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Genetics traumatic brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736244/the-use-of-stable-isotopes-in-the-study-of-human-pathophysiology
#1
Evelina Charidemou, Tom Ashmore, Julian L Griffin
The growing prevalence of metabolic diseases including fatty liver disease and Type 2 diabetes has increased the emphasis on understanding metabolism at the mechanistic level and how it is perturbed in disease. Metabolomics is a continually expanding field that seeks to measure metabolites in biological systems during a physiological stimulus or a genetic alteration. Typically, metabolomics studies provide total pool sizes of metabolites rather than dynamic flux measurements. More recently there has been a resurgence in approaches that use stable isotopes (e...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715400/a-novel-method-to-model-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-drosophila
#2
Mingkuan Sun, Liam L Chen
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is an established neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with exposure to repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). The mechanisms responsible for its complex pathological changes remain largely elusive, despite a recent consensus to define the neuropathological criteria. Here, we describe a novel method to develop a model of CTE in Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila ) in an attempt to identify the key genes and pathways that lead to the characteristic hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation and neuronal death in the brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701948/microglial-activation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Cornelius K Donat, Gregory Scott, Steve M Gentleman, Magdalena Sastre
Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686557/the-biopsychosocial-model-40-years-of-application-in-psychiatry
#4
G Papadimitriou
In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627447/pain-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-psychological-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Samar Khoury, Rodrigo Benavides
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the cause for long-term disability in more than 3 million patients in the US alone, with chronic pain being the most frequently reported complain. To date, predisposing mechanisms for chronic pain in TBI patients are largely unknown. Psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety following TBI are commonly reported comorbidities to post-traumatic pain. Long term consequences can be debilitating and affect quality of life even when the injury is mild...
June 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604837/dynamic-changes-in-diffusion-measures-improve-sensitivity-in-identifying-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Alexander W Thomas, Richard Watts, Christopher G Filippi, Joshua P Nickerson, Trevor Andrews, Gregory Lieberman, Magdalena R Naylor, Margaret J Eppstein, Kalev Freeman
The goal of this study was to investigate patterns of axonal injury in the first week after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We performed a prospective cohort study of 20 patients presenting to the emergency department with mTBI, using 3.0T diffusion tensor MRI immediately after injury and again at 1 week post-injury. Corresponding data were acquired from 16 controls over a similar time interval. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and other diffusion measures were calculated from 11 a priori selected axon tracts at each time-point, and the change across time in each region was quantified for each subject...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577991/inhibition-of-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Jun Zhang, Hongjian Pu, Haiyue Zhang, Zhishuo Wei, Xiaoyan Jiang, Mingyue Xu, Lili Zhang, Wenting Zhang, Jialin Liu, Hengxing Meng, R Anne Stetler, Dandan Sun, Jun Chen, Yanqin Gao, Ling Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to long-term motor and cognitive dysfunction, which can be at least partly attributed to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The mechanisms underlying post-TBI BBB disruption, however, are poorly understood thus far. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1) is a universally expressed ion transporter that maintains intracellular ion homeostasis by increasing intracellular K(+) and Cl(-). Having been characterized in stroke models, NKCC1 is activated in various cell types in the ischemic brain, and is thought to mediate BBB disruption, brain edema, and neuronal cell death...
