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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885635/astroglia-glutamatergic-transmission-and-psychiatric-diseases
#1
Alexei Verkhratsky, Luca Steardo, Liang Peng, Vladimir Parpura
Astrocytes are primary homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They regulate glutamatergic transmission through the removal of glutamate from the extracellular space and by supplying neurons with glutamine. Glutamatergic transmission is generally believed to be significantly impaired in the contexts of all major neuropsychiatric diseases. In most of these neuropsychiatric diseases, astrocytes show signs of degeneration and atrophy, which is likely to be translated into reduced homeostatic capabilities...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862176/inflammasomes-hormesis-and-antioxidants-in-neuroinflammation-role-of-nrlp3-in-alzheimer-disease
#2
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Maria Laura Ontario, Rita Bella, Edward J Calabrese, Roberto Crea, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Vittorio Calabrese
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms, disability, caregiver burden, and premature death. It represents the most prevalent cause of dementia, and its incidence rates exponentially increase with increasing age. The number of Americans living with AD is rapidly increasing. An estimated 5.4 million Americans of all ages have AD in 2016. One in nine people aged 65 and older has AD, and by midcentury, someone in the United States will develop the disease every 33 sec...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857805/neuropsychiatric-phenotype-in-a-child-with-pseudohypoparathyroidism
#3
Paola Visconti, Annio Posar, Maria Cristina Scaduto, Angelo Russo, Federica Tamburrino, Laura Mazzanti
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone. In adulthood, heterogeneous neurological and psychiatric disorders have been reported which are associated with hypoparathyroidism in general and with PHP in particular, while for childhood, data are scanty. We report a case of a boy with PHP type 1b, in whom neurological signs at the onset prevailed, characterized by tic-like dyskinesias associated with a series of heterogeneous not well-defined neurological and behavioral features, describing the diagnostic work-up performed and the follow-up...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834748/early-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-markers-of-hereditary-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#4
Sanneke van Rooden, Anna M van Opstal, Gerda Labadie, Gisela M Terwindt, Marieke J H Wermer, Andrew G Webb, Huub A M Middelkoop, Steven M Greenberg, Jeroen van der Grond, Mark A van Buchem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early markers for cerebral amyloid angiopathy are largely unknown. We aimed to identify which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (performed at 7 and 3T) and cognitive markers are an early sign in (pre) symptomatic subjects with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type. METHODS: Twenty-seven DNA-proven Dutch-type mutation carriers (15 symptomatic and 12 presymptomatic) (mean age of 45.9 years) and 33 controls (mean age of 45...
December 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825787/-i-swear-it-is-tourette-s-on-functional-coprolalia-and-other-tic-like-vocalizations
#5
Christos Ganos, Mark J Edwards, Kirsten Müller-Vahl
Coprolalia in neuropsychiatry is typically associated with tic disorders, in particular Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. To date, there has been no report of functional coprolalia. Here, we provide the clinical characteristics of 13 adolescent and adult patients with coprolalic and other functional tic-like complex vocalizations who, on the basis of these symptoms, were misdiagnosed with a primary tic disorder, most commonly Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We describe similarities and highlight the differences from primary tic disorders in order to provide a pragmatic list of clinical clues that will facilitate correct diagnostic labeling and thereby treatment...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824311/-unmet-needs-in-the-recognition-and-treatment-of-childhood-depression
#6
Sandor Kalmar
In spite of the fact that the good mental health is indispensable condition of the development of sound personality, in the past years the somatic and mental state of our children did not improve. The author ascertains that there are several obstacles in the recognition, treatment and prevention of child-depression that causes a serious public health problem. He stresses the neurologic, neuropsychiatric, psychopathological and diagnostic deficiencies, and the low number of Child and Youth Dispensaries. He describes the situation of Hungarian Child and Youth Dispensaries network, and states positively that today the child-psychiatric services are not able to provide optimal provision for every depressive child...
