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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348372/-new-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#1
Emi Yamano, Yosky Kataoka
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a persistent and unexplained pathological state characterized by exertional and severely debilitating fatigue, with/without symptoms of infection or neuropsychiatric symptoms, and with a minimum duration of 6 consecutive months. The pathogenesis of CFS is not fully understood. There are no firmly established diagnostic biomarkers or treatment, due to incomplete understanding of the etiology of CFS and diagnostic uncertainty. We performed comprehensive metabolomic analyses of blood samples obtained from patients with CFS and healthy controls to establish an objective diagnosis of CFS...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348192/differential-contributions-of-nucleus-accumbens-subregions-to-cue-guided-risk-reward-decision-making-and-implementation-of-conditional-rules
#2
Stan B Floresco, David R Montes, Maric M T Tse, Mieke van Holstein
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node within cortico-limbic circuitry for guiding action selection and cost/benefit decision making in situations involving reward uncertainty. Preclinical studies have typically assessed risk/reward decision making using assays where decisions are guided by internally-generated representations of choice-outcome contingencies. Yet, real-life decisions are often influenced by external stimuli that inform about likelihoods of obtaining rewards. How different subregions of the NAc mediate decision making in such situations is unclear...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348190/pronounced-hyperactivity-cognitive-dysfunctions-and-bdnf-dysregulation-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats
#3
Damiana Leo, Ilya Sukhanov, Francesca Zoratto, Placido Illiano, Lucia Caffino, Fabrizio Sanna, Giulia Messa, Marco Emanuele, Alessandro Esposito, Maria Dorofeikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Liudmila Mus, Evgenia E Efimova, Marco Niello, Stefano Espinoza, Tatyana D Sotnikova, Marius C Hoener, Gianni Laviola, Fabio Fumagalli, Walter Adriani, Raul R Gainetdinov
Dopamine (DA) controls many vital physiological functions and is critically involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major function of the plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is the rapid uptake of released DA into presynaptic nerve terminals leading to control of both the extracellular levels of DA and the intracellular stores of DA. Here, we present a newly developed strain of rats (DAT-knockout, DAT-KO rats) in which the gene encoding the DAT has been disrupted by using zinc finger nuclease technology (ZFN)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344425/a-case-of-psychosis-in-a-patient-with-secondary-adrenal-insufficiency-a-possible-etiological-role-of-a-hypocortisolemic-induced-increase-in-proinflammatory-cytokines
#4
David R Spiegel, Aaron B Nelson, David C Lieb, Alexander M Pattison, Justin Smith, Patrice Zigrossi, Erin Godbout
Adrenal insufficiency is divided into three types based on the etiology of its development. In primary adrenal insufficiency, pathology resides in end-organ failure at the level of the adrenal cortex, while in secondary and tertiary adrenal insufficiency, impairment rests in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, respectively. Regardless of etiology, adrenal insufficiency results in a hypocortisolemic condition. While the relationship between neuropsychiatric symptoms, especially psychosis, and hypercortisolemia has been extensively documented, the development of hypocortisolemia-induced psychosis is less common...
September 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340929/s-adenosyl-methionine-and-transmethylation-pathways-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases-throughout-life
#5
Jin Gao, Catherine M Cahill, Xudong Huang, Joshua L Roffman, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Jack T Rogers
S-Adenosyl methionine (SAMe), as a major methyl donor, exerts its influence on central nervous system function through cellular transmethylation pathways, including the methylation of DNA, histones, protein phosphatase 2A, and several catecholamine moieties. Based on available evidence, this review focuses on the lifelong range of severe neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases and their associated neuropathologies, which have been linked to the deficiency/load of SAMe production or/and the disturbance in transmethylation pathways...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339668/proinflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-decrease-the-transport-of-dopamine-precursor-tyrosine-in-human-fibroblasts
#6
Ravi Vumma, Jessica Johansson, Nikolaos Venizelos
BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress responses have been extensively implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders over the past 2 decades. Moreover, disturbed transport of the dopamine precursor (i.e., the amino acid tyrosine) has been demonstrated, in different studies, across fibroblast cell membranes obtained from neuropsychiatric patients. However, the role and influences of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, and the reasons for disturbed tyrosine transport in neuropsychiatric disorders, are still not evaluated...
