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Preconditioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727007/best-management-practices-for-newly-weaned-calves-for-improved-health-and-well-being
#1
B K Wilson, C J Richards, D L Step, C R Krehbiel
Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726776/autophagosome-maturation-mediated-by-rab7-contributes-to-neuroprotection-of-hypoxic-preconditioning-against-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#2
Lixuan Zhan, Siyuan Chen, Kongping Li, Donghai Liang, Xinyong Zhu, Liu Liu, Zhiwei Lu, Weiwen Sun, En Xu
Autophagy disruption leads to neuronal damage in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Rab7, a member of the Rab GTPase superfamily, has a unique role in the regulation of autophagy. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) provides neuroprotection against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI). However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Thus, the current study explored the potential molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of HPC by investigating how Rab7 mediates autophagosome (AP) maturation after tGCI in adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725009/the-salivary-microbiome-as-an-indicator-of-carcinogenesis-in-patients-with-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-pilot-study
#3
Axel Wolf, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Alexandra Perras, Kaisa Koskinen, Peter V Tomazic, Dietmar Thurnher
This study aimed to undertake an initial, comparative analysis of the oral salivary microbiome of patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma versus healthy controls. This project, conceived as a pilot study, included 11 patients (1 female, 10 male, mean age 61.6 yrs., SD = 8.2 yrs.) and 11 healthy controls (1 female, 10 male, mean age 46.7 yrs., SD = 15.1 yrs.). Samples of saliva were analysed by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq platform. Sequence data revealed microbial changes that may mirror disease progression and reflect clinical preconditions such as age, alcohol consumption, tumour size, lymph node status, smoking habit, and tumour HPV-positivity...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724211/dexmedetomidine-preconditioning-protects-against-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-inhibits-inflammation-response-via-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-pathway
#4
Zong Chen, Ping-Yang Qiu, Chuan-Gen Ma
BACKGROUND: Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of significant cause of visual dysopia and causes inflammatory response. Dexmedetomidine is widely applied to general/local anaesthesia and has been reported to have extensive anti-inflammatory effect. However, the role of dexmedetomidine in retinal I/R injury is currently unknown. This study investigates the effect of dexmedetomidine preconditioning on retinal I/R injury and explore the related signal mechanism toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway...
July 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722026/reconciling-irrigated-food-production-with-environmental-flows-for-sustainable-development-goals-implementation
#5
Jonas Jägermeyr, Amandine Pastor, Hester Biemans, Dieter Gerten
Safeguarding river ecosystems is a precondition for attaining the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to water and the environment, while rigid implementation of such policies may hamper achievement of food security. River ecosystems provide life-supporting functions that depend on maintaining environmental flow requirements (EFRs). Here we establish gridded process-based estimates of EFRs and their violation through human water withdrawals. Results indicate that 41% of current global irrigation water use (997 km(3) per year) occurs at the expense of EFRs...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721162/the-influence-of-rapamycin-on-the-early-cardioprotective-effect-of-hypoxic-preconditioning-on-cardiomyocytes
#6
Jiang Wang, YiLiyaer Maimaitili, Hong Zheng, Jin Yu, Hai Guo, Hai-Ping Ma, Chun-Ling Chen
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin on the cardioprotective effect of hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) and on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from rat pups and underwent rapamycin and/or HPC, followed by hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R) injury. Cell viability and cell injury were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, and qRT-PCR was used to measure HIF-1α and mTOR mRNA expression...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720715/ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-alter-muscle-sympathetic-responses-to-static-handgrip-and-metaboreflex-activation-in-young-healthy-men
#7
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Jordan B Lee, Matthew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been hypothesized to elicit ergogenic effects by reducing feedback from metabolically sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents during exercise. If so, reflex efferent neural outflow should be attenuated. We investigated the effects of IPC on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG) and used post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to isolate for the muscle metaboreflex. Thirty-seven healthy men (age: 24 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]) were randomized to receive sham (n = 16) or IPC (n = 21) interventions...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720404/role-of-spatial-contiguity-in-sensory-preconditioning-with-humans
#8
Charlotte Renaux, Vinca Rivière, Paul Craddock, Ralph R Miller
The present study demonstrates the contribution of spatial contiguity in the formation of associations between two neutral stimuli. Using human participants, we used visual conditioned stimuli (CSs) in a sensory preconditioning design in which simultaneous CS2-CS1 pairings and CS4-CS3 pairings were interspersed during Phase 1, followed by sequential CS1-US+ (i.e., CS1-pleasant US) and CS3-US-(-) (i.e., CS3-unpleasant US) pairings during Phase 2. The conditioned response was a shift in the gaze of the participants to the location where the US+ (i...
