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Semra Yalcin, Shawn James Leroux
Land-cover and climate change are two main drivers of changes in species ranges. Yet, the majority of studies investigating the impacts of global change on biodiversity focus on one global change driver and usually use simulations to project biodiversity responses to future conditions. We conduct an empirical test of the relative and combined effects of land-cover and climate change on species occurrence changes. Specifically, we examine whether observed local colonization and extinctions of North American birds between 1981-85 and 2001-05 are correlated with land-cover and climate change and whether bird life history and ecological traits explain interspecific variation in observed occurrence changes...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Camille Couture, Pascale Desjardins, Karine Zaniolo, Lucie Germain, Sylvain L Guérin
The cornea is a transparent organ, highly specialized and unique that is continually subjected to abrasive forces and occasional mechanical or chemical trauma because of its anatomical localization. Upon injury, the extracellular matrix (ECM) rapidly changes to promote wound healing through integrin-dependent activation of specific signal transduction mediators whose contribution is to favor faster closure of the wound by altering the adhesive and migratory properties of the cells surrounding the damaged area...
April 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Robert David Hume, Lorraine Berry, Stefanie Reichelt, Michael D'Angelo, Jenny Gomm, Ruth Elizabeth Cameron, Christine Watson
Adipocytes are one of the major stromal cell components of the human breast. These cells play a key role in the development of the gland and are implicated in breast tumorigenesis. Frequently, directional stromal collagen I fibres are found surrounding aggressive breast tumours. These fibres enhance breast cancer cell migration and are associated with poor patient prognosis. We sought to recapitulate these stromal components in vitro to provide a 3D model comprising human adipose tissue and anisotropic collagen fibres...
March 8, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Lukas Landler, Simon Nimpf, Tobias Hochstoeger, Gregory C Nordmann, Artemis Papadaki-Anastasopoulou, David A Keays
A diverse array of species on the planet employ the Earth's magnetic field as a navigational aid. As the majority of these animals are migratory, their utility to interrogate the molecular and cellular basis of the magnetic sense is limited. Vidal-Gadea and colleagues recently argued that the worm Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a magnetic sense that guides their vertical movement in soil. In making this claim, they relied on three different behavioral assays that involved magnetic stimuli. Here, we set out to replicate their results employing blinded protocols and double wrapped coils that control for heat generation...
April 13, 2018: ELife
Andres Vidal-Gadea, Chance Bainbridge, Ben Clites, Bridgitte E Palacios, Layla Bakhtiari, Vernita Gordon, Jonathan Pierce-Shimomura
Many animals can orient using the earth's magnetic field. In a recent study, we performed three distinct behavioral assays providing evidence that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans orients to earth-strength magnetic fields (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="bib28">Vidal-Gadea et al., 2015</xref>). A new study by Landler et al. suggests that C. elegans does not orient to magnetic fields (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="bib10">Landler et al., 2018</xref>)...
April 13, 2018: ELife
Markus Brown, Louise A Johnson, Dario A Leone, Peter Majek, Kari Vaahtomeri, Daniel Senfter, Nora Bukosza, Helga Schachner, Gabriele Asfour, Brigitte Langer, Robert Hauschild, Katja Parapatics, Young-Kwon Hong, Keiryn L Bennett, Renate Kain, Michael Detmar, Michael Sixt, David G Jackson, Dontscho Kerjaschki
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Charles W Bangley, Lee Paramore, Simon Dedman, Roger A Rulifson
Estuaries function as important nursery and foraging habitats for many coastal species, including highly migratory sharks. Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, is one of the largest estuaries in the continental United States and provides a variety of potential habitats for sharks. In order to identify and spatially delineate shark habitats within Pamlico Sound, shark catch and environmental data were analyzed from the 2007-2014 North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries (NCDMF) gillnet and longline surveys conducted within the estuary...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan Powell, Filipa Mota, David Steadman, Christelle Soudy, Jeremy T Miyauchi, Stuart Crosby, Ashley Jarvis, Tifelle Reisinge, Natalie Winfield, Graham Evans, Aled Finniear, Tamas Yelland, Yi-Tai Chou, A W Edith Chan, Andrew O'Leary, Lili Cheng, Dan Liu, Ntina Fotinou, Carla Milagre, John F Martin, Haiyan Jia, Paul Frankel, Snezana Djordjevic, Stella E Tsirka, Ian C Zachary, David L Selwood
We report the design, synthesis and comprehensive studybiological evaluation of a range ofsome potent small-molecule neuropilin-1 (NRP1) antagonists. NRP1 is implicated in the immune response to tumours, particularly in Treg cell fragility, required for PD1 checkpoint blockade. The design of these compounds was based on a previously identified compound EG00229, EG00229 which was used a starting point for optimisation. Through targeting of specific amino-acid residues additional H-bonding interactions were introduced, which led to increases in binding affinity and potency...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Amit Pathak
Motile cells sense the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM) through adhesions and respond by modulating the generated forces, which in turn lead to varying mechanosensitive migration phenotypes. Through modeling and experiments, cell migration speed is known to vary with matrix stiffness in a biphasic manner, with optimal motility at an intermediate stiffness. Here, we present a two-dimensional cell model defined by nodes and elements, integrated with subcellular modeling components corresponding to mechanotransductive adhesion formation, force generation, protrusions and node displacement...
