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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638598/caregiver-burden-is-increased-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-pd-mci
#1
Ann J Jones, Roeline G Kuijer, Leslie Livingston, Daniel Myall, Kyla Horne, Michael MacAskill, Toni Pitcher, Paul T Barrett, Tim J Anderson, John C Dalrymple-Alford
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on caregiver outcomes associated with mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI) and the coping strategies used by these caregivers. METHODS: To investigate this relationship, we examined levels of burden, depression, anxiety, coping strategies and positive aspects of caregiving in the informal caregivers of 96 PD patients. The PD patients were classified using MDS-Task Force Level II criteria as showing either normal cognition (PD-N; n = 51), PD-MCI (n = 30) or with dementia (PDD; n = 15)...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609483/histone-posttranslational-modifications-predict-specific-alternative-exon-subtypes-in-mammalian-brain
#2
Qiwen Hu, Eun Ji Kim, Jian Feng, Gregory R Grant, Elizabeth A Heller
A compelling body of literature, based on next generation chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA sequencing of reward brain regions indicates that the regulation of the epigenetic landscape likely underlies chronic drug abuse and addiction. It is now critical to develop highly innovative computational strategies to reveal the relevant regulatory transcriptional mechanisms that may underlie neuropsychiatric disease. We have analyzed chromatin regulation of alternative splicing, which is implicated in cocaine exposure in mice...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601141/neuropsychiatric-aspects-of-infectious-diseases-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Sahil Munjal, Stephen J Ferrando, Zachary Freyberg
Among the critically ill, infectious diseases can play a significant role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disturbances. All critical care physicians are familiar with delirium as a secondary complication of systemic infection. This article focuses on key infectious diseases that commonly and directly produce neuropsychiatric symptoms, including direct infection of the central nervous system, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and AIDS.
July 2017: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596922/noradrenergic-modulation-of-cognition-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew Flamini, Daniel Chandler
Norepinephrine released by the locus coeruleus modulates cellular processes and synaptic transmission in the central nervous system through its actions at a number of pre- and postsynaptic receptors. This transmitter system facilitates sensory signal detection and promotes waking and arousal, processes which are necessary for navigating a complex and dynamic sensory environment. In addition to its effects on sensory processing and waking behavior, norepinephrine is now recognized as a contributor to various aspects of cognition, including attention, behavioral flexibility, working memory, and long-term mnemonic processes...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593819/voluntary-exercise-improves-cognitive-deficits-in-female-dominant-negative-disc1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#5
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Ran Barzilay, Ofri Rimoni, Daniel Offen
OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise has gained increasing interest as a treatment modality that improves prognosis in psychiatric patients. The disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is a candidate gene for major mental illness. In this study, we aimed to determine whether voluntary wheel running can improve cognitive deficits of dominant-negative DISC1 transgenic mice (DN-DISC1). METHODS: DN-DISC1 and control mice (10-week-old male and female) were placed for 14 days in a cage with or without access to a running wheel...
June 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585453/cognitive-outcomes-following-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-systematic-review
#6
Gemma L McKeon, Gail A Robinson, Alexander E Ryan, Stefan Blum, David Gillis, Carsten Finke, James G Scott
INTRODUCTION: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an immune-mediated neurological disorder that (among other severe neuropsychiatric symptoms) affects cognition. This study aimed to summarize current knowledge regarding the rates, nature, and predictors of neuropsychological dysfunction in patients recovering from anti-NMDAR encephalitis. METHOD: A systematic review of studies describing neuropsychological outcomes following anti-NMDAR encephalitis was conducted...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558375/the-determinants-of-quality-of-life-of-nursing-home-residents-with-young-onset-dementia-and-the-differences-between-dementia-subtypes
#7
Britt Appelhof, Christian Bakker, Jeannette C L Van Duinen-van den Ijssel, Sandra A Zwijsen, Martin Smalbrugge, Frans R J Verhey, Marjolein E de Vugt, Sytse U Zuidema, Raymond T C M Koopmans
AIMS: The aims of this study are to (1) explore the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia (YOD), (2) investigate whether there are differences between dementia subtypes (Alzheimer dementia, vascular/mixed dementia, frontotemporal dementia, other) regarding these determinants, and (3) compare QoL profiles of YOD nursing home residents across dementia subtypes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 207 nursing home residents...
2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553986/epigenetics-nutrition-and-mental-health-is-there-a-relationship
#8
Aaron J Stevens, Julia J Rucklidge, Martin A Kennedy
Many aspects of human development and disease are influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Understanding how our genes respond to the environment is central to managing health and disease, and is one of the major contemporary challenges in human genetics. Various epigenetic processes affect chromosome structure and accessibility of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to the enzymatic machinery that leads to expression of genes. One important epigenetic mechanism that appears to underlie the interaction between environmental factors, including diet, and our genome, is chemical modification of the DNA...
