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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805579/nonmotor-manifestations-of-wilson-s-disease
#1
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805578/nonmotor-symptoms-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#2
Ton Fang, Felix Jozsa, Ammar Al-Chalabi
BACKGROUND: ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no curative treatment. Nonmotor symptoms presenting in ALS may cause significant distress, worsen prognosis, and affect survival. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence for the prevalence of nonmotor ALS symptoms, and treatment options. METHODS: Multiple medical literature databases were searched and studies screened using predefined inclusion criteria. Of 4580 studies, 44 were eligible for inclusion with 25 relating to treatment and 19 to the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms in ALS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805573/nonmotor-features-in-atypical-parkinsonism
#3
Kailash P Bhatia, Maria Stamelou
Atypical parkinsonism (AP) comprises mainly multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), which are distinct pathological entities, presenting with a wide phenotypic spectrum. The classic syndromes are now called MSA-parkinsonism (MSA-P), MSA-cerebellar type (MSA-C), Richardson's syndrome, and corticobasal syndrome. Nonmotor features in AP have been recognized almost since the initial description of these disorders; however, research has been limited...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805199/-the-case-of-an-adult-man-with-savant-syndrome-in-the-course-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Kasper Sipowicz, Tadeusz Pietras
The paper reports on a case of 57-year man with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy with an unusual feature of calendar calculation. Namely, this is the case of savant syndrome, which appears rarely in the course of various neuropsychiatric disorders. Commorbidity of epilepsy and autism particularly predispose to the aforementioned syndrome. In the presented case, apart from the calendar calculation, the man has high language abilities. As previous studies suggest, the extraordinary abilities among persons with savant syndrome works similarly to the language module in healthy persons...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802936/nonmotor-symptoms-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Nataliya Titova, Anthony H V Schapira, K Ray Chaudhuri, Mubasher A Qamar, Elena Katunina, Peter Jenner
Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) range from neuropsychiatric, cognitive to sleep and sensory disorders and can arise from the disease process as well as from drug treatment. The clinical heterogeneity of nonmotor symptoms of PD is underpinned by a wide range of neuropathological and molecular pathology, affecting almost the entire range of neurotransmitters present in brain and the periphery. Understanding the neurobiology and pathology of nonmotor symptoms is crucial to the effective treatment of PD and currently a key unmet need...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800334/baseline-predictors-of-antipsychotic-treatment-continuation-and-response-at-week-8-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-with-psychosis-or-aggressive-symptoms-an-analysis-of-the-catie-ad-study
#6
Tomoyuki Nagata, Shinichiro Nakajima, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Eric Plitman, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of atypical antipsychotic (AAP) treatment continuation and response by week 8 in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who have psychotic/aggressive symptoms using the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease (CATIE-AD) dataset. METHODS: Clinical data was utilized from 421 AD outpatients with psychotic/aggressive symptoms who needed interventional treatment...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797564/impact-of-anxiety-apathy-and-reduced-functional-autonomy-on-perceived-quality-of-life-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Alfonsina D'Iorio, Carmine Vitale, Fausta Piscopo, Chiara Baiano, Anna Paola Falanga, Katia Longo, Marianna Amboni, Paolo Barone, Gabriella Santangelo
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms that may impact negatively on the activities of the patient's daily life and reduce Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study explored the impact of specific non-motor symptoms on the HRQoL in PD. METHODS: Eighty-four outpatients underwent the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) assessing global functioning and several questionnaires to assess depression, apathy, impulse control disorders (ICD), anxiety, anhedonia and functional impact of cognitive impairment...
August 5, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782321/insulinoma-presenting-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms
#8
S Aggarwal, N Nand, N Damle, R Godara, R Kumar
An insulinoma is a rare pancreatic endocrine tumor which is typically a hypervascular, solitary small tumour. 90 % of tumors are benign and less than 2 cm in size. Some insulinomas are associated with MEN-1 syndrome. Some cases of insulinoma may present with neuropsychiatric symptoms and may be wrongly diagnosed as psychosis. We report a case of insulinoma in a 55 years old female who presented with episodes of abnormal behavior and altered sensorium. On detailed investigations she was diagnosed as a case of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia due to insulinoma (in her case MRI abdomen was normal) DOTANOC PET CT confirmed the insulinoma in body/tail of pancreas...
