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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221825/ecological-and-social-factors-constrain-spatial-and-temporal-opportunities-for-mating-in-a-migratory-songbird
#1
Sara A Kaiser, Benjamin B Risk, T Scott Sillett, Michael S Webster
Many studies of sexual selection assume that individuals have equal mating opportunities and that differences in mating success result from variation in sexual traits. However, the inability of sexual traits to explain variation in male mating success suggests that other factors moderate the strength of sexual selection. Extrapair paternity is common in vertebrates and can contribute to variation in mating success and thus serves as a model for understanding the operation of sexual selection. We developed a spatially explicit, multifactor model of all possible female-male pairings to test the hypothesis that ecological (food availability) and social (breeding density, breeding distance, and the social mate's nest stage) factors influence an individual's opportunity for extrapair paternity in a socially monogamous bird, the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221138/-epidemiology-of-urinary-lithiasis-in-spain-new-scenarios
#2
Julia Carrasco Valiente, Enrique Gómez Gómez, María José Requena Tapia
Renal lithiasis is one of the most common disorders in modern society, constituting an important health problem that associates a great economic burden. The nature of stone disease varies according to age and sex, being also influenced by dietary and lifestyle factors, and climatic variations among others. In spite of the advances made in the management of this pathology, it continues being a disease with a high recurrence rate. In recent years, several studies have pointed out that its prevalence is rising especially in developed countries...
January 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220184/cxcl12a-cxcr4b-acts-to-retain-neutrophils-in-caudal-hematopoietic-tissue-and-to-antagonize-recruitment-to-an-injury-site-in-the-zebrafish-larva
#3
Susana Paredes-Zúñiga, Rodrigo A Morales, Salomé Muñoz-Sánchez, Carlos Muñoz-Montecinos, Margarita Parada, Karina Tapia, Carlos Rubilar, Miguel L Allende, Oscar A Peña
Neutrophils are a major component of the innate immune response and the most abundant circulating cell type in humans and zebrafish. The CXCL12/CXCR4 ligand receptor pair plays a key role in neutrophil homeostasis, controlling definitive hematopoiesis and neutrophil release into circulation. Neutrophils overexpressing CXCR4 respond by migrating towards sources of CXCL12, which is abundant in hematopoietic tissues. However, the physiological role of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling during inflammatory responses remains unknown...
February 20, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220109/temporal-stability-and-the-effect-of-transgenerational-transfer-on-fecal-microbiota-structure-in-a-long-distance-migratory-bird
#4
Jakub Kreisinger, Lucie Kropáčková, Adéla Petrželková, Marie Adámková, Oldřich Tomášek, Jean-François Martin, Romana Michálková, Tomáš Albrecht
Animal bodies are inhabited by a taxonomically and functionally diverse community of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, inter-individual variation in host-associated microbiota contributes to physiological and immune system variation. As such, host-associated microbiota may be considered an integral part of the host's phenotype, serving as a substrate for natural selection. This assumes that host-associated microbiota exhibits high temporal stability, however, and that its composition is shaped by trans-generational transfer or heritable host-associated microbiota modulators encoded by the host genome...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220052/post-baccalaureate-migration-and-merit-based-scholarships
#5
Maria D Fitzpatrick, Damon Jones
For policymakers aiming to alter the migratory patterns of skilled labor, one potential tool involves subsidizing higher education. We present new evidence on the effects of merit aid scholarship programs - programs that offer partial or full tuition subsidies to high-achieving in-state students. Using Census data on 24 to 32 year olds in the U.S. from 1990 to 2010, we show that eligibility for merit aid programs slightly increases the propensity of state natives to live in-state, while also extending in-state enrollment into the late twenties...
October 2016: Economics of Education Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219019/inferring-physiological-energetics-of-loggerhead-turtle-caretta-caretta-from-existing-data-using-a-general-metabolic-theory
#6
Nina Marn, S A L M Kooijman, Marko Jusup, Tarzan Legović, Tin Klanjšček
Loggerhead turtle is an endangered sea turtle species with a migratory lifestyle and worldwide distribution, experiencing markedly different habitats throughout its lifetime. Environmental conditions, especially food availability and temperature, constrain the acquisition and the use of available energy, thus affecting physiological processes such as growth, maturation, and reproduction. These physiological processes at the population level determine survival, fecundity, and ultimately the population growth rate-a key indicator of the success of conservation efforts...
