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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269609/effects-of-generalized-pooling-on-binocular-disparity-selectivity-of-neurons-in-the-early-visual-cortex
#1
Daisuke Kato, Mika Baba, Kota S Sasaki, Izumi Ohzawa
The key problem of stereoscopic vision is traditionally defined as accurately finding the positional shifts of corresponding object features between left and right images. Here, we demonstrate that the problem must be considered in a four-dimensional parameter space; with respect not only to shifts in space (X, Y), but also spatial frequency (SF) and orientation (OR). The proposed model sums outputs of binocular energy units linearly over the multi-dimensional V1 parameter space (X, Y, SF, OR). Theoretical analyses and physiological experiments show that many binocular neurons achieve sharp binocular tuning properties by pooling the output of multiple neurons with relatively broad tuning...
June 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230609/on-eigen-s-quasispecies-model-two-valued-fitness-landscapes-and-isometry-groups-acting-on-finite-metric-spaces
#2
Yuri S Semenov, Artem S Novozhilov
A two-valued fitness landscape is introduced for the classical Eigen's quasispecies model. This fitness landscape can be considered as a direct generalization of the so-called single- or sharply peaked landscape. A general, non-permutation invariant quasispecies model is studied, and therefore the dimension of the problem is [Formula: see text], where N is the sequence length. It is shown that if the fitness function is equal to [Formula: see text] on a G-orbit A and is equal to w elsewhere, then the mean population fitness can be found as the largest root of an algebraic equation of degree at most [Formula: see text]...
May 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144079/neonatal-airway-obstruction-from-an-immature-teratoma-the-challenge-of-appropriate-investigation-in-a-low-resource-setting
#3
Y Abdallah, A Micheal
Teratoma in the nasopharynx is one of the rare causes for nasal symptoms in the newborn. The present report was on a term "neonate" who had respiratory distress from a hidden teratoma. Cheaper and readily available investigation modalities including postnasal space X-ray and examination under anesthesia revealed nothing. A postnasal space computed tomography also revealed nothing. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass which was resected endoscopically and histology revealed an immature teratoma. Herein, we present the case, management challenges and literature review to emphasis that negative investigations with persistent nasal symptoms should prompt further evaluation and teratoma should be considered when encountering newborn with nasal symptoms without obvious cause...
January 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598202/-comparing-the-anchorage-effects-of-micro-implant-and-j-hook-on-treating-patients-with-maxillary-protrusion
#4
Xin Wu, Guo-yuan Liu, Yong-lian Jiang
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in anchorage effects between micro-implants and J hook in treating patients with Class II division 1 maxillary protrusion. METHODS: Thirty-one cases of adult patients with Class II division 1 maxillary protrusion were treated. They were divided into 2 groups depending on their selection. The first group included 17 patients for micro-implant anchorage, who adopted micro-implant and sliding mechanism to close maxillary extraction space and depress the mandibular molar...
October 2015: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26321794/association-fields-via-cuspless-sub-riemannian-geodesics-in-se-2
#5
R Duits, U Boscain, F Rossi, Y Sachkov
To model association fields that underly perceptional organization (gestalt) in psychophysics we consider the problem P curve of minimizing [Formula: see text] for a planar curve having fixed initial and final positions and directions. Here κ(s) is the curvature of the curve with free total length ℓ. This problem comes from a model of geometry of vision due to Petitot (in J. Physiol. Paris 97:265-309, 2003; Math. Inf. Sci. Humaines 145:5-101, 1999), and Citti & Sarti (in J. Math. Imaging Vis. 24(3):307-326, 2006)...
2014: Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26134798/a-phase-space-beam-position-monitor-for-synchrotron-radiation
#6
Nazanin Samadi, Bassey Bassey, Mercedes Martinson, George Belev, Les Dallin, Mark de Jong, Dean Chapman
The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam's position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam's position in phase space...
July 2015: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981781/conducting-plant-experiments-in-space
#7
John Z Kiss
The growth and development of plants during spaceflight have important implications for both basic and applied research supported by NASA and other international space agencies. While there have been many reviews of plant space biology, the present chapter attempts to fill a gap in the literature on the actual process and methods of performing plant research in the spaceflight environment. The author has been a principal investigator on six spaceflight projects and has another two space experiments in development...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832091/feasibility-and-robustness-of-dose-painting-by-numbers-in-proton-therapy-with-contour-driven-plan-optimization
#8
A M Barragán, S Differding, G Janssens, J A Lee, E Sterpin
PURPOSE: To prove the ability of protons to reproduce a dose gradient that matches a dose painting by numbers (DPBN) prescription in the presence of setup and range errors, by using contours and structure-based optimization in a commercial treatment planning system. METHODS: For two patients with head and neck cancer, voxel-by-voxel prescription to the target volume (GTVPET) was calculated from (18)FDG-PET images and approximated with several discrete prescription subcontours...
