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Zhijun Yu, Kaihui Cheng, Yuwei Gao
Migratory birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus. We report the infection of black-tailed gulls and chickens in eastern China with avian influenza (H13N2) and (H13N8) viruses. We found that these H13 viruses were transmitted from migratory birds to domestic poultry.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Judit Symmank, Cathrin Bayer, Christiane Schmidt, Anne Hahn, Daniel Pensold, Geraldine Zimmer
Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, call increasing attention in the context of development and human health. Thereby, interactions between DNA methylating enzymes and histone modifications tremendously multiply the spectrum of potential regulatory functions. Epigenetic networks are critically involved in the establishment and functionality of neuronal circuits that are composed of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-positive inhibitory interneurons and excitatory principal neurons in the cerebral cortex...
June 18, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Kyle Crassini, Tahni Pyke, Yandong Shen, William S Stevenson, Richard I Christopherson, Stephen P Mulligan, Oliver Giles Best
The Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is an important regulatory element in multiple signaling pathways, including MAPK-ERK1/2. We investigated whether targeted disruption of RKIP is a therapeutic option for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The RKIP inhibitor locostatin-induced apoptosis of CLL cells, irrespective of poor prognostic indications or treatment history. Locostatin down-regulated MAPK-ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, decreased expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 (p = .04) and reduced the migratory capacity of CLL cells toward stroma-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α, p = ...
June 18, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Deborah I Lutterschmidt, Ashley R Lucas, Ritta A Karam, Vicky T Nguyen, Meghann R Rasmussen
Seasonal rhythms in physiology and behavior are widespread across diverse taxonomic groups and may be mediated by seasonal changes in neurogenesis, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. We examined if cell proliferation in the brain is associated with the seasonal life-history transition from spring breeding to migration and summer foraging in a free-ranging population of red-sided garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis ) in Manitoba, Canada. We used the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly proliferated cells within the brain of adult snakes collected from the den during the mating season or from a road located along their migratory route...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Seung-Shick Shin, Dae-Hwa Noh, Byungdoo Hwang, Jo-Won Lee, Sung Lyea Park, Sung-Soo Park, Bokyung Moon, Wun-Jae Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon
Background: Although the diverse biological properties of nanoparticles have been studied intensively, research into their mechanism of action is relatively rare. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activity of heterometallic Au@Pt-nanoseeds (NSs) against bladder cancers. Materials and methods: Mode of action of Au@Pt-NSs was investigated through MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, Western immunoblots, real-time qPCR, wound-healing migration and invasion assays, zymography, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Andreia Hanada Otake, Renata de Freitas Saito, Ana Paula Marques Duarte, Alexandre Ferreira Ramos, Roger Chammas
Melanomas often accumulate gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids found in the outer leaflet of plasma membranes, as disialoganglioside GD3 and its derivatives. Here, we have transfected the GD3 synthase gene (ST8Sia I) in a normal melanocyte cell line in order to evaluate changes in the biological behavior of non-transformed cells. GD3 -synthase expressing cells converted GM3 into GD3 and accumulated both GD3 and its acetylated form, 9-O-acetyl-GD3 . Melanocytes were rendered more migratory on laminin-1 surfaces...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Babita Shashni, Yukio Nagasaki
The critical importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as oncogene activators and essential secondary messengers in cancer cell survival have been widely reported. Since oxidative stress has been implicated as being pivotal in various cancers, antioxidant therapy seems an apt strategy to abrogate ROS-mediated cellular processes to attenuate cancers. We therefore synthesized ROS scavenging nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticles (RNPs); pH insensitive RNPO and pH sensitive RNPN , to impede the proliferative and metastatic characteristics of the triple negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, both in vitro and in vivo...
