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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761979/-remodeling-simulation-of-human-femur-under-bed-rest-and-spaceflight-circumstances-based-on-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#1
Wenting Yang, Dongmei Wang, Zhoujixin Lei, Chunhui Wang, Shanguang Chen
Astronauts who are exposed to weightless environment in long-term spaceflight might encounter bone density and mass loss for the mechanical stimulus is smaller than normal value. This study built a three dimensional model of human femur to simulate the remodeling process of human femur during bed rest experiment based on finite element analysis (FEA). The remodeling parameters of this finite element model was validated after comparing experimental and numerical results. Then, the remodeling process of human femur in weightless environment was simulated, and the remodeling function of time was derived...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753412/biological-filters-and-their-use-in-potable-water-filtration-systems-in-spaceflight-conditions
#2
REVIEW
Starla G Thornhill, Manish Kumar
Providing drinking water to space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) is a costly requirement for human habitation. To limit the costs of water transport, wastewater is collected and purified using a variety of physical and chemical means. To date, sand-based biofilters have been designed to function against gravity, and biofilms have been shown to form in microgravity conditions. Development of a universal silver-recycling biological filter system that is able to function in both microgravity and full gravity conditions would reduce the costs incurred in removing organic contaminants from wastewater by limiting the energy and chemical inputs required...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745771/effect-of-microgravity-space-radiation-on-microbes
#3
Giuliana Senatore, Felice Mastroleo, Natalie Leys, Gianluigi Mauriello
One of the new challenges facing humanity is to reach increasingly further distant space targets. It is therefore of upmost importance to understand the behavior of microorganisms that will unavoidably reach the space environment together with the human body and equipment. Indeed, microorganisms could activate their stress defense mechanisms, modifying properties related to human pathogenesis. The host-microbe interactions, in fact, could be substantially affected under spaceflight conditions and the study of microorganisms' growth and activity is necessary for predicting these behaviors and assessing precautionary measures during spaceflight...
May 10, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652620/nasa-genelab-project-bridging-space-radiation-omics-with-ground-studies
#4
Afshin Beheshti, Jack Miller, Yared Kidane, Daniel Berrios, Samrawit G Gebre, Sylvain V Costes
Accurate assessment of risks of long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration. It is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major health risk factor for astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently, there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low-dose, low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E)...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649415/generation-of-neural-organoids-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-the-rotary-cell-culture-system-effects-of-microgravity-on-neural-progenitor-cell-fate
#5
Cristiana Mattei, Abdullah Alshawaf, Giovanna D'Abaco, Bryony A Nayagam, Mirella Dottori
Progress in aeronautics and spaceflight technologies requires in parallel further research on how microgravity may affect human tissue. To date, little is known about the effects of microgravity on human development. Here we used the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to investigate whether microgravity supports the generation and maintenance of neural organoids derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) as a model of human brain development. Our results show that although neural organoids could be generated and maintained in microgravity conditions, there were changes in expression of rostral-caudal neural patterning genes and cortical markers compared to organoids generated in standard conditions...
March 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644336/limitations-in-predicting-the-space-radiation-health-risk-for-exploration-astronauts
#6
REVIEW
Jeffery C Chancellor, Rebecca S Blue, Keith A Cengel, Serena M Auñón-Chancellor, Kathleen H Rubins, Helmut G Katzgraber, Ann R Kennedy
Despite years of research, understanding of the space radiation environment and the risk it poses to long-duration astronauts remains limited. There is a disparity between research results and observed empirical effects seen in human astronaut crews, likely due to the numerous factors that limit terrestrial simulation of the complex space environment and extrapolation of human clinical consequences from varied animal models. Given the intended future of human spaceflight, with efforts now to rapidly expand capabilities for human missions to the moon and Mars, there is a pressing need to improve upon the understanding of the space radiation risk, predict likely clinical outcomes of interplanetary radiation exposure, and develop appropriate and effective mitigation strategies for future missions...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615929/muscle-atrophy-induced-by-mechanical-unloading-mechanisms-and-potential-countermeasures
