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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474521/ethnic-differences-in-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-may-contribute-to-prostate-cancer-health-disparity
#1
Bethtrice Elliott, DeAdra L Zackery, Vanessa A Eaton, Re'Josef T Jones, Fisseha Abebe, Camille C Ragin, Shafiq A Khan
Epidemiological studies show that the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer (PCa) are significantly higher in African-American (AA) men when compared to Caucasian (CA) men in the US. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is linked to health disparities in African-Americans. Recent studies suggest a role of TGFβ3 in cancer metastases and its effect on the migratory and invasive behavior; however, its role in prostate cancer in African American men has not been studied. We determined the circulating levels of TGFβ3 in AA and CA men diagnosed with PCa using ELISA...
February 21, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471857/patterns-of-midichloria-infection-in-avian-borne-african-ticks-and-their-trans-saharan-migratory-hosts
#2
Irene Di Lecce, Chiara Bazzocchi, Jacopo G Cecere, Sara Epis, Davide Sassera, Barbara M Villani, Gaia Bazzi, Agata Negri, Nicola Saino, Fernando Spina, Claudio Bandi, Diego Rubolini
BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrates and frequently parasitize avian species that can carry them across continents during their long-distance migrations. Ticks may have detrimental effects on the health state of their avian hosts, which can be either directly caused by blood-draining or mediated by microbial pathogens transmitted during the blood meal. Indeed, ticks host complex microbial communities, including bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Midichloria bacteria (Rickettsiales) are widespread tick endosymbionts that can be transmitted to vertebrate hosts during the tick bite, inducing an antibody response...
February 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471788/modelling-physiological-and-pathological-conditions-to-study-pericyte-biology-in-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#3
Justin Rustenhoven, Leon C Smyth, Deidre Jansson, Patrick Schweder, Miranda Aalderink, Emma L Scotter, Edward W Mee, Richard L M Faull, Thomas I-H Park, Mike Dragunow
BACKGROUND: Brain pericytes ensheathe the endothelium and contribute to formation and maintenance of the blood-brain-barrier. Additionally, pericytes are involved in several aspects of the CNS immune response including scarring, adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, and phagocytosis. In vitro cultures are routinely used to investigate these functions of brain pericytes, however, these are highly plastic cells and can display differing phenotypes and functional responses depending on their culture conditions...
February 22, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468384/redirection-of-neuroblast-migration-from-the-rostral-migratory-stream-into-a-lesion-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-rats
#4
Jannis Gundelach, Michael Koch
Clinical treatment of structural brain damage today is largely limited to symptomatic approaches and the avoidance of secondary injury. However, neuronal precursor cells are constantly produced within specified regions of the mammalian brain throughout life. Here we evaluate the potential of the known chemoattractive properties of the glycoprotein laminin on neuroblasts to relocate the cells into damaged brain areas. Injection of a thin laminin tract, leading from the rostral migratory stream to an excitotoxic lesion within the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, enabled neuroblasts to migrate away from their physiological route towards the olfactory bulb into the lesion site...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468363/the-bcr-abl-inhibitor-nilotinib-influences-phenotype-and-function-of-monocyte-derived-human-dendritic-cells
#5
Daniela Dörfel, Christian J Lechner, Simone Joas, Tanja Funk, Michael Gutknecht, Julia Salih, Julian Geiger, Korbinian N Kropp, Stefanie Maurer, Martin R Müller, Hans-Georg Kopp, Helmut R Salih, Frank Grünebach, Susanne M Rittig
In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the translocation t(9;22) results in the fusion protein BCR-ABL (breakpoint cluster region-abelson murine leukemia), a tyrosine kinase mediating oncogenic signaling which is successfully targeted by treatment with BCR-ABL inhibitors like imatinib. However, BCR-ABL inhibitors may also affect antitumor immunity. For instance, it was reported that imatinib impairs the function of dendritic cells (DCs) that play a central role in initiating and sustaining T cell responses. Meanwhile, second generation BCR-ABL inhibitors like nilotinib, which inhibits BCR-ABL with enhanced potency have become standard of treatment, at least in patients with BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467934/effects-of-stc1-overexpression-on-tumorigenicity-and-metabolism-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Cherry Ct Leung, Chris Kc Wong
Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) is a paracrine factor associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis. Using clinicopathological data, we previously reported that a greater expression of STC1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was significantly correlated with smaller tumor size. The underlying mechanism on the correlation is not known. In this study, using a metastatic HCC cell-line (MHCC-97L, P) and lentiviral vector mediated-STC1 overexpression, the inoculation of STC1-overexpressing MHCC-97L (S1) cells in a nude mice xenograft model demonstrated reductions in tumor mass and volume...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467932/characterization-of-aptamer-mediated-gene-delivery-system-for-liver-cancer-therapy
#7
Zhongbing Liu, Xiaoduan Sun, Shuangli Xiao, Yan Lin, Chunhong Li, Na Hao, Meiling Zhou, Ruolan Deng, Siyun Ke, Zhirong Zhong
Liver cancer is a fatal disease with limited therapy options. The recombinant adenovirus expressing tumor-suppressor gene of PTEN (Ad5-PTEN) showed effective antitumor activity against liver cancer. However, its disadvantages produced great limitation on its application, especially its nonspecific and toxicity to normal cells and tissues. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is over-expressed in some liver cancer cells and an RNA aptamer EpDT3 could specially target to EpCAM-positive cells. Based on this founding, we aimed to design a kind of gene delivery system of EpDT3-mediated Ad5-PTEN (EpDT3-PEG-Ad5-PTEN, EPAP) in which polyethylene glycol was used to be a linker to conjugate EpDT3 with Ad5-PTEN...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467899/tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-colon-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion-by-upregulating-trop-2
#8
Peng Zhao, Zhongtao Zhang
High levels of tumor-associated calcium signal transduction protein (TROP)-2 have been demonstrated to be strongly associated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in colon cancer. In the present study, the effect of TNF-α on the regulation of TROP-2 expression and its effect in colon cancer cell migration and invasion were investigated in vitro . TROP-2 protein levels were evaluated in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells cultured with various concentrations of TNF-α using western blot analysis. Changes in the migratory and invasive potential of the cells were evaluated using a wound healing and transwell assay, respectively...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467869/role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-markers-e-cadherin-n-cadherin-%C3%AE-catenin-and-zeb2-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Guang-Jie Zhu, Pan-Pan Song, Han Zhou, Xiao-Hui Shen, Jun-Guo Wang, Xiao-Feng Ma, Ya-Jun Gu, Ding-Ding Liu, An-Ning Feng, Xiao-Yun Qian, Xia Gao
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows neoplastic cells to gain the invasive phenotype and become migratory, which is required for cancer progression and metastasis. In the present study, the expression of EMT-associated biomarkers and their association with clinicopathological parameters in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) was investigated. E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) protein expression was evaluated with immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 76 patients with operable LSCC...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467262/flight-range-fuel-load-and-the-impact-of-climate-change-on-the-journeys-of-migrant-birds
#10
Christine Howard, Philip A Stephens, Joseph A Tobias, Catherine Sheard, Stuart H M Butchart, Stephen G Willis
Climate change is predicted to increase migration distances for many migratory species, but the physiological and temporal implications of longer migratory journeys have not been explored. Here, we combine information about species' flight range potential and migratory refuelling requirements to simulate the number of stopovers required and the duration of current migratory journeys for 77 bird species breeding in Europe. Using tracking data, we show that our estimates accord with recorded journey times and stopovers for most species...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466889/downregulated-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-iii-is-involved-in-attenuating-trophoblast-migration-and-invasion-under-hypoxia-reoxygenation-condition