May 31, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554833/optimization-of-mitochondrial-isolation-techniques-for-intraspinal-transplantation-procedures
#8
Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Charlie Mashburn, Khalid C Eldahan, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
BACKGROUND: Proper mitochondrial function is essential to maintain normal cellular bioenergetics and ionic homeostasis. In instances of severe tissue damage, such as traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, mitochondria become damaged and unregulated leading to cell death. The relatively unexplored field of mitochondrial transplantation following neurotrauma is based on the theory that replacing damaged mitochondria with exogenous respiratory-competent mitochondria can restore overall tissue bioenergetics...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543180/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-participates-in-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-through-inhibiting-autophagy-and-promoting-oxidative-stress
#9
Yang Dou, Haitao Shen, Dongxia Feng, Haiying Li, Xiaodi Tian, Jian Zhang, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a member of the TRAF family and an important multifunctional intracellular adaptin of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily. TRAF6 has been studied in several central nervous system diseases, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not been fully illustrated. This study was designed to explore changes of expression level and potential roles and mechanisms of TRAF6 in early brain injury (EBI) after SAH using a Sprague-Dawley rat model of SAH induced in 0...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#10
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities, and antiabsence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502803/gene-co-expression-networks-identify-trem2-and-tyrobp-as-major-hubs-in-human-apoe-expressing-mice-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Emilie L Castranio, Anais Mounier, Cody M Wolfe, Kyong Nyon Nam, Nicholas F Fitz, Florent Letronne, Jonathan Schug, Radosveta Koldamova, Iliya Lefterov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly linked to an increased risk of developing dementia, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy and possibly Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOEε4 allele of human Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is the major genetic risk factor for late onset AD and has been associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and unfavorable outcome following TBI. To determine if there is an APOE isoform-specific response to TBI we performed controlled cortical impact on 3-month-old mice expressing human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485728/adenosine-a2a-receptor-inactivation-alleviates-early-onset-cognitive-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury-involving-an-inhibition-of-tau-hyperphosphorylation
#12
Z-A Zhao, Y Zhao, Y-L Ning, N Yang, Y Peng, P Li, X-Y Chen, D Liu, H Wang, X Chen, W Bai, J-F Chen, Y-G Zhou
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein, and the oligomeric and hyperphosphorylated forms of tau are increased significantly after neurotrauma and considered important factors in mediating cognitive dysfunction. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors, either by caffeine or gene knockout (KO), alleviates cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We postulated that A2AR activation exacerbates cognitive impairment via promoting tau hyperphosphorylation. Using a mouse model of moderate controlled cortical impact, we showed that TBI induced hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and spatial memory deficiency in the Morris water maze test at 7 days and 4 weeks after TBI...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482760/association-of-lectin-pathway-protein-levels-and-genetic-variants-early-after-injury-with-outcomes-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Michael Osthoff, Bernhard Walder, Cécile Delhumeau, Marten Trendelenburg, Natacha Turck
The lectin pathway of the complement system has been implicated in secondary ischemic/inflammatory injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, previous experimental studies have yielded conflicting results, and human studies are scarce. In this exploratory study, we investigated associations of several lectin pathway proteins early after injury and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with outcomes after severe TBI (mortality at 14 days [primary outcome] and consciousness assessed with the Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] at 14 days, disability assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended [GOSE] at 90 days)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469658/neural-stem-cells-over-expressing-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promote-neuronal-survival-and-cytoskeletal-protein-expression-in-traumatic-brain-injury-sites
#14
Tao Chen, Yan Yu, Liu-Jiu Tang, Li Kong, Cheng-Hong Zhang, Hai-Ying Chu, Liang-Wei Yin, Hai-Ying Ma
Cytoskeletal proteins are involved in neuronal survival. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor can increase expression of cytoskeletal proteins during regeneration after axonal injury. However, the effect of neural stem cells genetically modified by brain-derived neurotrophic factor transplantation on neuronal survival in the injury site still remains unclear. To examine this, we established a rat model of traumatic brain injury by controlled cortical impact. At 72 hours after injury, 2 × 10(7) cells/mL neural stem cells overexpressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor or naive neural stem cells (3 mL) were injected into the injured cortex...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413696/prevalence-of-potential-sports-associated-risk-factors-in-swiss-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#15
Nina Feddermann-Demont, Astrid Junge, Konrad P Weber, Michael Weller, Jiří Dvořák, Alexander A Tarnutzer
OBJECTIVES: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been reported to occur with increased incidence amongst physically active people. The role of extrinsic risk factors as physical activity, head trauma and drug/pesticide-exposure in the pathophysiology of ALS and especially in the context of practising sports remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied exposure to extrinsic factors in 92 ALS patients in the presymptomatic stage. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated and the association of physical activity, drug intake, head trauma and participation in specific sports (football [soccer], ice hockey) with age at symptom-onset was evaluated...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390522/research-frontiers-in-traumatic-brain-injury-defining-the-injury
#16
REVIEW
Andrew J Gardner, Shirley L Shih, Elizabeth V Adamov, Ross D Zafonte
With the continued advancement in technology, such as increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging parameters, and the ongoing development of various scientific fields, like serum and blood biomarkers, genetics, and physiology, traumatic brain injury (TBI) research is a dynamic field of study. TBI remains a significant public health concern and research has continued to grow exponentially over the past decade. This review provides an overview of the frontiers of TBI research, from sports concussion to severe TBI, from acute and subacute injury to long-term/chronic outcomes, from assessment and management to prognosis, specifically examining recent neuroimaging, biomarkers, genetics, and physiologic studies...