May 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538981/association-of-streptococcal-throat-infection-with-mental-disorders-testing-key-aspects-of-the-pandas-hypothesis-in-a-nationwide-study
#9
Sonja Orlovska, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Bodil Hammer Bech, Merete Nordentoft, Mogens Vestergaard, Michael Eriksen Benros
Importance: Streptococcal infection has been linked with the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders, a concept termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). However, previous studies of this association have been small, and the results have been conflicting. Objective: To investigate the risk of mental disorders, specifically OCD and tic disorders, after a streptococcal throat infection...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528231/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-problem-gamblers-with-co-occurring-antisocial-personality-disorder
#10
Austin W Blum, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVES: Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508355/neuroproteomics-studies-challenges-and-updates
#11
Naify Ramadan, Hussein Ghazale, Mohammad El-Sayyad, Mohamad El-Haress, Firas H Kobeissy
The Human Genome Project in 2003 has resulted in the complete sequence of ~99% of the human genome paving the road for the Human Proteome Project (HPP) assessing the full characterization of the translated protein map of the 20,300 protein-coding genes. Consequently, the emerging of the proteomics field has successfully been adopted as the method of choice for the proteome characterization. Proteomics is a term that is used to encompass multidisciplinary approaches combining different technologies that aim to study the entire spectrum of protein changes at a specific physiological condition...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493018/emerging-role-of-mirna-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Saurabh Srivastav, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder whose aetiology still remains elusive. Nevertheless, evidence supports a high genetic contribution that interacts with environmental factors, also known to modulate epigenetic processes. These epigenetic modulators are a class of non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), known as post-transcriptional regulators, which have emerged as prospective players in neuropsychiatric disorders since they play a role in brain development, synapse formation, and the fine-tuning of genes underlying synaptic and memory formation...
May 10, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477384/cognitive-deficits-caused-by-prefrontal-cortical-and-hippocampal-neural-disinhibition
#13
REVIEW
Tobias Bast, Marie Pezze, Stephanie McGarrity
We review recent evidence concerning the significance of inhibitory GABA transmission and of neural disinhibition, that is, deficient GABA transmission, within the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, for clinically relevant cognitive functions. Both regions support important cognitive functions, including attention and memory, and their dysfunction has been implicated in cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders. GABAergic inhibition shapes cortico-hippocampal neural activity, and, recently, prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition has emerged as a pathophysiological feature of major neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline...
May 6, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458492/prevalence-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-deficit-among-hiv-positive-people-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-at-ayder-referral-hospital
#14
Tilahun Belete, Girmaw Medfu, Ephrem Yemiyamrew
BACKGROUND: HIV associated neurocognitive deficit impairs motor activity, neuropsychiatric functioning, daily activity and work activity usually due to the immune suppression effect of the virus. Sub-Saharan region including Ethiopia is the region with the highest burden of HIV. However, a few studies are found on this aspect nationally. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and the factors associated with cognitive impairment among HIV positive people in Ethiopia who attended Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital...
January 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450060/endocannabinoid-modulation-of-dopamine-neurotransmission
#15
REVIEW
Dan Covey, Yolanda Mateo, David Sulzer, Joseph F Cheer, David M Lovinger
Dopamine (DA) is a major catecholamine neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain that controls neural circuits involved in the cognitive, emotional, and motor aspects of goal-directed behavior. Accordingly, perturbations in DA neurotransmission play a central role in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Somewhat surprisingly given its prominent role in numerous behaviors, DA is released by a relatively small number of densely packed neurons originating in the midbrain. The dopaminergic midbrain innervates numerous brain regions where extracellular DA release and receptor binding promote short- and long-term changes in postsynaptic neuron function...
April 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434587/aligning-physiology-with-psychology-translational-neuroscience-in-neuropsychiatric-drug-discovery
#16
REVIEW
Robert A McArthur
This review presents an overview of some of the pre-clinical and clinical issues that have contributed to the failures of potential novel neuropsychiatric drugs, which have prompted a re-examination of the role of animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Advances both in basic neuroscience and technology have driven the development of animal models of aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetics and environmental factors have been the primary contributors to the development of new animal models. Neuroimaging has contributed to the search for biomarkers by which neuropsychiatric disorders may be identified and differentiated, its progression monitored and that the effects of therapy assessed...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433099/other-organ-involvement-and-clinical-aspects-of-wilson-disease
#17
Karolina Dzieżyc, Tomasz Litwin, Anna Członkowska
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism that presents mainly with hepatic and neuropsychiatric features. Copper accumulates not only in the liver and brain, but also in other organs. Liver injury can also be the cause of secondary impairment of other tissues. Therefore, the clinical manifestation of WD may be renal, cardiac, skin, osteoarticular, or endocrinologic and include other organ disturbances. Renal abnormalities include tubular dysfunction (e.g., renal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria) and nephrolithiasis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418641/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-ketamine
#18
Marshall W Tyler, Harmony B Yourish, Dawn F Ionescu, Stephen J Haggarty
Ketamine, a molecule of many faces, has contributed immeasurably to numerous realms of clinical practice and scientific inquiry. From anesthesia and analgesia to depression and schizophrenia, it continues to shed light on the molecular underpinnings of pain, consciousness, and the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, research on ketamine's mechanism of action is providing new hope in the search for therapies for treatment-resistant depression and affords insights into disorders of glutamatergic dysfunction...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416027/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatment-preferences-of-healthcare-professionals-and-proxies-for-challenging-behaviors-in-patients-with-dementia
#19
Sarah I Janus, Jeannette G van Manen, Janine A van Til, Sytse U Zuidema, Maarten J IJzerman
BACKGROUND: Prescribing antipsychotics to patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms is a matter of concern. Physicians have to make treatment decisions for patients with dementia together with proxies and/or nurses. However, it is unknown whether physicians, nurses, and proxies' treatment preferences are aligned; hence this study. METHODS: Sixteen treatment attributes were selected to elicit the preferences of physicians and nurses. Ten of these attributes were used for the proxies...
April 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412918/neurological-aspects-of-medical-use-of-cannabidiol
#20
Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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