May 26, 2018: Biomaterials
Sander C Steenbeek, Thang V Pham, Joep de Ligt, Anoek Zomer, Jaco C Knol, Sander R Piersma, Tim Schelfhorst, Rick Huisjes, Raymond M Schiffelers, Edwin Cuppen, Connie R Jimenez, Jacco van Rheenen
Recent data showed that cancer cells from different tumor subtypes with distinct metastatic potential influence each other's metastatic behavior by exchanging biomolecules through extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, it is debated how small amounts of cargo can mediate this effect, especially in tumors where all cells are from one subtype, and only subtle molecular differences drive metastatic heterogeneity. To study this, we have characterized the content of EVs shed in vivo by two clones of melanoma (B16) tumors with distinct metastatic potential...
June 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
Danah S Al-Hattab, Hamza A Safi, Raghu S Nagalingam, Rushita A Bagchi, Matthew Taras Stecy, Michael Paul Czubryt
Numerous physiological and pathological events, from organ development to cancer and fibrosis, are characterized by Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), whereby adherent epithelial cells convert to migratory mesenchymal cells. During cardiac development, pro-epicardial organ epithelial cells undergo EMT to generate fibroblasts. Subsequent stress or damage induces further phenotype conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, causing fibrosis via synthesis of excessive extracellular matrix. We previously showed that the transcription factor scleraxis is both sufficient and necessary for the conversion of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and found that scleraxis knockout reduced cardiac fibroblast number by 50%, possibly via EMT attenuation...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Claus Nielsen, Morten Steen Nørby, Jacob Kongsted, Ilia A Solov'yov
The magnetic compass sense utilized by migratory birds for long-distance navigation functions only once light of a certain wavelength is present. This piece of evidence fits partially with the popular hypothesis of chemical magnetoreception in cryptochrome proteins, located in the bird retina. According to this hypothesis a magnetosensitive radical pair is produced after photoexcitation of an FAD co-factor inside cryptochrome, and as such the absorption properties of FAD is of crucial importance for cryptochrome activation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Alba Manresa-Arraut, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Cord Brakebusch, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Henrik Hasseldam
T-cells are known to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T-cell activation is controlled by a range of intracellular signaling pathways regulating cellular responses such as proliferation, cytokine production, integrin expression, and migration. These processes are crucial for the T-cells' ability to mediate inflammatory processes in autoimmune diseases such as MS. RhoA is a ubiquitously expressed small GTPase well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Maria I Guillén, Julia Platas, María D Pérez Del Caz, Vicente Mirabet, Maria J Alcaraz
The inflammatory process is an essential phenomenon in the induction of immune responses. Monocytes are key effector cells during the inflammatory process. A wide range of evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ASC) are endowed with immunomodulatory capacity. However, the interaction between ASC and monocytes in the innate immune response is not well understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible paracrine anti-inflammatory effects of ASC in human monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from buffy coats and ASC from fat of non-obese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kristin Bianchini, Christy A Morrissey
Efficient fuelling is essential for migratory birds because fuel loads and fuelling rates affect individual fitness and survival during migration. Many migrant shorebirds are exposed to oil pollution and its toxic constituents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), at migratory staging sites, which has the potential to interfere with avian refuelling physiology. In this study, we orally dosed shorebirds with environmentally-relevant PAH mixtures to simulate dietary exposure during staging. Forty-nine wild-caught Sanderling (Calidris alba) were exposed to 0 (control), 12...
June 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Junhui Zhu, Yanbo Zhao, Lu Yu, Meihui Wang, Qinfeng Li, Shengjie Xu
Homocysteine (Hcy) has been shown to impair the migratory and adhesive activity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). As a peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ agonist, pioglitazone (PIO) has been predicted to regulate angiogenesis, and cell adhesion, migration and survival. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PIO could inhibit Hcy‑induced EPC dysfunctions such as impairments of cell migration and adhesion. EPC migration and adhesion were assayed using 8.0‑µm pore size Transwell membranes and fibronectin‑coated culture dishes, respectively...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Dan Jin, Yan Wu, Cuijie Shao, Yong Gao, Deqiang Wang, Jiwei Guo
Non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for >80% of all lung cancer cases, which are the leading cause of cancer‑related mortality worldwide. The clinical efficacy of available therapies for NSCLC is often limited due to the development of resistance to anticancer drugs, particularly to cisplatin (DDP). Norcantharidin (NCTD) is a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of many types of cancer, to which patients do not develop resistance. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential synergistic effects of NCTD and DPP on the viability of the the DDP‑resistant NSCLC cell line, A549/DDP...