May 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337122/cerebrospinal-fluid-cortisol-mediates-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-relationships-to-mortality-after-severe-tbi-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Miranda J Munoz, Raj G Kumar, Byung-Mo Oh, Yvette P Conley, Zhensheng Wang, Michelle D Failla, Amy K Wagner
Distinct regulatory signaling mechanisms exist between cortisol and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that may influence secondary injury cascades associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and predict outcome. We investigated concurrent CSF BDNF and cortisol relationships in 117 patients sampled days 0-6 after severe TBI while accounting for BDNF genetics and age. We also determined associations between CSF BDNF and cortisol with 6-month mortality. BDNF variants, rs6265 and rs7124442, were used to create a gene risk score (GRS) in reference to previously published hypothesized risk for mortality in "younger patients" (<48 years) and hypothesized BDNF production/secretion capacity with these variants...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332151/blockade-of-neuroglobin-reduces-protection-of-conditioned-medium-from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-human-astrocyte-model-t98g-under-a-scratch-assay
#18
Eliana Baez-Jurado, Gina Guio Vega, Gjumrakch Aliev, Vadim V Tarasov, Paula Esquinas, Valentina Echeverria, George E Barreto
Previous studies have indicated that paracrine factors (conditioned medium) increase wound closure and reduce reactive oxygen species in a traumatic brain injury in vitro model. Although the beneficial effects of conditioned medium from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCA-CM) have been previously suggested for various neurological diseases, their actions on astrocytic cells are not well understood. In this study, we have explored the effect of hMSCA-CM on human astrocyte model (T98G cells) subjected to scratch assay...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323555/influence-of-dopamine-related-genes-on-neurobehavioral-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury-during-early-childhood
#19
Amery Treble-Barna, Shari L Wade, Lisa J Martin, Valentina Pilipenko, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Brad G Kurowski
The present study examined the association of dopamine-related genes with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery, as well as neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time, in children who had sustained early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to children who had sustained orthopedic injuries (OI). Participants were recruited from a prospective, longitudinal study evaluating outcomes of children who sustained a TBI (n = 68) or OI (n = 72) between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Parents completed ratings of child executive function and behavior at the immediate post-acute period (0-3 months after injury); 6, 12, and 18 months after injury; and an average of 3...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319562/translating-biomarkers-from-research-to-clinical-use-in-pediatric-neurocritical-care-focus-on-traumatic-brain-injury-and-cardiac-arrest
#20
Andrew J Prout, Michael S Wolf, Ericka L Fink
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cardiac arrest are important causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Improved diagnosis and outcome prognostication using validated biomarkers could allow clinicians to better tailor therapies for optimal efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary investigation has yielded plentiful biomarker candidates of central nervous system (CNS) injury, including macromolecules, genetic, inflammatory, oxidative, and metabolic biomarkers...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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