January 16, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335036/individuals-with-currently-untreated-mental-illness-causal-beliefs-and-readiness-to-seek-help
#7
S Stolzenburg, S Freitag, S Evans-Lacko, S Speerforck, S Schmidt, G Schomerus
AIMS: Many people with mental illness do not seek professional help. Beliefs about the causes of their current health problem seem relevant for initiating treatment. Our aim was to find out to what extent the perceived causes of current untreated mental health problems determine whether a person considers herself/himself as having a mental illness, perceives need for professional help and plans to seek help in the near future. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 207 untreated persons with a depressive syndrome, all fulfilling criteria for a current mental illness as confirmed with a structured diagnostic interview (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview)...
January 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332009/poststroke-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Helle Stangeland, Vasiliki Orgeta, Vaughan Bell
A preregistered systematic review of poststroke psychosis examining clinical characteristics, prevalence, diagnostic procedures, lesion location, treatments, risk factors and outcome. Neuropsychiatric outcomes following stroke are common and severely impact quality of life. No previous reviews have focused on poststroke psychosis despite clear clinical need. CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsychINFO were searched for studies on poststroke psychosis published between 1975 and 2016. Reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and rated study quality...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331561/long-term-outcome-of-neurological-wilson-s-disease
#9
Harald Hefter, Osman Tezayak, Dietmar Rosenthal
INTRODUCTION: Aim of the study was to characterize the clinical spectrum of long-term treated patients with Wilson's disease (WD) and to identify risk factors influencing long-term outcome. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study 30 WD-patients being treated for at least 2.5 and up to 31 years underwent a detailed clinical investigation, scoring of clinical findings yielding 7 motor and 3 non-motor subscores as well as laboratory testing. A factor analysis of these subscores and laboratory parameters was performed to detect those items with the highest influence on outcome, an ANOVA and subgroup analysis tested the influence of age, age at onset of diagnosis and duration of treatment on outcome...
January 4, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329879/mir-134-modulates-chronic-stress-induced-structural-plasticity-and-depression-like-behaviors-via-downregulation-of-limk1-cofilin-signaling-in-rats
#10
Cuiqin Fan, Xiuzhi Zhu, Qiqi Song, Peng Wang, Zhuxi Liu, Shu Yan Yu
Increasing evidence has suggested that depression is a neuropsychiatric condition associated with neuroplasticity within specific brain regions. However, the mechanisms by which neuroplasticity exerts its effects in depression remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we show that chronic stress effectively induces depression-like behaviors in rats, an effect which was associated with structural changes in dendritic spines and synapse abnormalities within neurons of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
January 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329044/neurological-soft-signs-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-disorder-a-case-control-study
#11
Tareq Al Sagheer, Shafika Assaad, Georges Haddad, Dory Hachem, Chadia Haddad, Souheil Hallit
Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with neurological soft signs (NSS), including motor, sensory, and inhibitory dysfunction. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of NSS and explore the association of sociodemographic characteristics with the occurrence of NSS in patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression compared to healthy controls. A case-control study included a sample of 50 bipolar and unipolar patients and 50 healthy controls. NSS subscales of the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) were administered to each participant...
January 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321714/cavum-vergae-liability-and-steroid-treatment-manic-episode-brain-imaging-findings-and-clinical-follow-up-of-a-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-case
#12
Emre Misir, İbrahim Tolga Binbay, Bilge Targitay, Hidayet Ece Arat, Gerçek Can, Köksal Alptekin
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or Lupus is a chronic and idiopathic autoimmune connective tissue disease that involves several organs and organ systems. SLE may lead to a group of psychiatric manifestations, including delirium, anxiety disorders, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, and psychosis, which are caused by organic or non-organic factors. In addition, it is thought that the most common cause of neuropsychiatric lupus is corticosteroid use; central nervous system involvement and inflammatory processes also have an important role in the development of psychiatric manifestations...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316780/psen1-p-met233val-in-a-complex-neurodegenerative-movement-and-neuropsychiatric-disorder
#13
Silke Appel-Cresswell, Ilaria Guella, Anna Lehman, Dean Foti, Matthew J Farrer
Mutations in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report a Canadian-Vietnamese family carrying a PSEN1 p.Met233Val mutation with an exceptionally early and severe presentation that includes a wide range of atypical symptoms, including prominent ataxia, Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, action tremor, myoclonus, bulbar symptoms, seizures, hallucinations and behavioral changes. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the affected proband after many assessments over several years proved diagnostically inconclusive...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315577/bidirectional-variation-in-glutamate-efflux-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-selective-positive-and-negative-allosteric-mglur5-modulators
