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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163856/29-year-old-man-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#1
Nahid Noorani, Fateme Hadi, Hamid Reza Ahmadkhaniha
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common debilitating neurological disease that affects adults, whether young adults or middle-aged. Although, most attention is toward the neurological signs of the disease, the neuropsychiatric signs are not uncommon. This case report presents a 29 year old male with a record of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without psychotic disorder, which coincides with the diagnosis MS, has been stricken to auditory hallucinations and reference delusion. The patient received some antipsychotic drugs such as Haloperidol and Perphenazine irregularly, but any psychotic signs of the patient were never in control...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152523/-nabucco-by-giuseppe-verdi-a-case-of-delirium-in-an-italian-romantic-opera
#2
Luca Cambioli, Mattia Bava, Giuseppe Bellelli, Massimo Clerici, Giancarlo Cesana, Michele Augusto Riva
Italian operas can provide relevant information on the medical knowledge during the Romantic Age, especially in the field of neuroscience. One of the most renowned operas, "Nabucco" by Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) may provide us with some information on the state of knowledge on neuropsychiatric diseases in the first part of the nineteenth century. The main character of this opera, the Assyrian king Nabucco suffers from delirium. Psychic signs and symptoms attributed to Nabucco in Verdi's opera could have been influenced by a better knowledge of neuropsychiatric diseases in the nineteenth century...
February 3, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120933/where-there-is-smoke-there-is-fear-impaired-contextual-inhibition-of-conditioned-fear-in-smokers
#3
Jan Haaker, Tina B Lonsdorf, Dirk Schümann, Nico Bunzeck, Jan Peters, Tobias Sommer, Raffael Kalisch
The odds-ratio of smoking is elevated in populations with neuropsychiatric diseases, in particular in the highly prevalent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress and anxiety disorders. Yet, the association between smoking and a key dimensional phenotype of these disorders -maladaptive deficits in fear learning and fear inhibition-is unclear. We therefore investigated acquisition and memory of fear and fear inhibition in healthy smoking and non-smoking participants (N=349, 22% smokers). We employed a well validated paradigm of context-dependent fear and safety learning (day1) including a memory retrieval on day 2...
January 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052454/estimated-ventricle-size-using-evans-index-reference-values-from-a-population-based-sample
#4
D Jaraj, K Rabiei, T Marlow, C Jensen, I Skoog, C Wikkelsø
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evans index is an estimate of ventricular size used in the diagnosis of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Values >0.3 are considered pathological and are required by guidelines for the diagnosis of iNPH. However, there are no previous epidemiological studies on Evans index, and normal values in adults are thus not precisely known. We examined a representative sample to obtain reference values and descriptive data on Evans index. METHODS: A population-based sample (n = 1235) of men and women aged ≥70 years was examined...
January 4, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030595/prognosis-for-hospitalized-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-china-5-year-update-of-the-jiangsu-cohort
#5
Xuebing Feng, Wenyou Pan, Lin Liu, Min Wu, Fuwan Ding, Huaixia Hu, Xiang Ding, Hua Wei, Yaohong Zou, Xian Qian, Meimei Wang, Jian Wu, Juan Tao, Jun Tan, Zhanyun Da, Miaojia Zhang, Jing Li, Lingyun Sun
OBJECTIVE: To identify early signs associated with poor prognosis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through a large population-based follow-up study. METHODS: Medical records of > 2,500 SLE patients that first hospitalized between 1999-2009 were collected from 26 centers across Jiangsu province, China, and entered into a database. These patients were followed-up for 5 to 15 years, and those remained contact and had known survival status in 2015 were assessed for the association of factors presented at the initial hospitalization with mortality at two time points (≤1year and > 1year)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027925/impact-of-prebiotics-on-metabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027557/pathological-personality-development-after-the-chornobyl-disaster-and-the-anti-terrorist-operation
#7
K M Loganovsky, M V Gresko
: Objective of the study was to determine pathological changes of the personality of the clean up workers (liquida tors) of the Chornobyl accident and the participants in the anti terrorist operation (ATO) in Eastern Ukraine and radiation threat perception assessment.Design, object and methods. The cross sectional and retrospective assessments of the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident (n = 185), evacuees from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (n = 112) from the randomized sample of individuals who are registered in the Clinical and epidemiological registry (CER) of the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» [NRCRM] and partici pants of the ATO in Eastern Ukraine (n = 62) who underwent treatment and rehabilitation in the Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of the NRCRM Clinic have been done...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885635/astroglia-glutamatergic-transmission-and-psychiatric-diseases
