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neuropsychiatric presentation

Hui Chen, Shuai Liu, Miaoyan Zheng, Lu Ji, Tianfeng Wu, Guowei Huang, Yong Ji
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a growing focus on frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, compared with other major dementias, very little is known about the factors associated with FTD. The present study evaluated candidate factors associated with FTD in the Chinese population. METHODS: One hundred eight elderly patients (36 diagnosed with FTD and 72 controls) of the Neurology Central Hospital of Tianjin (China), were diagnosed by neurologists, and recruited for the study between November 2011 and November 2014...
July 2016: Archives of Medical Research
David S Lynch, Wei Jia Zhang, Rahul Lakshmanan, Justin A Kinsella, Günes Altiokka Uzun, Merih Karbay, Zeynep Tüfekçioglu, Hasmet Hanagasi, Georgina Burke, Nicola Foulds, Simon R Hammans, Anupam Bhattacharjee, Heather Wilson, Matthew Adams, Mark Walker, James A R Nicoll, Jeremy Chataway, Nick Fox, Indran Davagnanam, Rahul Phadke, Henry Houlden
Importance: Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is a frequent cause of adult-onset leukodystrophy known to be caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the CSF1R (colony-stimulating factor 1) gene. The discovery that CSF1R mutations cause ALSP led to more accurate prognosis and genetic counseling for these patients in addition to increased interest in microglia as a target in neurodegeneration. However, it has been known since the discovery of the CSF1R gene that there are patients with typical clinical and radiologic evidence of ALSP who do not carry pathogenic CSF1R mutations...
October 17, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Michael M Neeki, Christine Au, Aurora Richard, Carlos Peace, Sharon Jaques, Jens Johansson
PURPOSE: We aimed to describe a case of an incarcerated adolescent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) presenting as acute psychosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective case report followed with chart and literature review. MAIN FINDINGS: An adolescent with ADEM presented with drastic behavior and personality changes that led to her incarceration for serious charges. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis leads to neuropsychiatric effects and can be seen with magnetic resonance imaging as a large mass effect that may result in a poor prognosis...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Hong Zhang, Peng He, Rongzhong Huang, Lin Sun, Siwen Liu, Jingjing Zhou, Yujie Guo, Deyu Yang, Peng Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as important regulators of gene expression via translational depression or mRNA degradation. Previously, dysregulated miRNAs have been found in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic, negative single‑stranded RNA virus, which may be a cause of human neuropsychiatric disease. BDV is regarded as an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of mental disorders caused by viral infection. In the present study, 10 miRNAs were dysregulated in human oligodendrocytes (OL cells) infected with the BDV strain, Hu‑H1 (OL/BDV)...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioural or affective changes in men remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and warrants a careful appraisal of its two sides, namely the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude free-hand operations into a multi-disciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
RaviK Shastri, GaurangV Shah, Page Wang, Patricia Cagnoli, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Joseph McCune, Richard Harris, PiaC Sundgren
PURPOSE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a predominantly female autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are found in 25-70% of SLE patients. Using diffusion tensor imaging, various studies have reported changes in white matter integrity in SLE patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSLE patients). The purpose of this study was to investigate if changes can be detected in the individual white matter tracts in SLE patients regardless if neuropsychiatric symptoms are present or not...
October 13, 2016: Academic Radiology
Sen Hee Tay, Anselm Mak
Neurological and psychiatric syndromes, collectively referred to as NPSLE, occur frequently in SLE. The frequency of NPSLE varies from 21 to 95%; however, only 13-38% of neuropsychiatric (NP) events could be attributable to SLE in the NPSLE SLICC inception cohort. This variability in the frequency of NPSLE is attributable to the low specificity of the ACR case definitions for SLE-attributed NP syndromes, inclusion of minor NP events in the ACR nomenclature, difficulty in ascertainment of NP events and diverse experience of rheumatologists in the clinical assessment of NP events...
October 15, 2016: Rheumatology
Rpsp Santhakumar, K Gayathri, P K Ramalingam, B V Manjunath, N Karuppusamy, B Vetriveeran, S Selvamani, P Vishnuram, A Muruganathan, Kumar Natarajan
Case reports of Wilson's disease occurring in combination with SLE are rarely reported in literature. Drug induced lupus have been observed in patients taking D-penicillamine for Wilson's disease. Here we report a case from Coimbatore Medical College hospital, who presented with fever and neuropsychiatric symptoms as the initial manifestation and found to have both SLE and Wilson's disease on subsequent evaluation.
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Somayeh Niknazar, Arezo Nahavandi, Ali Asghar Peyvandi, Hassan Peyvandi, Fatemeh Zare Mehrjerdi, Mohsen Karimi
Environmental factors, especially stress, can remain pervasive effects across the lifespan. Traumatic experiences are risk factors for the behavioral and emotional disorders. Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the important regulator of neural survival, development, and its genetic and epigenetic alterations which have been linked with several neuropsychiatric disorders, the present study investigated the effect of maternal adulthood stress on molecular changes of BDNF and tyrosine kinase-coupled receptor (TrkB) in the hippocampus of 30-day-old offspring...