#11
Qinyin Deng, Nanlin Yin, Ying Chen, Nan Shan, Xiru Liu, Hongbo Qi
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have confirmed that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) is correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the expression of GnT-III and its role in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia (PE) has not been reached. So the primary objective of this study is to determine GnT-III expression in normal pregnancy and whether its expression is vulnerable to oxidative stress in the trophoblast cells. METHODS: Human first trimester villous tissues from normal pregnancies and third trimester placentas from pregnancies with or without preeclampsia (PE) were used for the detection of GnT-III expression...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466759/developmental-analysis-of-bone-marrow-neutrophils-reveals-populations-specialized-in-expansion-trafficking-and-effector-functions
#12
Maximilien Evrard, Immanuel W H Kwok, Shu Zhen Chong, Karen W W Teng, Etienne Becht, Jinmiao Chen, Je Lin Sieow, Hweixian Leong Penny, Goh Chi Ching, Sapna Devi, José Maria Adrover, Jackson L Y Li, Ka Hang Liong, Leonard Tan, Zhiyong Poon, Shihui Foo, Jia Wang Chua, I-Hsin Su, Karl Balabanian, Françoise Bachelerie, Subhra K Biswas, Anis Larbi, William Y K Hwang, Vikas Madan, H Phillip Koeffler, Siew Cheng Wong, Evan W Newell, Andrés Hidalgo, Florent Ginhoux, Lai Guan Ng
Neutrophils are specialized innate cells that require constant replenishment from proliferative bone marrow (BM) precursors as a result of their short half-life. Although it is established that neutrophils are derived from the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), the differentiation pathways from GMP to functional mature neutrophils are poorly defined. Using mass cytometry (CyTOF) and cell-cycle-based analysis, we identified three neutrophil subsets within the BM: a committed proliferative neutrophil precursor (preNeu) which differentiates into non-proliferating immature neutrophils and mature neutrophils...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464850/reactions-of-metal-carbon-bonds-within-six-membered-metallaaromatic-rings
#13
Xiaoxi Zhou, Hong Zhang
Metallaaromatics represent a distinct and attractive class of heterocycles, which have greatly expanded the library of known aromatics. They have garnered extensive research interest on account of their unique properties, organometallic reactivity, and aromaticity. The metal-carbon bonds have been regarded as the most active reaction sites of metallaaromatics and a variety of related reactions have been demonstrated in the literature. This mini review summarized recent findings on the reactivity of the metal-carbon bonds, mainly relevant to the representative metallaaromatics with six-membered ring scaffolds...
February 20, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464048/src-is-the-primary-target-of-aripiprazole-an-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-in-its-anti-tumor-action
#14
Mi Seon Kim, Byong Chul Yoo, Woo Seok Yang, Sang Yun Han, Deok Jeong, Jun Min Song, Kyung Hee Kim, Adithan Aravinthan, Ji Hye Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Seung Cheol Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Aripiprazole (ARP) is an atypical anti-psychotic drug widely used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The pharmacological effects of ARP on cancer cells are still poorly understood. In this study, anti-cancer effects of ARP on various malignant tumor cells and its molecular mechanism were further carefully examined by using cell proliferation assay, xenograft mouse model, immunoblotting analysis, migration assay, luciferase reporter gene assay, kinase assay, and overexpression strategy. Treatment with ARP induced cytotoxicity in U251 glioma cells, MKN-1 gastric adenosquamous carcinoma cells, and CT26 colon carcinoma cells...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464045/pathological-and-functional-significance-of-semaphorin-5a-in-pancreatic-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#15
Sugandha Saxena, Yuri Hayashi, Lingyun Wu, Mohammad Awaji, Pranita Atri, Michelle L Varney, Abhilasha Purohit, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Surinder K Batra, Rakesh K Singh
Semaphorin-5A (SEMA5A) has differential cell surface expression between normal and cancer cells and represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer (PC). In this study, we delineated the pathological expression and significance of SEMA5A during PC progression and metastasis. We utilized human tissue microarrays and different PC mouse models (Pdx1-cre; LSL- Kras(G12D) , Pdx1-Cre; LSL-Kras(G12D) ; LSL-p53(R172H) and RIP1-Tag2) to analyze SEMA5A expression during PC progression...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463896/flexible-migratory-choices-of-cory-s-shearwaters-are-not-driven-by-shifts-in-prevailing-air-currents