#7
REVIEW
Yunfang Gao, Yasir Arfat, Huiping Wang, Nandu Goswami
Prolonged periods of skeletal muscle inactivity or mechanical unloading (bed rest, hindlimb unloading, immobilization, spaceflight and reduced step) can result in a significant loss of musculoskeletal mass, size and strength which ultimately lead to muscle atrophy. With advancement in understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy, several different signaling pathways have been studied to understand their regulatory role in this process. However, substantial gaps exist in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved, as well as their functional significance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593553/high-resolution-x-ray-tomography-a-3d-exploration-into-the-skeletal-architecture-in-mouse-models-submitted-to-microgravity-constraints
#8
REVIEW
Alessandra Giuliani, Serena Mazzoni, Alessandra Ruggiu, Barbara Canciani, Ranieri Cancedda, Sara Tavella
Bone remodeling process consists in a slow building phase and in faster resorption with the objective to maintain a functional skeleton locomotion to counteract the Earth gravity. Thus, during spaceflights, the skeleton does not act against gravity, with a rapid decrease of bone mass and density, favoring bone fracture. Several studies approached the problem by imaging the bone architecture and density of cosmonauts returned by the different spaceflights. However, the weaknesses of the previously reported studies was two-fold: on the one hand the research suffered the small statistical sample size of almost all human spaceflight studies, on the other the results were not fully reliable, mainly due to the fact that the observed bone structures were small compared with the spatial resolution of the available imaging devices...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562866/effects-of-gravity-microgravity-or-microgravity-simulation-on-early-mammalian-development
#9
Douglas Ruden, Alan Bolnick, Awoniyi Awonuga, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Gloria Perez, Elizabeth Ella Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
Plant and animal life forms evolved mechanisms for sensing and responding to gravity on Earth where homeo-static needs require responses. The lack of gravity, such as in the International Space Station (ISS), causes acute, intra-generational changes in the quality of life. These include maintaining calcium levels in bone, main-taining muscle tone, and disturbances in the vestibular apparatus in the ears. These problems decrease work efficiency and quality of life of humans not only during microgravity exposures but also after return to higher gravity on Earth or destinations such as Mars or the Moon...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560415/biomedical-findings-from-nasa-s-project-mercury-a-case-series
#10
William R Carpentier, John B Charles, Mark Shelhamer, Amanda S Hackler, Tracy L Johnson, Catherine M M Domingo, Jeffrey P Sutton, Graham B I Scott, Virginia E Wotring
The United States first sent humans into space during six flights of Project Mercury from May 1961 to May 1963. These flights were brief, with durations ranging from about 15 min to just over 34 h. A primary purpose of the project was to determine if humans could perform meaningful tasks while in space. This was supported by a series of biomedical measurements on each astronaut before, during (when feasible), and after flight to document the effects of exposure to the spaceflight environment. While almost all of the data presented here have been published in technical reports, this is the first integrated summary of the main results...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559713/skeletal-changes-during-and-after-spaceflight
#11
REVIEW
Laurence Vico, Alan Hargens
Space sojourns are challenging for life. The ability of the human body to adapt to these extreme conditions has been noted since the beginning of human space travel. Skeletal alterations that occur during spaceflight are now better understood owing to tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT, and murine models help researchers to understand cellular and matrix changes that occur in bone and that are difficult to measure in humans. However, questions remain with regard to bone adaptation and osteocyte fate, as well as to interactions of the skeleton with fluid shifts towards the head and with the vascular system...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533735/space-microgravity-drives-transdifferentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-osteogenesis-to-adipogenesis
#12
Cui Zhang, Liang Li, Yuanda Jiang, Cuicui Wang, Baoming Geng, Yanqiu Wang, Jianling Chen, Fei Liu, Peng Qiu, Guangjie Zhai, Ping Chen, Renfu Quan, Jinfu Wang
Bone formation is linked with osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow. Microgravity in spaceflight is known to reduce bone formation. In this study, we used a real microgravity environment of the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite to examine the effects of space microgravity on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were induced toward osteogenic differentiation for 2 and 7 d in a cell culture device mounted on the SJ-10 Satellite...
