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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533143/drugs-in-space-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-astronauts
#1
Johannes Kast, Yichao Yu, Christoph N Seubert, Virginia E Wotring, Hartmut Derendorf
Space agencies are working intensely to push the current boundaries of human spaceflight by sending astronauts deeper into space than ever before, including missions to Mars and asteroids. Spaceflight alters human physiology due to fluid shifts, muscle and bone loss, immune system dysregulation, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic enzymes. These alterations may change the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of medications used by astronauts and subsequently might impact drug efficacy and safety...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528322/very-low-doses-of-heavy-oxygen-ion-radiation-induce-premature-ovarian-failure
#2
Birendra Mishra, Ryan Ripperdan, Laura Ortiz, Ulrike Luderer
Astronauts are exposed to charged particles during space travel, and charged particles are also used for cancer radiotherapy. Premature ovarian failure is a well-known side-effect of conventional, low linear energy transfer (LET) cancer radiotherapy, but little is known about the effects of high LET charged particles on the ovary. We hypothesized that lower LET (16.5 keV/µm) oxygen particles would be less damaging to the ovary than we previously found for iron (LET=179 keV/µm). Adult female mice were irradiated with 0, 5, 30, or 50 cGy oxygen ions or 50 cGy oxygen plus dietary supplementation with the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA)...
May 20, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500304/microgravity-induces-inhibition-of-osteoblastic-differentiation-and-mineralization-through-abrogating-primary-cilia
#3
Wengui Shi, Yanfang Xie, Jinpeng He, Jian Zhou, Yuhai Gao, Wenjun Wei, Nan Ding, Huiping Ma, Cory J Xian, Keming Chen, Jufang Wang
It is well documented that microgravity in space environment leads to bone loss in astronauts. These physiological changes have also been validated by human and animal studies and modeled in cell-based analogs. However, the underlying mechanisms are elusive. In the current study, we identified a novel phenomenon that primary cilia (key sensors and functioning organelles) of rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROBs) gradually shrank and disappeared almost completely after exposure to simulated microgravity generated by a random positioning machine (RPM)...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495842/the-impact-of-ocular-hemodynamics-and-intracranial-pressure-on-intraocular-pressure-during-acute-gravitational-changes
#4
Emily S Nelson, Lealem Mulugeta, Andrew Feola, Julia Raykin, Jerry G Myers, Brian C Samuels, C Ross Ethier
Exposure to microgravity causes a bulk fluid shift toward the head, with concomitant changes in blood volume/pressure, intraocular pressure (IOP), and intracranial pressure (ICP). These and other factors are thought to contribute to Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, a significant health concern for astronauts, characterized by degradation of visual function and ocular anatomical changes. Here we describe a lumped-parameter numerical model to simulate volume/pressure alterations in the eye during gravitational changes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495841/lower-body-negative-pressure-decreases-non-invasively-measured-intracranial-pressure-and-internal-jugular-vein-cross-sectional-area-during-head-down-tilt
#5
William Watkins, Alan R Hargens, Shannon Baird, Erika Marie Clary, Brandon R Macias
INTRODUCTION: Long-term space flight induces a near visual acuity change in approximately 50% of astronauts. In some crew members, postflight cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressures by lumbar puncture are as high as 20.9 mmHg who demonstrated optic disc edema. CSF communicates through the cochlear aqueduct to affect perilymphatic pressure and tympanic membrane motion. We hypothesized that 50 mmHg of lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during 15° head-down tilt (HDT) would mitigate elevations in internal jugular vein cross-sectional area (IJV CSA) and intracranial pressure (ICP)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495755/intestinal-microbiota-contributes-to-colonic-epithelial-changes-in-simulated-microgravity-mouse-model
#6
Junxiu Shi, Yifan Wang, Jian He, Pingping Li, Rong Jin, Ke Wang, Xi Xu, Jie Hao, Yan Zhang, Hongju Liu, Xiaoping Chen, Hounan Wu, Qing Ge
Exposure to microgravity leads to alterations in multiple systems, but microgravity-related changes in the gastrointestinal tract and its clinical significance have not been well studied. We used the hindlimb unloading (HU) mouse model to simulate a microgravity condition and investigated the changes in intestinal microbiota and colonic epithelial cells. Compared with ground controls (Ctrls), HU affected fecal microbiota composition with a profile that was characterized by the expansion of Firmicutes and decrease of Bacteroidetes The colon epithelium of HU mice showed decreased goblet cell numbers, reduced epithelial cell turnover, and decreased expression of genes that are involved in defense and inflammatory responses...
