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Law enforcement medicine

Mathilda Tivura, Isaac Asante, Albert van Wyk, Stephaney Gyaase, Naiela Malik, Emmanuel Mahama, Dana M Hostetler, Facundo M Fernandez, Kwaku Poku Asante, Harparkash Kaur, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: Ghana changed their antimalarial drug policy from monotherapies to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies in 2004 in order to provide more efficacious medicines for treatment of malaria. The policy change can be eroded if poor quality Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies are allowed to remain on the Ghanaian market unchecked by regulatory bodies and law enforcement agencies. The presence and prevalence of substandard and counterfeit Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies need to be determined on open markets in Ghana; a review of the current policy; identifying any gaps and making recommendations on actions to be taken in addressing gaps identified are essential as the data provided and recommendations made will help in ensuring effective control of malaria in Ghana...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Rasmus Borup, Susanne Kaae, Timo Minssen, Janine Traulsen
BACKGROUND: Many areas of pharmaceutical legislation in the European Union (EU) are harmonised in order to promote the internal market and protect public health. Ideally, harmonisation leads to less fragmented regulation and cross-border complexities. This study, however, focuses on an increasingly harmonised legislative area that is subject to increases in requirements and complexities: the distribution of medicines. This study compared Danish legislation governing the distribution of medicines before and after Denmark joined the EU in order to assess the impact of EU harmonisation, as well as to evaluate whether the drastic increases in requirements mandated by the Falsified Medicines Directive of 2011 correspond to a new approach to governing the pharmaceutical supply chain...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Vincent Gautheron, Jean-Christophe Lachat, Jean Feuillet
OPINION/FEEDBACK: Introduction: In modern society many disabled people are confronted with architectural barriers. The law of 11 February 2005 has introduced regulations imposing accessibility to all buildings open to the general public and this measure is in line with sustainable development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This survey was carried out in 2010, among general practitioners of the Loire département as well as wheelchair users to evaluate the accessibility to doctors' surgeries...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Brian F Thomas, Gerald T Pollard
Cannabis is classified as a schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that it has no medicinal value. Production is legally restricted to a single supplier at the University of Mississippi, and distribution to researchers is tightly controlled. However, a majority of the population is estimated to believe that cannabis has legitimate medical or recreational value, numerous states have legalized or decriminalized possession to some degree, and the federal government does not strictly enforce its law and is considering rescheduling...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Loren Israelsen, Frank Lampe
The use of safe and beneficial dietary supplements remains an important part of your patients' healthy lifestyle-and supplements are likely an important part of your integrative medicine practice. Although issues surrounding potency, ingredient identification, adulteration, and the enforcement of existing laws are legitimate concerns for medical professionals and consumers, the responsible industry is actively working to raise quality standards for its products through a number of self-regulatory measures. These include education about and adoption of additional quality assurance initiatives, such as GMPs for botanical ingredients; better supply-chain management; adoption of improved identification and testing methodologies; an industry-wide product registry; the use of accredited third-party certifications and seals; and initiatives to promote widespread membership in the industry's trade associations, which is a reliable indicator of a company's support of and adherence to strict quality guidelines...
June 2016: Integrative Medicine
Rakhal Gaitonde, Andrew D Oxman, Peter O Okebukola, Gabriel Rada
BACKGROUND: Corruption is the abuse or complicity in abuse, of public or private position, power or authority to benefit oneself, a group, an organisation or others close to oneself; where the benefits may be financial, material or non-material. It is wide-spread in the health sector and represents a major problem. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to systematically summarise empirical evidence of the effects of strategies to reduce corruption in the health sector...
August 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Assya Pascalev, Kristof Van Assche, Judit Sándor, Natalia Codreanu, Anwar Naqvi, Martin Gunnarson, Mihaela Frunza, Jordan Yankov
This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs...
February 2016: Transplantation Direct
Muhammad Bilal, Abdul Haseeb, Mohammad Hassaan Khan, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Asma Akbar Ladak, Sufyan Khan Niazi, Muhammad Daniyal Musharraf, Adil Al-Karim Manji
INTRODUCTION: Self-medication with antibiotics is becoming increasingly common due to multiple factors. The public who are using these antibiotics generally do not have full information regarding their proper use, especially the dosages and possible side-effects. Hence, unregulated use of such medicines may cause dangerous adverse effects in the patients. AIM: The study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and practice of self-medication with antibiotics among people dwelling in the rural areas of province Sindh...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
S G Newbery, S W Cooke, H M Martineau
Internationally, forensic medicine and pathology are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of work done by veterinary clinicians and veterinary pathologists. In this article, a forensic veterinary clinician, a forensic veterinary pathologist in private practice, and a forensic veterinary pathologist at a veterinary school discuss the interactions among veterinary clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement agencies and how future interactions can be improved. The focus is on the United Kingdom, but many of the principles, challenges, and suggestions are applicable to other jurisdictions...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Sultan Suleman, Abdulkadir Woliyi, Kifle Woldemichael, Kora Tushune, Luc Duchateau, Agnes Degroote, Roy Vancauwenberghe, Nathalie Bracke, Bart De Spiegeleer
BACKGROUND: Effective and enforceable national regulations describing the manufacture and (re)packaging, export and import, distribution and storage, supply and sale, information and pharmaco-vigilance of medicines are required to consistently ensure optimal patient benefit. Expansion of pharmaceutical industries in many countries with advancement in transport technologies facilitated not only trade of genuine pharmaceutical products but also the circulation of poor quality medicines across the globe...
