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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434587/aligning-physiology-with-psychology-translational-neuroscience-in-neuropsychiatric-drug-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Robert A McArthur
This review presents an overview of some of the pre-clinical and clinical issues that have contributed to the failures of potential novel neuropsychiatric drugs, which have prompted a re-examination of the role of animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Advances both in basic neuroscience and technology have driven the development of animal models of aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetics and environmental factors have been the primary contributors to the development of new animal models. Neuroimaging has contributed to the search for biomarkers by which neuropsychiatric disorders may be identified and differentiated, its progression monitored and that the effects of therapy assessed...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433099/other-organ-involvement-and-clinical-aspects-of-wilson-disease
#2
Karolina Dzieżyc, Tomasz Litwin, Anna Członkowska
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism that presents mainly with hepatic and neuropsychiatric features. Copper accumulates not only in the liver and brain, but also in other organs. Liver injury can also be the cause of secondary impairment of other tissues. Therefore, the clinical manifestation of WD may be renal, cardiac, skin, osteoarticular, or endocrinologic and include other organ disturbances. Renal abnormalities include tubular dysfunction (e.g., renal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria) and nephrolithiasis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418641/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-ketamine
#3
Marshall W Tyler, Harmony B Yourish, Dawn F Ionescu, Stephen J Haggarty
Ketamine, a molecule of many faces, has contributed immeasurably to numerous realms of clinical practice and scientific inquiry. From anesthesia and analgesia to depression and schizophrenia, it continues to shed light on the molecular underpinnings of pain, consciousness, and the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, research on ketamine's mechanism of action is providing new hope in the search for therapies for treatment-resistant depression and affords insights into disorders of glutamatergic dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416027/pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatment-preferences-of-healthcare-professionals-and-proxies-for-challenging-behaviors-in-patients-with-dementia
#4
Sarah I Janus, Jeannette G van Manen, Janine A van Til, Sytse U Zuidema, Maarten J IJzerman
BACKGROUND: Prescribing antipsychotics to patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms is a matter of concern. Physicians have to make treatment decisions for patients with dementia together with proxies and/or nurses. However, it is unknown whether physicians, nurses, and proxies' treatment preferences are aligned; hence this study. METHODS: Sixteen treatment attributes were selected to elicit the preferences of physicians and nurses. Ten of these attributes were used for the proxies...
April 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412918/neurological-aspects-of-medical-use-of-cannabidiol
#5
Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409049/rivastigmine-as-a-symptomatic-treatment-for-apathy-in-parkinson-s-dementia-complex-new-aspects-for-this-riddle
#6
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Matteo Dal Ben
Over 90% of PDD patients show at least one neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS); in the 60-70% two or more NPS are present. Their incidence is important in terms of prognosis and severity of pathology. However, among all NPS, apathy is often the most disturbing, associated with greater caregiver's burden. Similar to other NPS, apathy may be due to a dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway, even though, not all the PD patients become apathetic, indicating that apathy should not entirely be considered a dopamine-dependent syndrome, and in fact it might also be related to acetylcholine defects...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397449/the-neuropsychiatric-aspect-of-the-hcv-infection
#7
REVIEW
Magdalena Więdłocha, Piotr Marcinowicz, Dorota Sokalla, Bartłomiej Stańczykiewicz
HCV infection is significantly more prevalent in the population of psychiatric patients, drug addicts and people tending to undertake risky sexual behaviors than in the general population. This article presents a spectrum of psychopathological symptoms and psychological dysfunctions, an outline of current theories on the neuropathology and psychiatric aspects of HCV infection treatment. The unspecific character of the psychopathological symptoms in the HCV infection makes the process of thorough diagnostics and adequate treatment difficult, thus the specific and characteristic features have been emphasized...