#14
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Dysregulation of prefrontal cortical glutamatergic signalling via NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and impaired inhibitory control in such neuropsychiatric disorders as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Although NMDA receptors functionally interact with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), the consequence of this interaction for glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of positive and negative allosteric mGluR5 modulation on changes in extracellular glutamate efflux in the medial PFC (mPFC) induced by systemic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (or MK801) in rats...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305533/perceptual-surprise-improves-action-stopping-by-non-selectively-suppressing-motor-activity-via-a-neural-mechanism-for-motor-inhibition
#15
Isabella Dutra, Darcy A Waller, Jan R Wessel
Motor inhibition is a cognitive control ability that allows humans to rapidly stop actions even after initiation. Understanding and improving motor inhibition could benefit adaptive behavior in both health and disease. We recently found that presenting surprising, task-unrelated sounds when stopping is necessary improves the likelihood of successful stopping. In the current study, we investigated the neural underpinnings of this effect. Specifically, we tested whether surprise-related stopping improvements are due to a genuine increase in motor inhibition...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303953/voltage-gated-potassium-channel-antibody-autoimmune-encephalopathy-presenting-with-isolated-psychosis-in-an-adolescent
#16
David A Kahn
Antibody-mediated encephalopathies associated with serum or cerebrospinal fluid antibodies directed against neuronal structures may present with a multitude of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Although some of the antibody-driven conditions are now well recognized in adults (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis), the spectrum of neuropsychiatric manifestations in the pediatric population is less clear. Psychosis, confusion, catatonia, and additional behavioral changes, along with seizures, encephalopathy, and movement disorders, may be initial manifestations or concurrent features in all age groups...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303952/voltage-gated-potassium-channel-antibody-autoimmune-encephalopathy-presenting-with-isolated-psychosis-in-an-adolescent
#17
Natalie C Pon, Kimberly M Houck, Eyal Muscal, Sindhu A Idicula
Antibody-mediated encephalopathies associated with serum or cerebrospinal fluid antibodies directed against neuronal structures may present with a multitude of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Although some of the antibody-driven conditions are now well recognized in adults (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis), the spectrum of neuropsychiatric manifestations in the pediatric population is less clear. Psychosis, confusion, catatonia, and additional behavioral changes, along with seizures, encephalopathy, and movement disorders, may be initial manifestations or concurrent features in all age groups...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302616/habitual-behavior-is-mediated-by-a-shift-in-response-outcome-encoding-by-infralimbic-cortex
#18
Jacqueline M Barker, W Bailey Glen, David N Linsenbardt, Christopher C Lapish, L Judson Chandler
The ability to flexibly switch between goal-directed actions and habits is critical for adaptive behavior. The infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IfL-C) has been consistently identified as a crucial structure for the regulation of response strategies. To investigate the role of the IfL-C, the present study employed two validated reinforcement schedules that either promote habits or goal-directed actions in mice. The results reveal that information about action-outcome relationships is differentially encoded in the IfL-C during actions and habits as evidenced by encoding of behavioral outcomes during goal-directed actions that is lost during habits...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290042/zeaxanthin-improved-diabetes-induced-anxiety-and-depression-through-inhibiting-inflammation-in-hippocampus
#19
Xiaoyan Zhou, Tian Gan, Gaoxia Fang, Shangshang Wang, Yizhen Mao, Changjiang Ying
It is generally accepted that inflammation plays a key role in anxiety and depression induced by diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism and effective treatment method of these diabetes-associated behavior disorders remain to be determined. In the present study, we attempted to illuminate the implication of zeaxanthin in anxiety, depression and neuroinflammation caused by hyperglycemia, and further elaborate the relevant mechanism under these neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current work, diabetic rats were induced by high glucose and fat diet followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin, and zeaxanthin was orally administration every day (From 6th to 19th week)...
December 30, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289973/neurological-and-neuropsychological-complications-in-the-course-of-chronic-whipple-s-disease-case-report
#20
Izabela Dymon, Justyna Tabaka-Pradela, Katarzyna Anna Knast, Dominika Dudek, Monika Rudzińska
INTRODUCTION: Whipple's disease (WD) is a chronic, multisystemic infectious disease caused by Gram-positive bacillus Tropheryma whipplei (T.w.). Its common symptoms arise in the digestive system, however, during the infection the CNS (Central Nervous System) may also be affected. AIM: The aim of this work is to present a case report of a patient diagnosed with Whipple's disease with dominant neuropsychological and behavioural complications in the late phase. CONCLUSIONS: Whipple's disease is a rare disease with possible neurological and neuropsychiatric complications...
October 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
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