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799060/mefloquine-associated-dizziness-diplopia-and-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-a-case-report
#7
Manish Jain, Remington L Nevin, Iajaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Many acute and chronic neurological sequelae from the quinoline derivative antimalarial drug mefloquine, including dizziness and effects on the visual system such as diplopia and blurred vision, may be attributable to focal central nervous system toxicity. Maculopathy has also been reported with use of mefloquine, although the mechanism of this effect has remained unclear. Identification of a common mechanism of toxicity plausibly underlying these visual and non-visual effects may provide broader insights into the acute and chronic neuropsychiatric effects of this and other quinoline antimalarial drugs...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766498/mood-spectrum-comorbidity-in-patients-with-anorexia-and-bulimia-nervosa
#8
Mario Miniati, Antonella Benvenuti, Elena Bologna, Alessandra Maglio, Biagio Cotugno, Gabriele Massimetti, Simona Calugi, Mauro Mauri, Liliana Dell'Osso
PURPOSE: To investigate the presence of mood spectrum signs and symptoms in patients with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (AN-R) or bulimia nervosa (BN). METHOD: 55 consecutive female patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders (EDs) not satisfying DSM-IV criteria for Axis I mood disorders were evaluated with the Lifetime Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR) and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The MOODS-SR explored the subthreshold comorbidity for mood spectrum symptoms in patients not reaching the threshold for a mood disorder Axis I diagnosis...
October 20, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749956/analysis-of-mutations-in-aars2-in-a-series-of-csf1r-negative-patients-with-adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids-and-pigmented-glia
#9
David S Lynch, Wei Jia Zhang, Rahul Lakshmanan, Justin A Kinsella, Günes Altiokka Uzun, Merih Karbay, Zeynep Tüfekçioglu, Hasmet Hanagasi, Georgina Burke, Nicola Foulds, Simon R Hammans, Anupam Bhattacharjee, Heather Wilson, Matthew Adams, Mark Walker, James A R Nicoll, Jeremy Chataway, Nick Fox, Indran Davagnanam, Rahul Phadke, Henry Houlden
Importance: Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is a frequent cause of adult-onset leukodystrophy known to be caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the CSF1R (colony-stimulating factor 1) gene. The discovery that CSF1R mutations cause ALSP led to more accurate prognosis and genetic counseling for these patients in addition to increased interest in microglia as a target in neurodegeneration. However, it has been known since the discovery of the CSF1R gene that there are patients with typical clinical and radiologic evidence of ALSP who do not carry pathogenic CSF1R mutations...
October 17, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699938/kappa-opioid-antagonists-for-psychiatric-disorders-from-bench-to-clinical-trials
#10
William A Carlezon, Andrew D Krystal
Kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are currently being considered for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. A general ability to mitigate the effects of stress, which can trigger or exacerbate these conditions, may explain their putative efficacy across such a broad array of conditions. The discovery of their potentially therapeutic effects evolved from preclinical research designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which experience causes neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key element of brain reward circuitry...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694095/anterior-uveitis-as-the-first-sign-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis-a-case-report
#11
L N Nsiangani, D Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, M L Kazumba
We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who consulted for blurred vision, pain, and redness in her left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed chronic, hypertensive, and non-granulomatous anterior uveitis. The disease course was marked by a reversal of diurnal rhythm, with daytime sleepiness and behavioral disorders. A neuropsychiatric examination suggested human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of Trypanosoma in the cerebrospinal fluid. The NECT regimen (nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy) was administered as medical treatment and resulted in the disappearance of all clinical signs...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642708/hormesis-cellular-stress-response-and-redox-homeostasis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
V Calabrese, J Giordano, M Ruggieri, D Berritta, A Trovato, M L Ontario, R Bianchini, E J Calabrese
In the United States, 1.1-1.5% of children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), corresponding to a 30% increase in incidence and prevalence. Social and communication impairments are the main signs and symptoms of ASD, and currently available medications have been ineffective in reducing these core deficits. Observational studies have indicated that children with ASD tend to show improved cognition and behavior after febrile illness, which is associated with alteration of metabolic pathways, leading to cellular stress responses and increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps)...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633944/reversible-brain-abnormalities-in-people-without-signs-of-mountain-sickness-during-high-altitude-exposure
#13
Cunxiu Fan, Yuhua Zhao, Qian Yu, Wu Yin, Haipeng Liu, Jianzhong Lin, Tianhe Yang, Ming Fan, Luobu Gesang, Jiaxing Zhang
A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615407/marfan-syndrome-report-of-a-complex-phenotype-due-to-a-15q21-1-contiguos-gene-deletion-encompassing-fbn1-and-literature-review
#14
Chiara Dordoni, Claudia Ciaccio, Graziano Santoro, Marina Venturini, Ugo Cavallari, Marco Ritelli, Marina Colombi
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that primarily involves skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems with large inter- and intra-familial variability in terms of age of onset, severity, and aortic disease. The causal gene, FBN1, encodes for fibrillin 1, a multi-domain glycoprotein essential for many biological functions, including deposition and formation of elastic fibers. Reports describing chromosomal alterations involving FBN1 are rare, but in the last years their number has increased after copy number state analyses, such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, were adopted as routine diagnostic tools...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586989/-the-452th-case-rash-hypotension-abdominal-pain-and-headache
#15
S N Bian, H H Yang, Q Wang, D Xu, Y Zhao
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized with multiple organ involvements. Acute acalculous cholecystitis(AAC) is an extremely rare manifestation of digestive system involvement in SLE. We reported a case of 32-year-old woman who complained skin rashes for two weeks and stomachache and oliguria for one day. She had rashes at onset, and developed fever, stomachache, hypotension and headache. Physical examination at admission indicated blood pressure 76/47 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), heart rate 107 beats/min, warm acra...