January 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391425/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-drugs-for-treating-behavioural-insomnia-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-with-methodological-quality-assessment
#8
REVIEW
Shweta Anand, Henry Tong, Frank M C Besag, Esther W Chan, Samuele Cortese, Ian C K Wong
OBJECTIVE: A large proportion of paediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have associated sleep problems which not only affect the child's wellbeing but also impact family functioning. Management of sleep problems is consequently an important aspect of overall ADHD management in paediatric patients. Although some drugs are being used off-label for the management of paediatric insomnia, there is scant clinical evidence supporting their use. Our aim was to identify and assess the quality of published studies reporting the safety, tolerability and efficacy of drugs used for treating behavioural insomnia in children with ADHD...
April 8, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391320/evidence-of-a-conserved-molecular-response-to-selection-for-increased-brain-size-in-primates
#9
Amy M Boddy, Peter W Harrison, Stephen H Montgomery, Jason A Caravas, Mary Ann Raghanti, Kimberley A Phillips, Nicholas I Mundy, Derek E Wildman
The adaptive significance of human brain evolution has been frequently studied through comparisons with other primates. However, the evolution of increased brain size is not restricted to the human lineage but is a general characteristic of primate evolution. Whether or not these independent episodes of increased brain size share a common genetic basis is unclear. We sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptome from the neocortical tissue of the most highly encephalized nonhuman primate, the tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella)...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382017/disrupted-ultradian-activity-rhythms-and-differential-expression-of-several-clock-genes-in-interleukin-6-deficient-mice
#10
Francisco J Monje, Ana Cicvaric, Juan Pablo Acevedo Aguilar, Immanuel Elbau, Orsolya Horvath, Weifei Diao, Micaela Glat, Daniela D Pollak
The characteristics of the cycles of activity and rest stand out among the most intensively investigated aspects of circadian rhythmicity in humans and experimental animals. Alterations in the circadian patterns of activity and rest are strongly linked to cognitive and emotional dysfunctions in severe mental illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and major depression (MDD). The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been prominently associated with the pathogenesis of AD and MDD. However, the potential involvement of IL-6 in the modulation of the diurnal rhythms of activity and rest has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#11
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321184/the-role-of-early-growth-response-1-egr1-in-brain-plasticity-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Florian Duclot, Mohamed Kabbaj
It is now clearly established that complex interactions between genes and environment are involved in multiple aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, from determining an individual's vulnerability to onset, to influencing its response to therapeutic intervention. In this perspective, it appears crucial to better understand how the organism reacts to environmental stimuli and provide a coordinated and adapted response. In the central nervous system, neuronal plasticity and neurotransmission are among the major processes integrating such complex interactions between genes and environmental stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289829/subjective-memory-impairment-in-general-practice-short-overview-and-design-of-a%C3%A2-mixed-methods-study
#13
Michael Pentzek, Verena Leve, Verena Leucht
BACKGROUND: Public awareness for dementia is rising and patients with concerns about forgetfulness are not uncommon in general practice. For the general practitioner (GP) subjectively perceived memory impairment (SMI) also offers a chance to broach the issue of cognitive function with the patient. This may support GPs' patient-centered care in terms of a broader frailty concept. OBJECTIVE: What is SMI (definition, operationalization, prevalence and burden)? Which conceptions and approaches do GPs have regarding SMI? METHODS: Narrative overview of recent SMI criteria and results, selective utilization of results from a systematic literature search on GP dementia care, non-systematic search regarding SMI in general practice, deduction of a study design from the overview and development according to international standards...
March 13, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289283/the-dopamine-hypothesis-of-bipolar-affective-disorder-the-state-of-the-art-and-implications-for-treatment
#14
REVIEW
A H Ashok, T R Marques, S Jauhar, M M Nour, G M Goodwin, A H Young, O D Howes
Bipolar affective disorder is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are incompletely understood, the dopamine hypothesis has been a key theory of the pathophysiology of both manic and depressive phases of the illness for over four decades. The increased use of antidopaminergics in the treatment of this disorder and new in vivo neuroimaging and post-mortem studies makes it timely to review this theory. To do this, we conducted a systematic search for post-mortem, pharmacological, functional magnetic resonance and molecular imaging studies of dopamine function in bipolar disorder...