May 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492348/culture-of-human-cells-in-experimental-units-for-spaceflight-impacts-on-their-behavior
#7
Alessandra Cazzaniga, Claudia Moscheni, Jeanette Am Maier, Sara Castiglioni
Because space missions produce pathophysiological alterations such as cardiovascular disorders and bone demineralization which are very common on Earth, biomedical research in space is a frontier that holds important promises not only to counterbalance space-associated disorders in astronauts but also to ameliorate the health of Earth-bound population. Experiments in space are complex to design. Cells must be cultured in closed cell culture systems (from now defined experimental units (EUs)), which are biocompatible, functional, safe to minimize any potential hazard to the crew, and with a high degree of automation...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490676/excretion-of-zinc-and-copper-increases-in-men-during-3-weeks-of-bed-rest-with-or-without-artificial-gravity
#8
Hayley N Heacox, Patricia L Gillman, Sara R Zwart, Scott M Smith
Background: Zinc and copper have many physiologic functions and little or no functional storage capability, so persistent losses of either element present health concerns, especially during extended-duration space missions.Objectives: We evaluated the effects of short-term bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, on copper and zinc metabolism to better understand the role of these nutrients in human adaptation to (simulated) spaceflight. We also investigated the effect of artificial gravity on copper and zinc homeostasis...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460775/tele-echocardiography-made-for-astronauts-now-in-hospitals
#9
REVIEW
M Balasingam, J Ebrahim, I A Ariffin
Telemedicine, ie 'the delivery of healthcare and sharing of medical knowledge using telecommunication systems' has penetrated every field of medicine. As a result, tele-echocardiography, the study of the heart via telemedicine started expanding. Ironically, space became the next frontier for mankind's new innovations and technology pursuit. However, the microgravity environment of space is known to be challenging to astronauts hearts. As such, new tele-echocardiography techniques have evolved. The main aim was to research a system that can be operated by a layperson but still be able to provide high yield diagnostic information in real time to specialists on earth...
March 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430554/role-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-spaceflight-induced-ocular-changes-and-visual-impairment-in-astronauts
#10
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci, Carlos J Oliu, Sang H Lee, Byron L Lam
Purpose To determine the respective roles of vascular and cerebrospinal fluids in spaceflight-induced vision impairment in astronauts, known as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration institutional review board and is HIPAA compliant. All subjects provided written informed consent. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data from nine astronauts (mean age, 46.9 years) who flew on the space shuttle (14...
April 21, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427408/time-averaged-simulated-microgravity-tasmg-inhibits-proliferation-of-lymphoma-cells-l-540-and-hdlm-2-using-a-3d-clinostat
#11
Yoon Jae Kim, Ae Jin Jeong, Myungjoon Kim, Chiwon Lee, Sang-Kyu Ye, Sungwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Gravity is omnipresent on Earth; however, humans in space, such as astronauts at the International Space Station, experience microgravity. Long-term exposure to microgravity is considered to elicit physiological changes, such as muscle atrophy, in the human body. In addition, certain types of cancer cells demonstrate inhibited proliferation under condition of time-averaged simulated microgravity (taSMG). However, the response of human Hodgkin's lymphoma cancer cells to reduced gravity, and the associated physiological changes in these cells, have not been elucidated...
April 20, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421821/modeling-and-dynamic-simulation-of-astronaut-s-upper-limb-motions-considering-counter-torques-generated-by-the-space-suit
#12
Jingwen Li, Qing Ye, Li Ding, Qianfang Liao
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is an inevitable task for astronauts to maintain proper functions of both the spacecraft and the space station. Both experimental research in a microgravity simulator (e.g. neutral buoyancy tank, zero-g aircraft or a drop tower/tube) and mathematical modeling were used to study EVA to provide guidance for the training on Earth and task design in space. Modeling has become more and more promising because of its efficiency. Based on the task analysis, almost 90% of EVA activity is accomplished through upper limb motions...