April 2015: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25050397/strongly-lacunary-ward-continuity-in-2-normed-spaces
#9
Hüseyin Çakalli, Sibel Ersan
A function f defined on a subset E of a 2-normed space X is strongly lacunary ward continuous if it preserves strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy sequences of points in E; that is, (f(x k)) is a strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy sequence whenever (x k) is strongly lacunary quasi-Cauchy. In this paper, not only strongly lacunary ward continuity, but also some other kinds of continuities are investigated in 2-normed spaces.
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24766027/controlling-the-position-of-traveling-waves-in-reaction-diffusion-systems
#10
Jakob Löber, Harald Engel
We present a method to control the position as a function of time of one-dimensional traveling wave solutions to reaction-diffusion systems according to a prespecified protocol of motion. Given this protocol, the control function is found as the solution of a perturbatively derived integral equation. Two cases are considered. First, we derive an analytical expression for the space (x) and time (t) dependent control function f(x,t) that is valid for arbitrary protocols and many reaction-diffusion systems. These results are close to numerically computed optimal controls...
April 11, 2014: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24691109/coordinate-based-lead-location-does-not-predict-parkinson-s-disease-deep-brain-stimulation-outcome
#11
Kelsey A Nestor, Jacob D Jones, Christopher R Butson, Takashi Morishita, Charles E Jacobson, David A Peace, Dennis Chen, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: Effective target regions for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been well characterized. We sought to study whether the measured Cartesian coordinates of an implanted DBS lead are predictive of motor outcome(s). We tested the hypothesis that the position and trajectory of the DBS lead relative to the mid-commissural point (MCP) are significant predictors of clinical outcomes. We expected that due to neuroanatomical variation among individuals, a simple measure of the position of the DBS lead relative to MCP (commonly used in clinical practice) may not be a reliable predictor of clinical outcomes when utilized alone...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24663531/real-space-x-ray-tomographic-reconstruction-of-randomly-oriented-objects-with-sparse-data-frames
#12
Kartik Ayyer, Hugh T Philipp, Mark W Tate, Veit Elser, Sol M Gruner
Schemes for X-ray imaging single protein molecules using new x-ray sources, like x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), require processing many frames of data that are obtained by taking temporally short snapshots of identical molecules, each with a random and unknown orientation. Due to the small size of the molecules and short exposure times, average signal levels of much less than 1 photon/pixel/frame are expected, much too low to be processed using standard methods. One approach to process the data is to use statistical methods developed in the EMC algorithm (Loh & Elser, Phys...
February 10, 2014: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24580318/numerical-study-of-turbulent-flow-over-complex-aeolian-dune-fields-the-white-sands-national-monument
#13
William Anderson, Marcelo Chamecki
The structure and dynamics of fully developed turbulent flows responding to aeolian dune fields are studied using large-eddy simulation with an immersed boundary method. An aspect of particular importance in these flows is the downwind migration of coherent motions associated with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities that originate at the dune crests. These instabilities are responsible for enhanced downward transport of high-momentum fluid via the so-called turbulent sweep mechanism. However, the presence of such structures and their role in determining the bulk characteristics of fully developed dune field sublayer aerodynamics have received relatively limited attention...
January 2014: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24470423/-taking-x-ray-phase-contrast-imaging-into-mainstream-applications-and-its-satellite-workshop-real-and-reciprocal-space-x-ray-imaging
#14
Alessandro Olivo, Ian Robinson
A double event, supported as part of the Royal Society scientific meetings, was organized in February 2013 in London and at Chicheley Hall in Buckinghamshire by Dr A. Olivo and Prof. I. Robinson. The theme that joined the two events was the use of X-ray phase in novel imaging approaches, as opposed to conventional methods based on X-ray attenuation. The event in London, led by Olivo, addressed the main roadblocks that X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is encountering in terms of commercial translation, for clinical and industrial applications...