February 3, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216142/astrocytic-calcium-waves-signal-brain-injury-to-neural-stem-and%C3%A2-progenitor%C3%A2-cells
#7
Anna Kraft, Eduardo Rosales Jubal, Ruth von Laer, Claudia Döring, Adriana Rocha, Moyo Grebbin, Martin Zenke, Helmut Kettenmann, Albrecht Stroh, Stefan Momma
Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia...
February 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215202/helminth-parasites-of-the-chub-mackerel-scomber-colias-off-the-tunisian-coast-and-their-use-in-stock-discrimination
#8
M Feki, M Châari, L Neifar, L Boudaya
Nine helminth parasites were used as biological tags to discriminate diverse areas of Scomber colias Gmelin, 1789. During three seasons, a total of 369 fish were examined in four zones off the Tunisian coast, including Bizerte in the north, Kelibia and Mahdia in the centre and Zarzis in the south. Discriminant analyses were used to identify distinct areas of S. colias. Fish from Bizerte were grouped as one area and were correlated negatively with the monogenean Grubea cochlear and the digenean Lecithocladium excisum...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215018/responses-of-wintering-geese-to-the-designation-of-goose-foraging-areas-in-the-netherlands
#9
Kees Koffijberg, Hans Schekkerman, Henk van der Jeugd, Menno Hornman, Erik van Winden
The Netherlands is important for wintering migratory herbivorous geese, numbers of which have rapidly increased, leading to conflict with agriculture. In 2005/2006, a new goose management policy aimed to limit compensation payments to farmers by concentrating foraging geese in 80 000 ha of designated 'go' areas-where farmers received payment to accommodate them-and scaring geese from 'no go' areas elsewhere. Monthly national counts of four abundant goose species during 10 years prior to the new policy and in 8 years following implementation found that 57% of all goose days were spent within 'go' areas under the new management, the same as prior to implementation...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215011/implementation-of-the-first-adaptive-management-plan-for-a-european-migratory-waterbird-population-the-case-of-the-svalbard-pink-footed-goose-anser-brachyrhynchus
#10
Jesper Madsen, James Henty Williams, Fred A Johnson, Ingunn M Tombre, Sergey Dereliev, Eckhart Kuijken
An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215010/key-actions-towards-the-sustainable-management-of-european-geese
#11
David A Stroud, Jesper Madsen, Anthony D Fox
Increasing abundance of geese in North America and Europe constitutes a major conservation success, but has caused increasing conflicts with economic, health and safety interests, as well as ecosystem impacts. Potential conflict resolution through a single, 'one size fits all' policy is hindered by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215006/balancing-ecosystem-function-services-and-disservices-resulting-from-expanding-goose-populations
#12
Ralph Buij, Theodorus C P Melman, Maarten J J E Loonen, Anthony D Fox
As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision of ecosystem services and disservices...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#13
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213656/dual-functional-microrna-186-5p-targets-both-fgf2-and-rela-to-suppress-tumorigenesis-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#14
Fachen Wang, Hui Jiang, Shanjun Wang, Bing Chen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant cancers. MicroRNAs (miRs) were reported to play important roles in GBM recently. However, the role of a novel miR-186-5p in GBM tumorigenesis is still elusive. Using bioinformatics, miR-186-5p was identified as potential regulators of both fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and NF-κB subunit RelA. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the direct recognition FGF2 and RelA mRNAs by miR-186-5p. Invasion and migration assays were employed to study the effect of miR-186-5p on GBM cell growth in vitro...