#8
Alexei Verkhratsky, Luca Steardo, Liang Peng, Vladimir Parpura
Astrocytes are primary homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They regulate glutamatergic transmission through the removal of glutamate from the extracellular space and by supplying neurons with glutamine. Glutamatergic transmission is generally believed to be significantly impaired in the contexts of all major neuropsychiatric diseases. In most of these neuropsychiatric diseases, astrocytes show signs of degeneration and atrophy, which is likely to be translated into reduced homeostatic capabilities...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862176/inflammasomes-hormesis-and-antioxidants-in-neuroinflammation-role-of-nrlp3-in-alzheimer-disease
#9
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Rosalia Crupi, Rosanna Di Paola, Maria Laura Ontario, Rita Bella, Edward J Calabrese, Roberto Crea, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Vittorio Calabrese
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms, disability, caregiver burden, and premature death. It represents the most prevalent cause of dementia, and its incidence rates exponentially increase with increasing age. The number of Americans living with AD is rapidly increasing. An estimated 5.4 million Americans of all ages have AD in 2016. One in nine people aged 65 and older has AD, and by midcentury, someone in the United States will develop the disease every 33 sec...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857805/neuropsychiatric-phenotype-in-a-child-with-pseudohypoparathyroidism
#10
Paola Visconti, Annio Posar, Maria Cristina Scaduto, Angelo Russo, Federica Tamburrino, Laura Mazzanti
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone. In adulthood, heterogeneous neurological and psychiatric disorders have been reported which are associated with hypoparathyroidism in general and with PHP in particular, while for childhood, data are scanty. We report a case of a boy with PHP type 1b, in whom neurological signs at the onset prevailed, characterized by tic-like dyskinesias associated with a series of heterogeneous not well-defined neurological and behavioral features, describing the diagnostic work-up performed and the follow-up...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834748/early-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-markers-of-hereditary-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#11
Sanneke van Rooden, Anna M van Opstal, Gerda Labadie, Gisela M Terwindt, Marieke J H Wermer, Andrew G Webb, Huub A M Middelkoop, Steven M Greenberg, Jeroen van der Grond, Mark A van Buchem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early markers for cerebral amyloid angiopathy are largely unknown. We aimed to identify which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (performed at 7 and 3T) and cognitive markers are an early sign in (pre) symptomatic subjects with hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type. METHODS: Twenty-seven DNA-proven Dutch-type mutation carriers (15 symptomatic and 12 presymptomatic) (mean age of 45.9 years) and 33 controls (mean age of 45...
December 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825787/-i-swear-it-is-tourette-s-on-functional-coprolalia-and-other-tic-like-vocalizations
#12
Christos Ganos, Mark J Edwards, Kirsten Müller-Vahl
Coprolalia in neuropsychiatry is typically associated with tic disorders, in particular Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. To date, there has been no report of functional coprolalia. Here, we provide the clinical characteristics of 13 adolescent and adult patients with coprolalic and other functional tic-like complex vocalizations who, on the basis of these symptoms, were misdiagnosed with a primary tic disorder, most commonly Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We describe similarities and highlight the differences from primary tic disorders in order to provide a pragmatic list of clinical clues that will facilitate correct diagnostic labeling and thereby treatment...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824311/-unmet-needs-in-the-recognition-and-treatment-of-childhood-depression
#13
Sandor Kalmar
In spite of the fact that the good mental health is indispensable condition of the development of sound personality, in the past years the somatic and mental state of our children did not improve. The author ascertains that there are several obstacles in the recognition, treatment and prevention of child-depression that causes a serious public health problem. He stresses the neurologic, neuropsychiatric, psychopathological and diagnostic deficiencies, and the low number of Child and Youth Dispensaries. He describes the situation of Hungarian Child and Youth Dispensaries network, and states positively that today the child-psychiatric services are not able to provide optimal provision for every depressive child...