#16
Gaia Dell'Ariccia, Simon Benhamou, Maria P Dias, José P Granadeiro, Joël Sudre, Paulo Catry, Francesco Bonadonna
Wind conditions strongly affect migratory costs and shape flyways and detours for many birds, especially soaring birds. However, whether winds also influence individual variability in migratory choices is an unexplored question. Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris borealis) exhibit migratory flexibility, changing non-breeding destination across the Atlantic Ocean within and between years. Here, we investigated how wind dynamics affect the spatiotemporal migratory behaviour and whether they influence individual choices of non-breeding destination...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463879/redox-control-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-function-and-plasticity
#17
REVIEW
Brittany G Durgin, Adam C Straub
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) play a major role in vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. It has long been established in vitro that contractile SMC can phenotypically switch to function as proliferative and/or migratory cells in response to stimulation by oxidative stress, growth factors, and inflammatory cytokines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxidative stressors implicated in driving vascular diseases, shifting cell bioenergetics, and increasing SMC proliferation, migration, and apoptosis...
February 20, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463346/pathogenicity-and-genetic-characterisation-of-a-novel-reassortant-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-h5n6-virus-isolated-in-korea-2017
#18
Young-Il Kim, Young-Jae Si, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Su-Jin Park, Norbert John Robles, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Min-Ah Yu, Kwang-Min Yu, Youn-Jeong Lee, Myoung-Heon Lee, Young Ki Choi
We investigated influenza A(H5N6) viruses from migratory birds in Chungnam and Gyeonggi Provinces, South Korea following a reported die-off of poultry in nearby provinces in November 2017. Genetic analysis and virulence studies in chickens and ducks identified our isolate from December 2017 as a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. It resulted from reassortment between the highly virulent H5N8 strain from Korea with the N6 gene from a low-pathogenic H3N6 virus from the Netherlands.
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463262/potential-role-of-insulin-receptor-isoforms-and-igf-receptors-in-plaque-instability-of-human-and-experimental-atherosclerosis
#19
Nuria Beneit, José Luis Martín-Ventura, Carlota Rubio-Longás, Óscar Escribano, Gema García-Gómez, Silvia Fernández, Giorgio Sesti, Marta Letizia Hribal, Jesús Egido, Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Manuel Benito
BACKGROUND: Clinical complications associated with atherosclerotic plaques arise from luminal obstruction due to plaque growth or destabilization leading to rupture. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of insulin receptor isoform A (IRA) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) confers a proliferative and migratory advantage to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) promoting plaque growth in early stages of atherosclerosis. However, the role of insulin receptor (IR) isoforms, IGF-IR or insulin-like growth factor-II receptor (IGF-IIR) in VSMCs apoptosis during advanced atherosclerosis remains unclear...
February 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462661/p66shc-regulates-migration-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#20
Matthew A Ingersoll, Yu-Wei Chou, Jamie S Lin, Ta-Chun Yuan, Dannah Miller, Yan Xie, Yaping Tu, Rebecca E Oberley-Deegan, Surinder K Batra, Ming-Fong Lin
Metastatic castration-resistant (CR) prostate cancer (PCa) is a lethal disease for which no effective treatment is currently available. p66Shc is an oxidase previously shown to promote androgen-independent cell growth through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elevated in clinical PCa and multiple CR PCa cell lines. We hypothesize p66Shc also increases the migratory activity of PCa cells through ROS and investigate the associated mechanism. Using the transwell assay, our study reveals that the level of p66Shc protein correlates with cell migratory ability across several PCa cell lines...
February 17, 2018: Cellular Signalling
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