June 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775285/lateral-prefrontal-activity-as-a-compensatory-strategy-for-deficits-of-cortical-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Francisco Zamorano, Pablo Billeke, Leonie Kausel, Josefina Larrain, Ximena Stecher, Jose M Hurtado, Vladimir López, Ximena Carrasco, Francisco Aboitiz
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood and is characterized by a delay of cortical maturation in frontal regions. In order to investigate interference control, which is a key function of frontal areas, a functional MRI study was conducted on 17 ADHD boys and 17 typically developing (TD) boys, while solving the multi source interference task (MSIT). This task consists of two conditions, a "congruent condition" and an "incongruent condition". The latter requires to inhibit information that interferes with task-relevant stimuli...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772100/catastrophic-epilepsies-of-childhood
#10
MacKenzie A Howard, Scott C Baraban
The tragedy of epilepsy emerges from the combination of its high prevalence, impact upon sufferers and their families, and unpredictability. Childhood epilepsies are frequently severe, presenting in infancy with pharmaco-resistant seizures; are often accompanied by debilitating neuropsychiatric and systemic comorbidities; and carry a grave risk of mortality. Here, we review the most current basic science and translational research findings on several of the most catastrophic forms of pediatric epilepsy. We focus largely on genetic epilepsies and the research that is discovering the mechanisms linking disease genes to epilepsy syndromes...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770516/hepatic-encephalopathy-a-critical-current-review
#11
REVIEW
Anna Hadjihambi, Natalia Arias, Mohammed Sheikh, Rajiv Jalan
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis and/or porto-systemic shunting. The clinical symptoms are widely variable, extending from subtle impairment in mental state to coma. The utility of categorizing the severity of HE accurately and efficiently serves not only to provide practical functional information about the current clinical status of the patient but also gives valuable prognostic information. In the past 20-30 years, there has been rapid progress in understanding the pathophysiological basis of HE; however, the lack of direct correlation between pathogenic factors and the severity of HE make it difficult to select appropriate therapy for HE patients...
August 2, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770372/the-impact-of-anger-in-adherence-to-treatment-and-beliefs-about-disease-1%C3%A2-year-after-stroke
#12
A Catarina Santos, José M Ferro
Anger is a frequent neuropsychiatric symptom after stroke, which can disrupt treatment and recovery, in particular by affecting adherence behaviour to treatment and health care education. This study aimed to follow-up a cohort of stroke patients 12 months after their stroke to describe the presence of anger, compare levels and profile of acute and post-acute anger and analyse its impact on the adherence to treatment and beliefs about stroke. We followed (13.3 months mean follow-up) 91 stroke patients with a standardized protocol, using State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) to assess the frequency and profile of anger and its components and one questionnaire to measure adherence to treatment and health education (meaning on the treatment) (Adh-T)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768717/formin-2-links-neuropsychiatric-phenotypes-at-young-age-to-an-increased-risk-for-dementia
#13
Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, Paulo Pinhero, Nelson Rebola, Cemil Kerimoglu, Eva Benito, Michael Gertig, Sanaz Bahari-Javan, Gaurav Jain, Susanne Burkhardt, Ivana Delalle, Alexander Jatzko, Markus Dettenhofer, Patricia A Zunszain, Andrea Schmitt, Peter Falkai, Julius C Pape, Elisabeth B Binder, Christophe Mulle, Andre Fischer, Farahnaz Sananbenesi
Age-associated memory decline is due to variable combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. How these risk factors interact to drive disease onset is currently unknown. Here we begin to elucidate the mechanisms by which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a young age contributes to an increased risk to develop dementia at old age. We show that the actin nucleator Formin 2 (Fmn2) is deregulated in PTSD and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Young mice lacking the Fmn2 gene exhibit PTSD-like phenotypes and corresponding impairments of synaptic plasticity, while the consolidation of new memories is unaffected...
August 2, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767225/new-trends-and-current-status-of%C3%A2-pet-and-spect-radioligands-for-neuronal%C3%A2-5-ht%C3%A2-receptors-5-htrs-and-serotonin-transporter-sert
#14
Puja Panwar Hazari, Ankita Pandey, Shubhra Chaturvedi, Anil Kumar Mishra
The critical role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and its receptors (5-HTRs) in the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders render them attractive diagnostic/therapeutic targets for brain disorders. Therefore, in vivo assessment of binding of 5-HT receptor ligands under a multitude of physiologic and pathologic scenario may support the more accurate identification of disease and its progression, patient's response to therapy, and the screening of novel therapeutic strategies...
