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Erica H Craig, Jennifer R Adams, Lisette P Waits, Mark R Fuller, Diana M Whittington
Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles...
2016: PloS One
Ying Hu, Shihua Qi, Linxi Yuan, Hongxia Liu, Xinli Xing
Twenty-one organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the muscle of six predominant waterbird species from Jianghan Plain, Hubei Province, Central China. Among OCPs, DDTs were the most prevalent compounds, with average concentration ranging from 31.1 to 1445 ng/g lipid weight. Little egrets (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese pond herons (Ardeola bacchus) showed significantly higher concentrations of OCPs (p < 0.05) due to their dietary habits and migratory patterns. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Hamish G Hiscock, Daniel R Kattnig, David E Manolopoulos, P J Hore
We present a new method for calculating the product yield of a radical pair recombination reaction in the presence of a weak time-dependent magnetic field. This method successfully circumvents the computational difficulties presented by a direct solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation for a long-lived radical pair containing many hyperfine-coupled nuclear spins. Using a modified formulation of Floquet theory, treating the time-dependent magnetic field as a perturbation, and exploiting the slow radical pair recombination, we show that one can obtain a good approximation to the product yield by considering only nearly degenerate sub-spaces of the Floquet space...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Feng-Feng Cai, Cheng Xu, Xin Pan, Lu Cai, Xiao-Yan Lin, Su Chen, Ewelina Biskup
Cellular adaptive mechanisms are crucial for tumorigenesis and a common feature in solid tumor progression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) facilitates the biological response to hypoxia, advancing angiogenesis and metastatic potential of the tumor. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivators 1α (PGC-1α) enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, favored by migratory/invasive cancer cells. We conducted a prospective, long-term follow up study to determine whether HIF-1α and PGC-1α can be implemented as predictive biomarker in breast cancer...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Silin Sa, Mingxia Gu, James Chappell, Ning-Yi Shao, Mohamed Ameen, Kathryn A T Elliott, Dan Li, Fabian Grubert, Caiyun G Li, Shalina Taylor, Aiqin Cao, Yu Ma, Ryan Fong, Long Nguyen, Joseph C Wu, Michael P Snyder, Marlene Rabinovitch
RATIONALE: Idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by loss and obliteration of lung vasculature. Endothelial cell dysfunction is pivotal to the pathophysiology but different causal mechanisms may reflect a need for patient-tailored therapies. OBJECTIVES: Endothelial cells differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells were compared to pulmonary arterial endothelial cells from the same patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension, to determine whether they shared functional abnormalities and altered gene expression patterns, that differed from those in unused donor cells...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Yaara Aharon-Rotman, Ken Gosbell, Clive Minton, Marcel Klaassen
Trans-equatorial long-distance migrations of high-latitude breeding animals have been attributed to narrow ecological niche widths. We suggest an alternative hypothesis postulating that trans-equatorial migrations result from a possible increase in the rate at which body stores to fuel migration are deposited with absolute latitude; that is, longer, migrations away from the breeding grounds surpassing the equator may actually enhance fueling rates on the nonbreeding grounds and therewith the chance of a successful, speedy and timely migration back to the breeding grounds...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Kei Hayashi, Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Yuma Ohari, Uday Kumar Mohanta, Junya Aita, Hiroshi Satoh, Shiori Ehara, Minami Tokashiki, Tomoko Shiroma, Ayumi Azuta, Nozomi Oka, Takuya Watanabe, Ryo Harasawa, Satoshi Inohana, Toshihiro Ichijo, Kazuhisa Furuhama
Adult schistosomes were detected in the veins or capillaries of the large intestine, mesentery, liver, and adrenal glands in eight of 13 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) examined in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. However, neither eggs nor severe tissue injuries were observed in any of the swans. The schistosomes were definitively identified as Allobilharzia visceralis based on the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Allobilharzia visceralis infections have been reported in whooper swan in Iceland and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) in North America...
October 21, 2016: Parasitology International
Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Stavros Taraviras, Vassilis Pachnis
BACKGROUND: In vertebrate organisms, the neural crest (NC) gives rise to multipotential and highly migratory progenitors which are distributed throughout the embryo and generate, among other structures, the peripheral nervous system, including the intrinsic neuroglial networks of the gut, i.e. the enteric nervous system (ENS). The majority of enteric neurons and glia originate from vagal NC-derived progenitors which invade the foregut mesenchyme and migrate rostro-caudally to colonise the entire length of the gut...
October 24, 2016: BMC Biology
Ming-Jie Zhang, Yun Liu, Zi-Cheng Hu, Yi Zhou, Yan Pi, Lu Guo, Xu Wang, Xue Chen, Jing-Cheng Li, Li-Li Zhang
The phenotypic modulation of contractile vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is widely accepted as the pivotal process in the arterial remodeling induced by hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) on regulating VSMC plasticity and intracranial arteriole remodeling in hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and TRPV1(-/-) mice on a C57BL/6J background were used. By microscopic observation of the histopathological sections of vessels from hypertensive SHR and age-matched normotensive WKY control rats, we found that hypertension induced arterial remodeling...