May 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285610/the-clinical-course-and-interrelations-of-dementia-related-symptoms
#15
Miriam L Haaksma, Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Jonne A E Bremer, Pauline Aalten, Inez H G B Ramakers, Frans R J Verhey, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, René J F Melis
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a neurodegenerative syndrome that interferes with multiple aspects of life, including cognition, daily functioning, and behavior. Despite the large heterogeneity in symptom development, these three domains are seldom studied simultaneously. This study investigates how trajectories of these domains are interrelated within individuals over time, and how they in turn are related to dementia severity and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: We used data from a longitudinal clinical cohort study, including 331 dementia patients...
March 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260906/contemplating-stem-cell-therapy-for-epilepsy-induced-neuropsychiatric-symptoms
#16
REVIEW
Gautam Rao, Sherwin Mashkouri, David Aum, Paul Marcet, Cesar V Borlongan
Epilepsy is a debilitating disease that impacts millions of people worldwide. While unprovoked seizures characterize its cardinal symptom, an important aspect of epilepsy that remains to be addressed is the neuropsychiatric component. It has been documented for millennia in paintings and literature that those with epilepsy can suffer from bouts of aggression, depression, and other psychiatric ailments. Current treatments for epilepsy include the use of antiepileptic drugs and surgical resection. Antiepileptic drugs reduce the overall firing of the brain to mitigate the rate of seizure occurrence...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260543/characteristics-and-health-conditions-of-a-group-of-nursing-home-patients-with-mental-physical-multimorbidity-the-mapping-study
#17
Anne M A van den Brink, Debby L Gerritsen, Miranda M H de Valk, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Raymond T C M Koopmans
BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities have partly taken over the traditional asylum function of psychiatric hospitals and house an increasing group of patients with mental-physical multimorbidity (MPM). Little is known about the characteristics, behavior, and care dependency of these patients. This paper aims to describe these aspects. METHODS: Explorative, descriptive study among patients with MPM without dementia (n = 142), living in 17 geronto-psychiatric nursing home (NH) units across the Netherlands, stratified by those referred from mental healthcare services (MHS) and other healthcare services (OHS)...
March 6, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256510/local-entrainment-of-oscillatory-activity-induced-by-direct-brain-stimulation-in-humans
#18
Julià L Amengual, Marine Vernet, Claude Adam, Antoni Valero-Cabré
In a quest for direct evidence of oscillation entrainment, we analyzed intracerebral electroencephalographic recordings obtained during intracranial electrical stimulation in a cohort of three medication-resistant epilepsy patients tested pre-surgically. Spectral analyses of non-epileptogenic cerebral sites stimulated directly with high frequency electrical bursts yielded episodic local enhancements of frequency-specific rhythmic activity, phase-locked to each individual pulse. These outcomes reveal an entrainment of physiological oscillatory activity within a frequency band dictated by the rhythm of the stimulation source...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254868/resting-state-networks-as-simultaneously-measured-with-fmri-and-pet
#19
Alexandre Savio, Sarah Fünger, Masoud Tahmasian, Srinivas Rachakonda, Andrei Manoliu, Christian Sorg, Timo Grimmer, Vince Calhoun, Alexander Drzezga, Valentin Riedl, Igor Yakushev
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies reported disruption of resting-state networks (RSNs) in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) captures neuronal activity that is in steady state at a longer time span and is less dependent of neuro-vascular coupling. Here, we aimed to identify RSNs in FDG-PET data and compare their spatial pattern with those obtained from simultaneously acquired resting state fMRI data in 22 middle-aged healthy subjects...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248557/the-parkinson-s-active-living-pal-program
#20
London C Butterfield, Cynthia R Cimino, Robert Salazar, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Dawn Bowers, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: Apathy, one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), has been associated with reduced daily functioning, cognition, treatment compliance, quality of life, and increased caregiver burden and distress, among other outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to develop and gather pilot data on the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of the Parkinson's Active Living (PAL) program, to our knowledge, the first behavioral treatment specifically designed to target apathy in patients with PD...
January 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
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