February 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213288/inhibition-of-estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-attenuates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-regulating-rhoa-p27-kip1-and-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt4-signaling-pathway
#15
Qunyi Li, Lei Zhu, Liudi Zhang, Haifei Chen, Yingfeng Zhu, Yongli Du, Wanxian Zhong, Mingkang Zhong, Xiaojin Shi
RhoA/p27(Kip1) and β-Catenin/Wnt4 signaling processes play central roles in proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). ERRα, a member of orphan nuclear receptors, is a potent prognostic factor in breast, ovarian, colon and other types of tumors. However, biological significance of ERRα in VSMCs as well as the molecular mechanisms remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether ERRα is involved in the proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212795/nanojunctions-of-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-deliver-site-and-function-specific-calcium-signaling-in-vascular-smooth-muscles
#16
A M Evans
Vasoactive agents may induce myocyte contraction, dilation, and the switch from a contractile to a migratory-proliferative phenotype(s), which requires changes in gene expression. These processes are directed, in part, by Ca(2+) signals, but how different Ca(2+) signals are generated to select each function is enigmatic. We have previously proposed that the strategic positioning of Ca(2+) pumps and release channels at membrane-membrane junctions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) demarcates cytoplasmic nanodomains, within which site- and function-specific Ca(2+) signals arise...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212543/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-malignant-gliomas
#17
REVIEW
Mery Stefani Leivas Pereira, Fábio Klamt, Chairini Cássia Thomé, Paulo Valdeci Worm, Diogo Losch de Oliveira
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are predominantly involved in maintenance of cellular homeostasis of central nervous system. However, evidences have suggested other roles of mGluR in human tumors. Aberrant mGluR signaling has been shown to participate in transformation and maintenance of various cancer types, including malignant brain tumors. This review intends to summarize recent findings regarding the involvement of mGluR-mediated intracellular signaling pathways in progression, aggressiveness, and recurrence of malignant gliomas, mainly glioblastomas (GBM), highlighting the potential therapeutic applications of mGluR ligands...
February 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208648/n-butylidenephthalide-regulated-tumor-stem-cell-genes-ezh2-axl-and-reduced-its-migration-and-invasion-in-glioblastoma
#18
Ssu-Yin Yen, Hong-Meng Chuang, Mao-Hsuan Huang, Shinn-Zong Lin, Tzyy-Wen Chiou, Horng-Jyh Harn
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive types of brain tumor. Due to its highly recurrent rate and poor prognosis, the overall survival time with this type of tumor is only 20-21 months. Recent knowledge suggests that its recurrence is in part due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which display radioresistant, chemoresistant, self-renewal and tumorigenic potential. Enhancers of Zeste 2 (EZH2) and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) are both highly expressed in GBM. Additionally, they are an essential regulator involved in CSCs maintenance, migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness, metastasis and patient survival...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206767/palladium-catalyzed-double-isocyanide-insertion-via-oxidative-n-o-cleavage-of-acetyl-oximes-syntheses-of-2h-pyrrol-2-imines
#19
Gopal Chandru Senadi, Ting-Yi Lu, Ganesh Kumar Dhandabani, Jeh-Jeng Wang
The palladium-catalyzed reaction of acetyl oximes with isocyanides was developed for the synthesis of 2H-pyrrol-2-imines. The key steps were (i) generation of an enamido-palladium(II) species, (ii) migratory double-isocyanide insertion, and (iii) cyclization. The scope of the synthesis of some 2H-pyrrol-2-imines was extended to the synthesis 1H-pyrrole-2,3-dione/1H-benzo[g]indole-2,3-dione derivatives via acid hydrolysis in a sequential one-pot manner.
February 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206700/determining-the-origin-of-rate-independent-chemoselectivity-in-cuaac-reactions-an-alkyne-specific-shift-in-rate-determining-step
#20
Ciaran P Seath, Glenn A Burley, Allan J B Watson
We report a kinetic and spectroscopic analysis of alkyne-dependent chemoselectivity in the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction. Studies of six alkyne subtypes reveal that the rate-determining step (RDS) of an aromatic ynamine class is shifted from acetylide formation to the azide ligation/migratory insertion event allowing chemoselectivity independent of overall rate.
February 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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