May 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
William L Hamilton, Cormac Doyle, Mycroft Halliwell-Ewen, Gabriel Lambert
BACKGROUND: Falsified medicines are deliberately fraudulent drugs that pose a direct risk to patient health and undermine healthcare systems, causing global morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To produce an overview of anti-falsifying public health interventions deployed at international, national and local scales in low and middle income countries (LMIC). DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for healthcare or pharmaceutical policies relevant to reducing the burden of falsified medicines in LMIC...
December 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Summer Allen
It's tough to imagine anything more frustrating than interacting with a call center. Generally, people don't reach out to call centers when they?re happy-they're usually trying to get help with a problem or gearing up to do battle over a billing error. Add in an automatic phone tree, and you have a recipe for annoyance. But what if that robotic voice offering you a smorgasbord of numbered choices could tell that you were frustrated and then funnel you to an actual human being? This type of voice analysis technology exists, and it's just one example of the many ways that computers can use your voice to extract information about your mental and emotional state-including information you may not think of as being accessible through your voice alone...
May 2016: IEEE Pulse
Aaron L Rubin, Thad Woodward, Levi Harrison, Lauren Simon, Janet Rodriquez
The Special Olympics World Games (SOWG) were held in Los Angeles, CA, during the summer of 2015. Medical care for 26 sporting events spread over six major venues across the city was provided to more than 6,000 athletes and 3,000 delegates from 170 countries. Education on care for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and athletes with additional medical issues was provided in addition to the usual sports medicine care. This required coordination between major medical providers as well as law enforcement, fire rescue, transportation, public health, and the organizers of the games...
May 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Eileen F Baker, John C Moskop, Joel M Geiderman, Kenneth V Iserson, Catherine A Marco, Arthur R Derse
Emergency physicians frequently interact with law enforcement officers and patients in their custody. As always, the emergency physician's primary professional responsibility is to promote patient welfare, and his or her first duty is to the patient. Emergency physicians should treat criminals, suspects, and prisoners with the same respect and attention they afford other patients while ensuring the safety of staff, visitors, and other patients. Respect for patient privacy and protection of confidentiality are of paramount importance to the patient-physician relationship...
November 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Faezeh Shahdost-Fard, Mahmoud Roushani
An ultrasensitive aptasensor was fabricated as an electrochemical nanotool based on the conformation switching of an aptamer (Apt). The Apt which was covalently attached on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) covered with cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) works as a unique modifier for assaying cocaine. The Apt was combined with cocaine to form a three-way junction complex; this complex increased the steric hindrance of the modified GCE surface and resulted in a variation of the corresponding current of a redox probe...
July 1, 2016: Talanta
T C Viner, B C Hamlin, P J McClure, B C Yates
The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
The problem of defining what psychoactive products and substances should be covered by legislation aimed at controlling new psychoactive substances (NPS; 'legal highs') is central to the current debate on designing new legislative responses to NPS. In New Zealand, implementation of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2013 (PSA) revealed uncertainties about which psychoactive products are covered by the new regime, with important implications for legal penalties. We reviewed five pieces of legislation which can cover substances with psychoactive properties: PSA, Misuse of Drugs Act (MODA), Food Act, Dietary Supplements Regulations and Medicines Act...
August 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Mitsuo Saito
According to the "Japan Revitalization Strategy" established in June 2013, "the government will promote better contributions of local pharmacies and pharmacists in encouraging self-medication of citizens by making pharmacies the community-based hub for providing information, giving advice on the proper use of non-prescription drugs, etc. and offering consultation and information service concerning health". In addition, the "Demanded Function and Ideal Form of Pharmacy," published in January 2014, requested a change, from pharmacies that specialized in dispensing medicines to pharmacies that serve as whole healthcare stations, providing pharmaceutical care based on patients' medical history, including the intake of dietary supplements...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Eleanor Fleming, Scott Proescholdbell, Nidhi Sachdeva, Apostolos A Alexandridis, Lewis Margolis, Kelly Ransdell
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, a total of 1,085 North Carolina residents died due to unintentional poisoning; 91% of these deaths were attributed to medications or drugs (over-the-counter, prescription, or illicit). Proper disposal of unused, unneeded, and/or expired medications is an essential part of preventing these unintentional deaths, as well as averting the other adverse consequences of these drugs on the environment and population health. METHODS: Operation Medicine Drop is a medication take-back program coordinated by Safe Kids North Carolina, a county-level, coalition-based injury prevention organization...
January 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
Peter B Chase, Jeff Hawkins, Jarrod Mosier, Ernest Jimenez, Keith Boesen, Barry K Logan, Frank G Walter
CONTEXT: Synthetic cannabinoid use has increased in many states, and medicinal and/or recreational marijuana use has been legalized in some states. These changes present challenges to law enforcement drug recognition experts (DREs) who determine whether drivers are impaired by synthetic cannabinoids or marijuana, as well as to clinical toxicologists who care for patients with complications from synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana. Our goal was to compare what effects synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana had on performance and behavior, including driving impairment, by reviewing records generated by law enforcement DREs who evaluated motorists arrested for impaired driving...
2016: Clinical Toxicology
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