April 12, 2018: Physical Biology
Manu Sehrawat, Niharika Dixit, Kabir Sardana, Purnima Malhotra
Erythema nodosum migrans (subacute nodular migratory panniculitis) is an uncommon type of panniculitis characterized by migrating subcutaneous nodules or plaque on the lower extremity. There are a very few cases of Erythema nodosum migrans reported and thus its appropriate treatment modality is not defined. We describe a case of a 30-year-old male with idiopathic erythema nodosum migrans which was manifest centrifugally spreading, slightly morpheaform erythematous plaque on the lower left leg. The patient was diagnosed initially and treated as a case of furunculosis with poor clinical response...
April 11, 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
Fareeha Batool, David-Nicolas Morand, Lionel Thomas, Isaac Maximiliano Bugueno, Javier Aragon, Silvia Irusta, Laetitia Keller, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, Henri Tenenbaum, Olivier Huck
Ibuprofen (IBU) has been shown to improve periodontal treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop a new anti-inflammatory scaffold by functionalizing an electrospun nanofibrous poly-ε-caprolactone membrane with IBU (IBU-PCL) and to evaluate its impact on periodontal inflammation, wound healing and regeneration in vitro and in vivo. IBU-PCL was synthesized through electrospinning. The effects of IBU-PCL on the proliferation and migration of epithelial cells (EC) and fibroblasts (FB) exposed to Porphyromonas gingivlais lipopolysaccharide (Pg -LPS) were evaluated through the AlamarBlue test and scratch assay, respectively...
April 10, 2018: Materials
Taylor C Brown, Norman G Nicolson, Joyce Cheng, Reju Korah, Tobias Carling
The cell membrane's extension repertoire modulates various malignant behaviors of cancer cells, including their adhesive and migratory potentials. The ability to accurately classify and quantify cell extensions and measure the effect on a cell's adhesive capacity is critical to determining how cell-signaling events impact cancer cell behavior and aggressiveness. Here, we describe the in vitro design and use of a cell extension quantification method in conjunction with an adhesion capacity assay in an established in vitro model for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Limin Xu, Xuting Xu, Huilian Huang, Zhihong Ma, Shuangmei Zhang, Pingping Niu, Yingrong Chen, Jinliang Ping, Ping Lu, Caihua Yu, Lishan Min, Jing Chen, Licheng Dai, Shunli Dong
OBJECTIVE: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-85% of lung cancer cases which cause most of cancer-related deaths globally. As our previous study discovered miR-1260b can be regarded as a specific signature for metastasis in NSCLC patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of miR-1260b underlying NSCLC progression and metastasis remain dismal. METHODS: The expression of miR-1260b in NSCLC tissues and cell lines were examined by real-time PCR, the effects of miR-1260b on cell migration, invasion and proliferation were evaluated in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
J H Devries, R G Clark, L M Armstrong
According to theory, habitat selection by organisms should reflect underlying habitat-specific fitness consequences and, in birds, reproductive success has a strong impact on population growth in many species. Understanding processes affecting habitat selection also is critically important for guiding conservation initiatives. Northern pintails (Anas acuta) are migratory, temperate-nesting birds that breed in greatest concentrations in the prairies of North America and their population remains below conservation goals...