July 15, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720312/differential-likelihood-of-nstemi-vs-stemi-in-patients-with-sleep-apnea
#9
Ondrej Ludka, Radka Stepanova, Fatima Sert-Kuniyoshi, Jindrich Spinar, Virend K Somers, Tomas Kara
BACKGROUND: Sleep apnea (SA) is associated with intermittent hypoxemia that may lead to ischemic preconditioning in the myocardium. This potential cardioprotective effect of SA may play a role in the development of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) versus ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during acute ischemia. However, there is limited evidence about the relative prevalence of NSTEMI versus STEMI in SA patients. We therefore prospectively investigated the prevalence of these two types of MI in patients with SA...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719819/electrical-preconditioning-of-stem-cells-with-a-conductive-polymer-scaffold-enhances-stroke-recovery
#10
Paul M George, Tonya M Bliss, Thuy Hua, Alex Lee, Byeongtaek Oh, Alexa Levinson, Swapnil Mehta, Guohua Sun, Gary K Steinberg
Exogenous human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are promising stroke therapeutics, but optimal delivery conditions and exact recovery mechanisms remain elusive. To further elucidate repair processes and improve stroke outcomes, we developed an electrically conductive, polymer scaffold for hNPC delivery. Electrical stimulation of hNPCs alters their transcriptome including changes to the VEGF-A pathway and genes involved in cell survival, inflammatory response, and synaptic remodeling. In our experiments, exogenous hNPCs were electrically stimulated (electrically preconditioned) via the scaffold 1 day prior to implantation...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716465/fibroblast-like-synoviocyte-mechanosensitivity-to-fluid-shear-is-modulated-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#11
Eben G Estell, Lance A Murphy, Amy M Silverstein, Andrea R Tan, Roshan P Shah, Gerard A Ateshian, Clark T Hung
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) reside in the synovial membrane of diarthrodial joints and are exposed to a dynamic fluid environment that presents both physical and chemical stimuli. The ability of FLS to sense and respond to these stimuli plays a key role in their normal function, and is implicated in the alterations to function that occur in osteoarthritis (OA). The present work characterizes the response of FLS to fluid flow-induced shear stress via real-time calcium imaging, and tests the hypothesis that this response is modulated by interleukin-1α (IL-1α), a cytokine elevated in OA...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715197/spectroelectrochemical-characterization-of-the-dynamic-carbon-fiber-surface-in-response-to-electrochemical-conditioning
#12
Edwin C Mitchell, Lars E Dunaway, Gregory S McCarty, Leslie A Sombers
The effects of electrochemical preconditioning of p-55 pitch-based carbon-fiber microelectrodes were quantitatively examined in this study. Microstructural characterization of the electrode surface was done using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The data show that application of positive potentials provides beneficial structural modifications to the electrode surface. Electrodes that were preconditioned using a static potential of +1...
July 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713640/human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-respond-to-short-term-hypoxia-by-secreting-factors-beneficial-for-human-islets-in-vitro-and-potentiate-antidiabetic-effect-in-vivo
#13
Simen W Schive, Mohammad Reza Mirlashari, Grete Hasvold, Mengyu Wang, Dag Josefsen, Hans Petter Gullestad, Olle Korsgren, Aksel Foss, Gunnar Kvalheim, Hanne Scholz
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) release factors beneficial for islets in vitro and protect against hyperglycemia in rodent models of diabetes. Oxygen tension has been shown to induce metabolic changes and alter ASCs' release of soluble factors. The effects of hypoxia on the antidiabetic properties of ASCs have not been explored. To investigate this, we incubated human ASCs for 48 h in 21% (normoxia) or 1% O2 (hypoxia) and compared viability, cell growth, surface markers, differentiation capability, and soluble factors in the conditioned media (CM)...