August 2, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763704/lifetime-suicidal-attempts-and-current-suicidal-risk-in-aging-survivors-of-the-jeju-april-3-incident
#15
Young-Eun Jung, Moon-Doo Kim
BACKGROUND: The Jeju April 3 incident refer to a series of armed uprisings and counterinsurgency that occurred between 1948 and 1954 on Jeju Island, South Korea. These events resulted not only in an estimated 15,000-30,000 deaths but also in numerous casualties and the destruction of many villages on the island. We investigated the relationship between lifetime suicidal attempts, current suicidal risk, and exposure to the traumatic experiences associated with the Jeju April 3 incident...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758136/a-mouse-model-of-focal-vascular-injury-induces-astrocyte-reactivity-tau-oligomers-and-aberrant-behavior
#16
Aric F Logsdon, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Ryan C Turner, Xinlan Li, Chris E Adkins, Afroz S Mohammad, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, Paul R Lockman
Neuropsychiatric symptom development has become more prevalent with 270,000 blast exposures occurring in the past 10 years in the United States. How blast injury leads to neuropsychiatric symptomology is currently unknown. Preclinical models of blast-induced traumatic brain injury have been used to demonstrate blood-brain barrier disruption, degenerative pathophysiology, and behavioral deficits. Vascular injury is a primary effect of neurotrauma that can trigger secondary injury cascades and neurodegeneration...
April 2017: Archives of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757163/evaluating-synthetic-activation-and-repression-of-neuropsychiatric-related-genes-in-hipsc-derived-npcs-neurons-and-astrocytes
#17
Seok-Man Ho, Brigham J Hartley, Erin Flaherty, Prashanth Rajarajan, Rawan Abdelaal, Ifeanyi Obiorah, Natalie Barretto, Hamza Muhammad, Hemali P Phatnani, Schahram Akbarian, Kristen J Brennand
Modulation of transcription, either synthetic activation or repression, via dCas9-fusion proteins is a relatively new methodology with the potential to facilitate high-throughput up- or downregulation studies of gene function. Genetic studies of neurodevelopmental disorders have identified a growing list of risk variants, including both common single-nucleotide variants and rare copy-number variations, many of which are associated with genes having limited functional annotations. By applying a CRISPR-mediated gene-activation/repression platform to populations of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, neurons, and astrocytes, we demonstrate that it is possible to manipulate endogenous expression levels of candidate neuropsychiatric risk genes across these three cell types...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757154/the-central-serotonin2b-receptor-as-a-new-pharmacological-target-for-the-treatment-of-dopamine-related-neuropsychiatric-disorders-rationale-and-current-status-of-research
#18
REVIEW
Céline Devroye, Adeline Cathala, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Umberto Spampinato
The serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR), which was first cloned and characterized in the rat stomach fundus, is the most recent addition to the 5-HT2R family. While its involvement in the regulation of gastrointestinal, vascular, pulmonary and cardiac physiology has been widely investigated, its functional role within the central nervous system (CNS) has received much less attention. Nevertheless, when considering the data available in the literature with regards to the regulatory control exerted by the central 5-HT2BR on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity, a very interesting picture emerges and highlights the key role of these receptors for future therapeutic strategies of DA-related neuropsychiatric disorders...
July 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754095/comparison-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-correlates-among-patients-with-subcortical-ischemic-vascular-disease-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Min-Chien Tu, Wen-Hui Huang, Yen-Hsuan Hsu, Chung-Ping Lo, Jie Fu Deng, Ching-Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: The causes of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) vary according to the dementia subtype and associated neuropathology. The present study aimed to (i) compare BPSD between patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) across stages, and (ii) explore the associations with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the corpus callosum (CC) and other major fibers. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with SIVD and 32 with AD were recruited...
July 28, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752565/the-relationship-between-subcortical-brain-volume-and-striatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-healthy-humans-assessed-with-11-c-raclopride-and-11-c-phno-pet
#20
Fernando Caravaggio, Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Isabelle Boileau, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Yusuke Iwata, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans...
July 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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