October 24, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Silvia Pesce, Lorenzo Moretta, Alessandro Moretta, Emanuela Marcenaro
Innate and adaptive immunity has evolved complex molecular mechanisms regulating immune cell migration to facilitate the dynamic cellular interactions required for its function involving the chemokines and their receptors. One important chemokine receptor in the immune system is represented by CCR7. Together with its ligands CCL19 and CCL21, this chemokine receptor controls different arrays of migratory events, both in innate and adaptive immunity, including homing of CD56(bright) NK cells, T cells, and DCs to lymphoid compartments, where T cell priming occurs...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Hugh S O'Neill, Caroline C Herron, Conn L Hastings, Roel Deckers, Adolfo Lopez Noriega, Helena M Kelly, Wim E Hennink, Ciarán O McDonnell, Fergal J O'Brien, Eduardo Ruiz-Hernández, Garry P Duffy
Lysolipid-based thermosensitive liposomes (LTSL) embedded in a chitosan-based thermoresponsive hydrogel matrix (denoted Lipogel) represents a novel approach for the spatiotemporal release of therapeutic agents. The entrapment of drug-loaded liposomes in an injectable hydrogel permits local liposome retention, thus providing a prolonged release in target tissues. Moreover, release can be controlled through the use of a minimally invasive external hyperthermic stimulus. Temporal control of release is particularly important for complex multi-step physiological processes, such as angiogenesis, in which different signals are required at different times in order to produce a robust vasculature...
October 20, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence against all three poliovirus serotypes in traditional high risk areas in Bihar, lowest routine immunization coverage areas in Madhya Pradesh and migrant population living in Mumbai urban slums. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Survey. SETTING: Subjects selected by house to house visit (community based) and transported to government health facilities for further study procedures. PARTICIPANTS: 1137 randomly selected healthy infants 6-11 months of age residing in the selected high-risk areas...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Kirsty J Dixon, Jose Mier, Shyam Gajavelli, Alisa Turbic, Ross Bullock, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS)...
September 28, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Brielle Bjorke, Farnaz Shoja-Taheri, Minkyung Kim, G Eric Robinson, Tatiana Fontelonga, Kyung-Tai Kim, Mi-Ryoung Song, Grant S Mastick
BACKGROUND: Oculomotor neurons develop initially like typical motor neurons, projecting axons out of the ventral midbrain to their ipsilateral targets, the extraocular muscles. However, in all vertebrates, after the oculomotor nerve (nIII) has reached the extraocular muscle primordia, the cell bodies that innervate the superior rectus migrate to join the contralateral nucleus. This motor neuron migration represents a unique strategy to form a contralateral motor projection. Whether migration is guided by diffusible cues remains unknown...
October 22, 2016: Neural Development
Anusha Sathyanarayanan, Karthik Subramanian Chandrasekaran, Devarajan Karunagaran
microRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in diverse biological processes and their deregulation is implicated in carcinogenesis. miR-146a executes tumour suppressive or oncogenic functions depending on the cancer type, but its effect on human cervical (CaCx) and colorectal (CRC) cancers have not been examined thus far. In this study, miR-146a exhibited high expression in CaCx but poor expression in CRC, in comparison to corresponding normal tissues. Nevertheless, ectopic expression of miR-146a inhibited proliferation in both CaCx and CRC cells and curbed their migration and invasion...
October 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Vishnu Priya Bollampalli, Susanne Nylén, Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs
Dendritic cells (DCs) are important for initiating immune responses, in part through their ability to acquire and shuttle antigen to the draining lymph node (DLN). The mobilization of DCs to the DLN is complex and remains to be fully elucidated during infection. Herein described is the use of an innovative, simple assay that relies on the fluorochrome 5- and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to track the migration of DCs during footpad infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in C57BL/6 mice...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sajjad Karim, Jaudah A Al-Maghrabi, Hasan M A Farsi, Ahmad J Al-Sayyad, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Zeenat Mirza, Alaa A Al-Boogmi, Fai T Ashgan, Manal M Shabaad, Hend F NourEldin, Khalid B M Al-Ghamdi, Adel Abuzenadah, Adeel G A Chaudhary, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a seventh ranked malignancy with poor prognosis. RCC is lethal at metastatic stage as it does not respond to conventional systemic treatments, and there is an urgent need to find out promising novel biomarkers for effective treatment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biomarkers that can be potential therapeutic target and predict effective inhibitors to treat the metastatic stage of RCC. METHODS: We conducted transcriptomic profiling to identify differentially expressed genes associated with RCC...
September 30, 2016: BMC Cancer
Glenn T Crossin, Bruce G Hatcher, Shelley Denny, Kim Whoriskey, Michael Orr, Alicia Penney, Frederick G Whoriskey
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cow018.].
2016: Conservation Physiology
Patrycja Podlaszczuk, Maciej Kamiński, Radosław Włodarczyk, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Tomasz Janiszewski, Piotr Minias
BACKGROUND: Moult is one of the most costly activities in the annual cycle of birds and most avian species separate moult from other energy-demanding activities, such as migration. To this end, young birds tend to undergo the first post-juvenile moult before the onset of migration, but in some species the time window for the pre-migratory feather replacement is too narrow. We hypothesized that in such species an increased investment in the structural quality of juvenile feathers may allow to retain juvenile plumage throughout the entire migratory period and delay moult until arriving at wintering grounds, thus avoiding a moult-migration overlap...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Yanbin Zhao, Wenbo Qiao, Xiaoyuan Wang, Hang Yin, Jianqi Cui, Yue Cui, Xuesong Chen, Jing Hu, Hailing Lu, Qingwei Meng, Yan Wang, Li Cai
14-3-3ζ is involved in tumor cell growth and apoptosis. However, the mechanism of 14-3-3ζ in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) metastasis has not been illuminated. In our studies, we found that the expression of 14-3-3ζ was highly expressed in lung SCC compared to normal lung tissues. High expression of 14-3-3ζ was associated with pTNM stage (p<0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of 14-3-3ζ protein was associated with high levels of TGFβR1 protein (p=0.005), and pSMAD3 (p=0...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
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