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799060/mefloquine-associated-dizziness-diplopia-and-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-a-case-report
#14
Manish Jain, Remington L Nevin, Iajaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Many acute and chronic neurological sequelae from the quinoline derivative antimalarial drug mefloquine, including dizziness and effects on the visual system such as diplopia and blurred vision, may be attributable to focal central nervous system toxicity. Maculopathy has also been reported with use of mefloquine, although the mechanism of this effect has remained unclear. Identification of a common mechanism of toxicity plausibly underlying these visual and non-visual effects may provide broader insights into the acute and chronic neuropsychiatric effects of this and other quinoline antimalarial drugs...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766498/mood-spectrum-comorbidity-in-patients-with-anorexia-and-bulimia-nervosa
#15
Mario Miniati, Antonella Benvenuti, Elena Bologna, Alessandra Maglio, Biagio Cotugno, Gabriele Massimetti, Simona Calugi, Mauro Mauri, Liliana Dell'Osso
PURPOSE: To investigate the presence of mood spectrum signs and symptoms in patients with anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (AN-R) or bulimia nervosa (BN). METHOD: 55 consecutive female patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders (EDs) not satisfying DSM-IV criteria for Axis I mood disorders were evaluated with the Lifetime Mood Spectrum Self-Report (MOODS-SR) and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The MOODS-SR explored the subthreshold comorbidity for mood spectrum symptoms in patients not reaching the threshold for a mood disorder Axis I diagnosis...
October 20, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749956/analysis-of-mutations-in-aars2-in-a-series-of-csf1r-negative-patients-with-adult-onset-leukoencephalopathy-with-axonal-spheroids-and-pigmented-glia
#16
David S Lynch, Wei Jia Zhang, Rahul Lakshmanan, Justin A Kinsella, Günes Altiokka Uzun, Merih Karbay, Zeynep Tüfekçioglu, Hasmet Hanagasi, Georgina Burke, Nicola Foulds, Simon R Hammans, Anupam Bhattacharjee, Heather Wilson, Matthew Adams, Mark Walker, James A R Nicoll, Jeremy Chataway, Nick Fox, Indran Davagnanam, Rahul Phadke, Henry Houlden
Importance: Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is a frequent cause of adult-onset leukodystrophy known to be caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the CSF1R (colony-stimulating factor 1) gene. The discovery that CSF1R mutations cause ALSP led to more accurate prognosis and genetic counseling for these patients in addition to increased interest in microglia as a target in neurodegeneration. However, it has been known since the discovery of the CSF1R gene that there are patients with typical clinical and radiologic evidence of ALSP who do not carry pathogenic CSF1R mutations...
December 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699938/kappa-opioid-antagonists-for-psychiatric-disorders-from-bench-to-clinical-trials
#17
William A Carlezon, Andrew D Krystal
Kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists are currently being considered for the treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. A general ability to mitigate the effects of stress, which can trigger or exacerbate these conditions, may explain their putative efficacy across such a broad array of conditions. The discovery of their potentially therapeutic effects evolved from preclinical research designed to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which experience causes neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key element of brain reward circuitry...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694095/anterior-uveitis-as-the-first-sign-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis-a-case-report
#18
L N Nsiangani, D Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, M L Kazumba
We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who consulted for blurred vision, pain, and redness in her left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed chronic, hypertensive, and non-granulomatous anterior uveitis. The disease course was marked by a reversal of diurnal rhythm, with daytime sleepiness and behavioral disorders. A neuropsychiatric examination suggested human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of Trypanosoma in the cerebrospinal fluid. The NECT regimen (nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy) was administered as medical treatment and resulted in the disappearance of all clinical signs...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642708/hormesis-cellular-stress-response-and-redox-homeostasis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
V Calabrese, J Giordano, M Ruggieri, D Berritta, A Trovato, M L Ontario, R Bianchini, E J Calabrese
In the United States, 1.1-1.5% of children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), corresponding to a 30% increase in incidence and prevalence. Social and communication impairments are the main signs and symptoms of ASD, and currently available medications have been ineffective in reducing these core deficits. Observational studies have indicated that children with ASD tend to show improved cognition and behavior after febrile illness, which is associated with alteration of metabolic pathways, leading to cellular stress responses and increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps)...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633944/reversible-brain-abnormalities-in-people-without-signs-of-mountain-sickness-during-high-altitude-exposure
#20
Cunxiu Fan, Yuhua Zhao, Qian Yu, Wu Yin, Haipeng Liu, Jianzhong Lin, Tianhe Yang, Ming Fan, Luobu Gesang, Jiaxing Zhang
A large proportion of lowlanders ascending to high-altitude (HA) show no signs of mountain sickness. Whether their brains have indeed suffered from HA environment and the persistent sequelae after return to lowland remain unknown. Thirty-one sea-level college students, who had a 30-day teaching on Qinghai-Tibet plateau underwent MRI scans before, during, and two months after HA exposure. Brain volume, cortical structures, and white matter microstructure were measured. Besides, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and neuropsychiatric behaviors were tested...
2016: Scientific Reports
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