April 7, 2018: Oecologia
Glenn Young, Andrew Belmonte
Through the lens of game theory, cooperation is frequently considered an unsustainable strategy: if an entire population is cooperating, each individual can increase its overall fitness by choosing not to cooperate, thereby still receiving all the benefit of its cooperating neighbors while no longer expending its own energy. Observable cooperation in naturally-occurring public goods games is consequently of great interest, as such systems offer insight into both the emergence and sustainability of cooperation...
April 5, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
Kam W Tang, Sabine Flury, Dominic Vachon, César Ordóñez, Daniel F McGinnis
Chaoborus spp. (phantom midge) are prevalent in eutrophic inland waters. In Lake Soppen, Switzerland, C. flavicans larvae diurnally migrate between the methane-rich, oxygen-depleted hypolimnion and sediments, and the methane-poor, oxygen-rich epilimnion. Using a combination of experiments and system modelling, this study demonstrated that the larvae's burrowing activities in and out of the sediment perturbed the sediment and re-introduced sequestered phosphorus into the overlying water at a rate of 0.022 μg P ind-1 d-1 , thereby exacerbating internal nutrient loading in the water column...
March 27, 2018: Water Research
Amir Afkham, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Homayoon Siahmansouri, Sanam Sadreddini, Majid Ahmadi, Sanam Dolati, Nahid Manafi Afkham, Parvin Akbarzadeh, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Vahid Younesi, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is known as the most common malignancy in men. Chitosan has generated great interest as a useful biopolymer for the encapsulation of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Due to cationic nature, chitosan is able to efficiently encapsulate siRNA molecules and form nanoparticles. Furthermore, the biocompatible and biodegradable attributes of chitosan have paved the way for its potential application in the in vivo delivery of therapeutic siRNAs. In this study, we aimed to design chitosan/CMD nanoparticles for the efficient encapsulation of the anti-cancer drugs SN38 and Snail-specific siRNA...
November 20, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Mohmand Noor Ali, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Hideaki Takagi, Naparee Srisowanna, Mai Nguyen Nhat Huynh, Yuya Yamaguchi, Phyu Synn Oo, Myat Tin Htwe Kyaw, Katsuaki Sato, Ryoji Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka Hishikawa
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that is caused by multiple factors, including dysfunction of the immune system and genetic and epigenetic alterations. Aberrant epigenetic regulation, especially histone acetylation, was found in biopsies from IBD patients and mouse models of colitis, suggesting that an epigenetic treatment approach may be useful for IBD therapy. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
February 27, 2018: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
Akanchha Shukla, Priyanka Gupta, Romila Singh, Durga Prasad Mishra
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are characterized by the metabolic shift towards aerobic glycolysis, rapid proliferation and acquisition of the migratory and invasive phenotype aiding tumor angiogenesis. The glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) used for targeting glycolysis in GBMs is ineffective in inhibiting migration and invasion. In the present study we report that 2-DG treatment downregulates the tumor suppressive miR-7-5p in GBM cell lines in vitro. Overexpression of miR-7-5p significantly reduced migration and invasion in GBM cell lines...
April 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Anwar M Hashem, Sayed S Sohrab, Sherif A El-Kafrawy, Adly M M Abd-Alla, Saeid Abo El-Ela, Turki S Abujamel, Ahmed M Hassan, Suha A Farraj, Noura A Othman, Remi N Charrel, Esam I Azhar
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Dispersal of the vector and an increase in migratory flow between countries have led to large epidemics and severe clinical outcomes. Over the past 20 years, dengue epidemics have become more wide-spread and frequent. Previous studies have shown that dengue is endemic in Jeddah, Makkah and Al-Madinah in western Saudi Arabia as well as in Jazan region in the southern part of the country. The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) have been reported from western Saudi Arabia...
April 2, 2018: Acta Tropica
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