June 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
Chen Yang, Zhefeng Sui, Tingshuang Xu, Wenai Liu, Xiaoguang Wang, Xianlu Zeng
Previous studies have demonstrated that lipid rafts and β‑adducin serve an important role in leukocyte rolling. In the present study the migratory ability and behavior of neutrophils was demonstrated to rely on the integrity of the lipid raft structure. β‑adducin was demonstrated to have a critical role in neutrophil migration. Knockdown of β‑adducin attenuated the migratory ability of dHL‑60 cells and the distribution of β‑adducin in lipid raft structures was changed by N‑formylmethionyl‑leucyl‑phenyl‑alanine treatment...
May 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yulin Lai, Liwen Zhao, Jia Hu, Jing Quan, Peijie Chen, Jinling Xu, Xin Guan, Yongqing Lai, Liangchao Ni
Subsequently to the publication of the article, the authors have recognized a need to correct some of its content in order to clarify the accuracy of the article's information. First, Dr Yongqing Lai should have been included as the joint corresponding author for this paper. Therefore, the information in the correspondence box should have been as follows (changes are indicated in bold): Correspondence to: Professor Liangchao Ni or Dr Yongqing Lai, Department of Urology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, 1120 Lianhua Road, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518036, P...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Julie Jacobs, Vanessa Deschoolmeester, Karen Zwaenepoel, Tal Flieswasser, Christophe Deben, Jolien Van den Bossche, Christophe Hermans, Christian Rolfo, Marc Peeters, Olivier De Wever, Filip Lardon, Vasiliki Siozopoulou, Evelien Smits, Patrick Pauwels
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are involved in the proliferative and invasive behavior of colorectal cancer (CRC). Nonetheless, CAFs represent a heterogeneous population with both cancer-promoting and cancer-restraining actions, lacking specific markers to target them. Expression of the immune checkpoint molecule CD70 is normally limited to cells of the lymphoid lineage. Instead, tumor cells hijack CD70 to facilitate immune evasion by increasing the amount of suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). The aim of this study was to explore CD70 expression patterns in CRC, not merely focusing on the tumor cells, but also taking the tumor stromal cells into account...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Elizabeth Ntantie, Michaela J Allen, Jerrine Fletcher, Augustine T Nkembo, Nazarius S Lamango, Offiong F Ikpatt
Migratory cells form extracellular matrix attachments called focal-adhesions. Focal adhesion assembly and disassembly are regulated by the Rho family of small GTPases. We previously reported that polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors (PCAIs) suppress Rho protein levels, disrupting F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling in the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. In this study, we investigated whether these observations effect focal adhesion formation, which involves cell surface receptors known as integrins and several signaling/adaptor proteins such as vinculin, α-actinin, Rock kinases and phospho-Myosin Light Chain-2 (p-MLC-2), that foster the linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Venugopalan Cheriyath, Jaspreet Kaur, Anne Davenport, Ashjan Khalel, Nobel Chowdhury, Lalitha Gaddipati
BACKGROUND: Redox deregulations are ubiquitous in cancer cells. However, the role of mitochondrial redox deregulation in metastasis remains unclear. In breast cancer, upregulation of mitochondrial antiapoptotic protein G1P3 (IFI6) was associated with poor distance metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that G1P3-induced mitochondrial redox deregulation confers metastatic potentials in breast cancer cells. METHODS: Cell migration and invasion assays; confocal and immunofluorescence microscopy; and Illumina HumanHT-12 BeadChip to assess gene expression...
June 14, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
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