April 19, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417839/mortality-due-to-cardiovascular-disease-among-apollo-lunar-astronauts
#13
Robert J Reynolds, Steven M Day
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has postulated increased cardiovascular mortality for astronauts who participated in the Apollo lunar missions. The conclusions, however, are based on small numbers of astronauts, are derived from methods with known weaknesses, and are not consistent with prior research. METHODS: Records for NASA astronauts and U.S. Air Force astronauts were analyzed to produce standardized mortality ratios. Lunar astronauts were compared to astronauts who have never flown in space (nonflight astronauts), those who have only flown missions in low Earth orbit (LEO astronauts), and the U...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372057/a-study-of-voice-production-characteristics-of-astronuat-speech-during-apollo-11-for-speaker-modeling-in-space
#14
Chengzhu Yu, John H L Hansen
Human physiology has evolved to accommodate environmental conditions, including temperature, pressure, and air chemistry unique to Earth. However, the environment in space varies significantly compared to that on Earth and, therefore, variability is expected in astronauts' speech production mechanism. In this study, the variations of astronaut voice characteristics during the NASA Apollo 11 mission are analyzed. Specifically, acoustical features such as fundamental frequency and phoneme formant structure that are closely related to the speech production system are studied...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360122/increased-cerebral-blood-volume-pulsatility-during-head-down-tilt-with-elevated-carbon-dioxide-the-spacecot-study
#15
Gary E Strangman, Quan Zhang, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Edwin Mulder, Brian Stevens, Jonathan B Clark, Eric M Bershad
Astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have exhibited hyperopic shifts, posterior eye globe flattening, dilated optic nerve sheaths, and even optic disc swelling from spaceflight. Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) consequent to cephalad fluid shifts is commonly hypothesized as contributing to these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) is frequently utilized as an Earth-based analog to study similar fluid shifts. Sealed environments like the ISS also exhibit elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), a potent arteriolar vasodilator that could further affect cerebral blood volume and flow, intracranial compliance, and ICP...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357491/acid-sphingomyelinase-ceramide-regulates-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-simulated-weightless-rats
#16
Yao-Ping Cheng, Hai-Jun Zhang, Yu-Ting Su, Xing-Xing Meng, Xiao-Ping Xie, Yao-Ming Chang, Jun-Xiang Bao
Structural adaptation of arteries to weightlessness might lower the working ability or even threaten the physical health of astronauts, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) catalyzes ceramide (Cer) generation controlling arterial remodeling through multiple signaling pathways. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of ASM/Cer to the changes of common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) induced by simulated weightlessness. Hindlimb-unloaded tail-suspended (HU) rats were used to simulate the effect of weightlessness...
March 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341594/itraq-based-proteomics-analysis-of-hippocampus-in-spatial-memory-deficiency-rats-induced-by-simulated-microgravity
#17
Tingmei Wang, Hailong Chen, Ke Lv, Guohua Ji, Yongliang Zhang, Yanli Wang, Yinghui Li, Lina Qu
It has been demonstrated that simulated microgravity (SM) may lead to cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In present study, tail-suspension (30°) rat was employed to explore the effects of 28 days of SM on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory capability and the underlying mechanisms. We found that 28-day tail-suspension rats displayed decline of learning and memory ability in Morris water maze (MWM) test. Using iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis, a total of 4774 proteins were quantified in hippocampus...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340597/temporal-dynamics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-people-sharing-a-confined-environment-a-520-day-ground-based-space-simulation-mars500
#18
Silvia Turroni, Simone Rampelli, Elena Biagi, Clarissa Consolandi, Marco Severgnini, Clelia Peano, Sara Quercia, Matteo Soverini, Franck G Carbonero, Giovanna Bianconi, Petra Rettberg, Francesco Canganella, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbial communities and their temporal dynamics are gaining increasing interest due to the significant implications for human health. Recent studies have shown the dynamic behavior of the gut microbiota in free-living, healthy persons. To date, it is not known whether these dynamics are applicable during prolonged life sharing in a confined and controlled environment. RESULTS: The MARS500 project, the longest ground-based space simulation ever, provided us with a unique opportunity to trace the crew microbiota over 520 days of isolated confinement, such as that faced by astronauts in real long-term interplanetary space flights, and after returning to regular life, for a total of 2 years...
March 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296928/the-probability-and-severity-of-decompression-sickness
#19
Laurens E Howle, Paul W Weber, Ethan A Hada, Richard D Vann, Petar J Denoble
Decompression sickness (DCS), which is caused by inert gas bubbles in tissues, is an injury of concern for scuba divers, compressed air workers, astronauts, and aviators. Case reports for 3322 air and N2-O2 dives, resulting in 190 DCS events, were retrospectively analyzed and the outcomes were scored as (1) serious neurological, (2) cardiopulmonary, (3) mild neurological, (4) pain, (5) lymphatic or skin, and (6) constitutional or nonspecific manifestations. Following standard U.S. Navy medical definitions, the data were grouped into mild-Type I (manifestations 4-6)-and serious-Type II (manifestations 1-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294181/three-dimensional-approach-to-investigating-biological-effects-along-energetic-ion-beam-pathways
#20
Xinglin Li, Shuguang Sun, Shanying Wang, Wenjian Li, Ying Qu, Weidong Cui, Tianren Sun, Jian Zhang, Jufang Wang, Guangming Zhou, Shuli Man, Yi Chen, Fuping Lu, Zengquan Wei, Genming Jin
Heavy ion beams have many exciting applications, including radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors and simulation tests of space irradiation for astronauts. These beams often use a feature that concentrates the energy deposition largely along the end of the energy pathway, leading to different distributions of biological effects along the axial direction. Currently, there is relatively little information regarding the radial directional difference of biological effects along the heavy ion paths. This study utilized a filter membrane that was quantatively applied with cells to demonstrate a 3D distribution model of irradiation on biological effects in living organisms...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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