovery after TBI. A total of 404 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into two groups: sham-injured or lateral fluid-percussion-induced TBI...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747144/abcg2-c-421c-a-is-associated-with-outcomes-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Solomon M Adams, Yvette P Conley, Dianxu Ren, David O Okonkwo, Ava M Puccio, C Edward Dixon, Robert S B Clark, Patrick M Kochanek, Philip E Empey
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death with no pharmacological treatments that improve outcomes. Transporter proteins participate in TBI recovery by maintaining the central nervous system (CNS) biochemical milieu. Genetic variations in transporters that alter expression and/or function have been associated with TBI outcomes. The ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCG2, is a uric acid (UA) transporter that effluxes UA from cells in the CNS and is responsible for systemic UA clearance. Uric acid is a CNS antioxidant and/or a biomarker that might support TBI recovery...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736244/the-use-of-stable-isotopes-in-the-study-of-human-pathophysiology
#18
Evelina Charidemou, Tom Ashmore, Julian L Griffin
The growing prevalence of metabolic diseases including fatty liver disease and Type 2 diabetes has increased the emphasis on understanding metabolism at the mechanistic level and how it is perturbed in disease. Metabolomics is a continually expanding field that seeks to measure metabolites in biological systems during a physiological stimulus or a genetic alteration. Typically, metabolomics studies provide total pool sizes of metabolites rather than dynamic flux measurements. More recently there has been a resurgence in approaches that use stable isotopes (e...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715400/a-novel-method-to-model-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-drosophila
#19
Mingkuan Sun, Liam L Chen
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is an established neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with exposure to repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). The mechanisms responsible for its complex pathological changes remain largely elusive, despite a recent consensus to define the neuropathological criteria. Here, we describe a novel method to develop a model of CTE in Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila ) in an attempt to identify the key genes and pathways that lead to the characteristic hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation and neuronal death in the brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701948/microglial-activation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Cornelius K Donat, Gregory Scott, Steve M Gentleman, Magdalena Sastre
Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
86027
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"