2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713160/pathogenic-roles-of-microvesicles-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
REVIEW
Wei Zhang, Song Chen, Ming-Lin Liu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes and has been recognized as the leading cause of blindness in adults. Several interrelated molecular pathways are involved in the development of DR. Microvesicles (MVs) are cell membrane vesicles, which carry many biologic molecules, such as mRNAs, microRNAs, transcription factors, membrane lipids, membrane receptors, and other proteins. They may be involved in intercellular communication that can promote inflammation, angiogenesis, and coagulation...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711589/fixation-strength-of-a-polyetheretherketone-femoral-component-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#15
Lennert de Ruiter, Dennis Janssen, Adam Briscoe, Nico Verdonschot
INTRODUCTION: Introducing polyetheretherketone (PEEK) polymer as a material for femoral components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could potentially lead to a reduction of the cemented fixation strength. A PEEK implant is more likely to deform under high loads, rendering geometrical locking features less effective. Fixation strength may be enhanced by adding more undercuts or specific surface treatments. The aim of this study is to measure the initial fixation strength and investigate the associated failure patterns of three different iterations of PEEK-OPTIMA(®) implants compared with a Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr) component...
July 12, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711313/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-cardiac-surgery-is-there-a-proven-clinical-benefit
#16
REVIEW
Yasdet Maldonado, Menachem M Weiner, Harish Ramakrishna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710448/experimental-investigation-on-preconditioned-rate-induced-tipping-in-a-thermoacoustic-system
#17
J Tony, S Subarna, K S Syamkumar, G Sudha, S Akshay, E A Gopalakrishnan, E Surovyatkina, R I Sujith
Many systems found in nature are susceptible to tipping, where they can shift from one stable dynamical state to another. This shift in dynamics can be unfavorable in systems found in various fields ranging from ecology to finance. Hence, it is important to identify the factors that can lead to tipping in a physical system. Tipping can mainly be brought about by a change in parameter or due to the influence of external fluctuations. Further, the rate at which the parameter is varied also determines the final state that the system attains...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710425/naja-sputatrix-venom-preconditioning-attenuates-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-surgical-brain-injury-via-pla2-5-lox-ltb4-cascade-activation
#18
Yuechun Wang, Prativa Sherchan, Lei Huang, Onat Akyol, Devin W McBride, John H Zhang
Inflammatory preconditioning is a mechanism in which exposure to small doses of inflammatory stimuli prepares the body against future massive insult by activating endogenous protective responses. Phospholipase A2/5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene-B4 (PLA2/5-LOX/LTB4) axis is an important inflammatory signaling pathway. Naja sputatrix (Malayan spitting cobra) venom contains 15% secretory PLA2 of its dry weight. We investigated if Naja sputatrix venom preconditioning (VPC) reduces surgical brain injury (SBI)-induced neuroinflammation via activating PLA2/5-LOX/LTB4 cascade using a partial frontal lobe resection SBI rat model...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708712/extended-second-window-of-protection-of-sevoflurane-induced-preconditioning
#19
Friederike Behmenburg, Yvonne Boekholt, Patrick van Caster, Marianne Dorsch, André Heinen, Markus W Hollmann, Ragnar Huhn
Late preconditioning (LPC) can be induced by volatile anesthetics and initiates cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury for three to four days. We investigated the possibility to extend the time window of sevoflurane-induced LPC by repeated sevoflurane administration. An in vivo rat model of regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was used. Myocardial infarct size was determined by TTC staining at the end of the experiment. In the first series of experiments, male Wistar rats were randomized to five groups (each n=8)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708608/magnetic-schiff-s-base-sorbent-based-on-shrimp-peels-wastes-for-consummate-sorption-of-chromate
#20
Khalid Z Elwakeel, Ahmed M Elgarahy, Samya H Mohammad
Magnetic Schiff's base chitosan composite has been prepared starting from shrimp peels as a raw material. Chitosan extraction involved three main stages as preconditioning, demineralization deproteinization and deacetylation. Chitosan modification process took place through the reaction between chitosan and polymeric Schiff's base of thiourea/glutaraldehyde in the presence of magnetite. The synthetic hybrid composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analyses and tested as sorbent for Cr(VI) recovery from aqueous solution...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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