March 6, 2014: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24382470/existence-results-for-differential-inclusions-with-nonlinear-growth-conditions-in-banach-spaces
#15
Messaoud Bounkhel
In the Banach space setting, the existence of viable solutions for differential inclusions with nonlinear growth; that is, x(·)(t) ∈ a.e. on I, x(t) ∈ S, ∀t ∈ I, x(0) = x₀ ∈ S, (∗), where S is a closed subset in a Banach space X, I = [0, T], (T > 0), F : I × S → X, is an upper semicontinuous set-valued mapping with convex values satisfying F(t, x) ⊂ c(t)(||x|| + ||x|| (p)K, ∀(t, x) ∈ I × S, where p ∈ ℝ, with p ≠ 1, and c ∈ C([0, T], ℝ(+)). The existence of solutions for nonconvex sweeping processes with perturbations with nonlinear growth is also proved in separable Hilbert spaces...
2013: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24076763/improved-low-resolution-crystallographic-refinement-with-phenix-and-rosetta
#16
Frank DiMaio, Nathaniel Echols, Jeffrey J Headd, Thomas C Terwilliger, Paul D Adams, David Baker
Refinement of macromolecular structures against low-resolution crystallographic data is limited by the ability of current methods to converge on a structure with realistic geometry. We developed a low-resolution crystallographic refinement method that combines the Rosetta sampling methodology and energy function with reciprocal-space X-ray refinement in Phenix. On a set of difficult low-resolution cases, the method yielded improved model geometry and lower free R factors than alternate refinement methods.
November 2013: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23844400/on-multivalued-contractions-in-cone-metric-spaces-without-normality
#17
Muhammad Arshad, Jamshaid Ahmad
Wardowski (2011) in this paper for a normal cone metric space (X, d) and for the family A of subsets of X established a new cone metric H : A × A → E and obtained fixed point of set-valued contraction of Nadler type. Further, it is noticed in the work of Janković et al., 2011 that the fixed-point problem in the setting of cone metric spaces is appropriate only in the case when the underlying cone is nonnormal. In the present paper we improve Wardowski's result by proving the same without the assumption of normality on cones...
2013: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23688160/ambient-processable-high-capacitance-hafnia-organic-self-assembled-nanodielectrics
#18
Ken Everaerts, Jonathan D Emery, Deep Jariwala, Hunter J Karmel, Vinod K Sangwan, Pradyumna L Prabhumirashi, Michael L Geier, Julian J McMorrow, Michael J Bedzyk, Antonio Facchetti, Mark C Hersam, Tobin J Marks
Ambient and solution-processable, low-leakage, high capacitance gate dielectrics are of great interest for advances in low-cost, flexible, thin-film transistor circuitry. Here we report a new hafnium oxide-organic self-assembled nanodielectric (Hf-SAND) material consisting of regular, alternating π-electron layers of 4-[[4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]phenyl]diazenyl]-1-[4-(diethoxyphosphoryl) benzyl]pyridinium bromide) (PAE) and HfO2 nanolayers. These Hf-SAND multilayers are grown from solution in ambient with processing temperatures ≤150 °C and are characterized by AFM, XPS, X-ray reflectivity (2...
June 19, 2013: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22927364/digital-holographic-microtomography-for-high-resolution-refractive-index-mapping-of-live-cells
#19
Jing-Wei Su, Wei-Chen Hsu, Cheng-Ying Chou, Chen-Hao Chang, Kung-Bin Sung
Quantification of three-dimensional (3D) refractive index (RI) with sub-cellular resolution is achieved by digital holographic microtomography (DHμT) using quantitative phase images measured at multiple illumination angles. The DHμT system achieves sensitive and fast phase measurements based on iterative phase extraction algorithm and asynchronous phase shifting interferometry without any phase monitoring or active control mechanism. A reconstruction algorithm, optical diffraction tomography with projection on convex sets and total variation minimization, is implemented to substantially reduce the number of angular scattered fields needed for reconstruction without sacrificing the accuracy and quality of the reconstructed 3D RI distribution...
May 2013: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22711868/on-the-computational-content-of-convergence-proofs-via-banach-limits
#20
U Kohlenbach, L Leuştean
This paper addresses new developments in the ongoing proof mining programme, i.e. the use of tools from proof theory to extract effective quantitative information from prima facie ineffective proofs in analysis. Very recently, the current authors developed a method of extracting rates of metastability (as defined by Tao) from convergence proofs in nonlinear analysis that are based on Banach limits and so (for all that is known) rely on the axiom of choice. In this paper, we apply this method to a proof due to Shioji and Takahashi on the convergence of Halpern iterations in spaces X with a uniformly Gâteaux differentiable norm...
July 28, 2012: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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