October 10, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Jinna Yu, Yongming Ye, Jun Liu, Yang Wang, Weina Peng, Zhishun Liu
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture to treat TS written in English or Chinese without restrictions on publication status. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality were conducted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software from the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were combined with the fixed-effect model based on a heterogeneity test...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
L Ene, T D Marcotte, A Umlauf, C Grancea, A Temereanca, A Bharti, C L Achim, S Letendre, S M Ruta
We evaluated the impact of latent toxoplasmosis (LT) on neurocognitive (NC) and neurobehavioural functioning in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection, using a standardised NC test battery, self-reported Beck Depression Inventory, Frontal System Behavior Scale, MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and risk-assessment battery. 194 young adults (median age 24years, 48.2% males) with chronic HIV infection (HIV+) since childhood and 51 HIV seronegative (HIV-) participants were included. HIV+ individuals had good current immunological status (median CD4: 479 cells/μl) despite a low CD4 nadir (median: 93 cells/μl)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
B Jayaprakash, Karthik N Rao, Navin Patil, Dipanjan Bhattacharjee, Mohit Maden, N R Rau
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), an acute neuropsychiatric condition, is caused by thiamine deficiency. Traditionally, it has been associated with patients with a background of alcoholism. However, in the past few decades, with increasing trends in the incidence of WE among patients without a history of alcohol consumption, a pressing need was felt to examine the existing guidelines for the management of WE and its sequelae. The need for a revision was felt as the guidelines for the management of WE were developed around the premise that this affliction is observed mainly among alcoholics...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
J Griem, J Stone, A Carson, M D Kopelman
In this chapter, we discuss the wide variety of patients who may attend a memory clinic or other health services presenting with memory symptoms but who do not have dementia. These diagnoses may include a wide range of neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders; in this chapter we will focus on other causes of memory symptoms which may be labeled psychologic or functional, or be more obviously part of an established psychiatric disorder. We describe the differential categorization recently posited by Stone et al...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
T Frodl
Advances in neuropsychiatric research are supposed to lead to significant improvements in understanding functional neurologic disorders and their diagnosis. However, epigenetic and genetic research on conversion disorders and somatoform disorders is only at its start. This review demonstrates the current state within this field and tries to bridge a gap from what is known on gene-stress interactions in other psychiatric disorders like depression. The etiology of conversion disorders is hypothesized to be multifactorial...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Flurin Cathomas, Hannes Sigrist, Luca Schmid, Erich Seifritz, Martin Gassmann, Bernhard Bettler, Christopher R Pryce
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. The GABAB receptors are G-protein coupled receptors consisting of principle subunits and auxiliary potassium channel tetramerization domain (KCTD) subunits. The KCTD subunits 8, 12, 12b and 16 are cytosolic proteins that determine the kinetics of the GABAB receptor response. Previously, we demonstrated that Kctd12 null mutant mice (Kctd12(-/-)) exhibit increased auditory fear learning and that Kctd12(+/-) mice show altered circadian activity, as well as increased intrinsic excitability in hippocampal pyramidal neurons...
October 4, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Thaíse Campos Mondin, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
BACKGROUND: It is known that sleep disturbance has been considered a trait-marker of mood disorders. However, the role of disruptions in biological rhythms, such as eating, activity, and social patterns, needs to be better understood. AIM: To assess the differences in biological rhythms in subjects with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy controls. We also tested the association between disruptions of biological rhythms and circadian preferences...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Sabrina Castellano, Andrea Ventimiglia, Salvatore Salomone, Andrea J Ventimiglia, Simona De Vivo, Maria Salvina Signorelli, Elisa Bellelli, Mario Santagati, Rita Anna Cantarella, Enrica Fazio, Eugenio Aguglia, Filippo Drago, Santo Di Nuovo, Filippo Caraci
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive disorder (MDD) is often accompanied by cognitive deficits, involving attention, learning, memory and executive functioning. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) show efficacy on affective symptoms, but it is unclear whether or not they improve cognitive symptoms. METHODS: We carried out a 12 week-prospective observational study in two cohorts of recurrent moderate-severe partial responder MDD patients, to test the hypothesis that SSRIs and/or SNRIs may affect cognitive symptoms and assess whether or not such an effect was correlated to their effect on affective symptoms...
October 3, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Kantha Medepalli, Cody M Lee, Lauryn A Benninger, Jean M Elwing
OBJECTIVE: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a rare but emerging cause of autoimmune encephalitis. Our objective is to present a case of this rare disease while highlighting the importance of an aggressive search for underlying malignancy as well as the common mischaracterization of primary psychiatric illness that occurs in these patients. METHODS: A young Caucasian female with no known psychiatric history presented with acute onset of seizures and psychosis...
2016: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
Leandro Boson Gambogi, Henrique Cerqueira Guimarães, Maurício Viotti Daker, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Paulo Caramelli
Chronic mania is an under-investigated condition and few reports have associated this disorder with an organic background. The present work examines Kraepelin's reliable description of chronic mania from a current behavioral neurology viewpoint. Kraepelin had described a cluster of symptoms that are now recognized as core manifestations of the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) clinical phenotype. We also carried out additional reviews of original manuscripts from Kraepelin's peers, in order to find any case reports that might fulfill the current diagnostic proposal for bvFTD...
September 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Carlo Abbate, Pietro Davide Trimarchi, Emanuela Rotondo, Silvia Inglese, Paola Nicolini, Paolo Dionigi Rossi, Beatrice Arosio, Daniela Mari
Confabulation may be present in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but usually it is not a primary feature of either its typical or atypical variants. In this report, we describe the case of an AD patient who showed an unusual and enduring neuropsychiatric phenotype characterized by early and prominent spontaneous confabulation. Surprisingly, such atypical AD presentation bears a striking resemblance to presbyophrenia, a subtype of dementia which was described at the beginning of the twentieth century and then sank into oblivion...
October 5, 2016: Neurocase
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