March 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507873/anaesthesia-in-austere-environments-literature-review-and-considerations-for-future-space-exploration-missions
#13
REVIEW
Matthieu Komorowski, Sarah Fleming, Mala Mawkin, Jochen Hinkelbein
Future space exploration missions will take humans far beyond low Earth orbit and require complete crew autonomy. The ability to provide anaesthesia will be important given the expected risk of severe medical events requiring surgery. Knowledge and experience of such procedures during space missions is currently extremely limited. Austere and isolated environments (such as polar bases or submarines) have been used extensively as test beds for spaceflight to probe hazards, train crews, develop clinical protocols and countermeasures for prospective space missions...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491852/alterations-in-the-spectrum-of-spontaneous-rifampicin-resistance-mutations-in-the-bacillus-subtilis-rpob-gene-after-cultivation-in-the-human-spaceflight-environment
#14
Patricia Fajardo-Cavazos, Joshua D Leehan, Wayne L Nicholson
The effect of Bacillus subtilis exposure to the human spaceflight environment on growth, mutagenic frequency, and spectrum of mutations to rifampicin resistance (RifR ) was investigated. B. subtilis cells were cultivated in Biological Research in Canister-Petri Dish Fixation Units (BRIC-PDFUs) on two separate missions to the International Space Station (ISS), dubbed BRIC-18 and BRIC-21, with matching asynchronous ground controls. No statistically significant difference in either growth or in the frequency of mutation to RifR was found in either experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488843/change-of-cortical-foot-activation-following-70-days-of-head-down-bed-rest
#15
Peng Yuan, Vincent Koppelmans, Patricia Reuter-Lorenz, Yiri De Dios, Nichole Gadd, Roy Riascos, Igor Kofman, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
Head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) has been used as a spaceflight analog to study some of the effects of microgravity on human physiology, cognition, and sensorimotor functions. Previous studies have reported declines in balance control and functional mobility after spaceflight and HDBR. Here we investigated how the brain activation for foot movement changed with HDBR. Eighteen healthy men participated in the current HDBR study. They were in a 6{degree sign} head-down tilt position continuously for 70 days. Functional MRI scans were acquired to estimate brain activation for foot movement pre-, during- and post-HDBR...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475523/spacecraft-cabin-environment-effects-on-the-growth-and-behavior-of-chlorella-vulgaris-for-life-support-applications
#16
REVIEW
Tobias Niederwieser, Patrick Kociolek, David Klaus
An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is necessary for humans to survive in the hostile environment of space. As future missions move beyond Earth orbit for extended durations, reclaiming human metabolic waste streams for recycled use becomes increasingly important. Historically, these functions have been accomplished using a variety of physical and chemical processes with limited recycling capabilities. In contrast, biological systems can also be incorporated into a spacecraft to essentially mimic the balance of photosynthesis and respiration that occurs in Earth's ecosystem, along with increasing the reuse of biomass throughout the food chain...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475516/exposure-to-microgravity-for-30-days-onboard-bion-m1-caused-muscle-atrophy-and-impaired-regeneration-in-murine-femoral-quadriceps
#17
E A Radugina, E A C Almeida, E Blaber, V A Poplinskaya, Y V Markitantova, E N Grigoryan
Mechanical unloading in microgravity during spaceflight is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber composition, gene expression, and reduction in regenerative muscle growth. Although some limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time. Here we report on how long-term (30-day long) mechanical unloading in microgravity affects murine muscles of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 microgravity mice, in comparison to habitat (7), and vivarium (14) ground control mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475515/synthetic-torpor-a-method-for-safely-and-practically-transporting-experimental-animals-aboard-spaceflight-missions-to-deep-space
#18
REVIEW
Yuri Griko, Matthew D Regan
Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434244/characterization-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-and-optic-nerve-phenotypes-caused-by-sustained-intracranial-pressure-elevation-in-mice
#19
Guofu Shen, Schuyler Link, Sandeep Kumar, Derek M Nusbaum, Dennis Y Tse, Yingbin Fu, Samuel M Wu, Benjamin J Frankfort
Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) can result in multiple neurologic sequelae including vision loss. Inducible models of ICP elevation are lacking in model organisms, which limits our understanding of the mechanism by which increased ICP impacts the visual system. We adapted a mouse model for the sustained elevation of ICP and tested the hypothesis that elevated ICP impacts the optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). ICP was elevated and maintained for 2 weeks, and resulted in multiple anatomic changes that are consistent with human disease including papilledema, loss of physiologic cupping, and engorgement of the optic nerve head...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396411/clinorotation-induced-autophagy-via-hdm2-p53-mtor-pathway-enhances-cell-migration-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Cheng-Fei Li, Jia-Xing Sun, Yuan Gao, Fei Shi, Yi-Kai Pan, Yong-Chun Wang, Xi-Qing Sun
Individuals exposed to long-term spaceflight often experience cardiovascular dysfunctions characterized by orthostatic intolerance, disability on physical exercise, and even frank syncope. Recent studies have showed that the alterations of cardiovascular system are closely related to the functional changes of endothelial cells. We have shown previously that autophagy can be induced by simulated microgravity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the mechanism of enhanced autophagy induced by simulated microgravity and its role in the regulation of endothelial function still remain unclear...
February 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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