September 1, 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578013/decreased-coupling-between-functional-connectivity-density-and-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-in-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-resting-stage-functional-mri-study
#16
Xiao Dong Zhang, Xiao Lu Jiang, Zhen Cheng, Yan Zhou, Qiang Xu, Zhi Qiang Zhang, Rongfeng Qi, Song Luo, Yan Su Yun, Hui Juan Chen, Xiang Kong, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang
In this study, we seek to explore alterations of coupling between functional connectivity density (FCD) and amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) by using resting-state functional MR imaging. This study was approved by the institutional ethical review board, and all participants signed written informed consent prior to the study. Twenty six non-NPSLE patients and 35 matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MR imaging...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572830/a-phase-1-study-of-the-safety-tolerability-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-tak-063-a-selective-pde10a-inhibitor
#17
Max Tsai, Lambros Chrones, Jinhui Xie, Hakop Gevorkyan, Thomas A Macek
RATIONALE: Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized, in part, by impaired dopamine signaling. TAK-063 is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 10A, a key regulator of intracellular signaling pathways that is highly expressed in the striatum. OBJECTIVE: Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of TAK-063 were evaluated in a phase 1 study. METHODS: Healthy Japanese and non-Japanese volunteers were randomized into dose cohorts of 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1000 mg...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548593/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-primary-care-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#18
Nguyet-Cam Vu Lam, Maria V Ghetu, Marzena L Bieniek
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems, including the skin, musculoskeletal, renal, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and reproductive systems. Family physicians should be familiar with the manifestations of lupus to aid in early diagnosis, monitoring patients with mild disease, recognizing warning signs that require referral to a rheumatologist, and helping to monitor disease activity and treatment in patients with moderate to severe disease...
August 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540431/brain-18-f-fdg-18-f-florbetaben-pet-ct-123-i-fp-cit-spect-and-cardiac-123-i-mibg-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-a-cerebral-type-of-lewy-body-disease
#19
Axel Van Der Gucht, Laurent Cleret de Langavant, Ophélie Bélissant, Corentin Rabu, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Sophie Bonnot-Lours, Gilles Fénelon, Emmanuel Itti
A 67-year-old man was referred for fluctuating neuropsychiatric symptoms, featuring depression, delirious episodes, recurrent visual hallucinations and catatonic syndrome associated with cognitive decline. No parkinsonism was found clinically even under neuroleptic treatment. (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed hypometabolism in the posterior associative cortex including the occipital cortex, suggesting Lewy body dementia, but (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT was normal and cardiac (123)I-MIBG imaging showed no signs of sympathetic denervation...
September 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538418/the-prominent-role-of-serotonergic-degeneration-in-apathy-anxiety-and-depression-in-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Audrey Maillet, Paul Krack, Eugénie Lhommée, Elise Météreau, Hélène Klinger, Emilie Favre, Didier Le Bars, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Pierre Pelissier, Valérie Fraix, Anna Castrioto, Véronique Sgambato-Faure, Emmanuel Broussolle, Léon Tremblay, Stéphane Thobois
SEE SCHRAG AND POLITIS DOI101093/AWW190 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Apathy, which can occur separately or in combination with depression and anxiety, is one of the most frequently encountered neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Pathophysiological evidence suggests that parkinsonian apathy is primarily due to a mesolimbic dopaminergic denervation, but the role of the serotonergic alteration has never been examined, despite its well-known involvement in the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety...
September 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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