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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649640/mri-derived-diffusion-parameters-in-the-human-optic-nerve-and-its-surrounding-sheath-during-head-down-tilt
#1
Darius A Gerlach, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Khader M Hasan, Larry A Kramer, Noam Alperin, Joern Rittweger
More than half of astronauts present with significant neuro-ophthalmic findings during 6-month missions onboard the International Space Station. Although the underlying cause of this Microgravity Ocular Syndrome is currently unknown, alterations in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics within the optic nerve sheath may play a role. In the presented study, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess changes in diffusivity of the optic nerve and its surrounding sheath during head-down tilt, a ground-based model of microgravity...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649633/latent-virus-reactivation-in-astronauts-on-the-international-space-station
#2
Satish K Mehta, Mark L Laudenslager, Raymond P Stowe, Brian E Crucian, Alan H Feiveson, Clarence F Sams, Duane L Pierson
Reactivation of latent herpes viruses was measured in 23 astronauts (18 male and 5 female) before, during, and after long-duration (up to 180 days) spaceflight onboard the international space station . Twenty age-matched and sex-matched healthy ground-based subjects were included as a control group. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected before, during, and after spaceflight. Saliva was analyzed for Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. Urine was analyzed for cytomegalovirus...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649626/investigation-of-simulated-microgravity-effects-on-streptococcus-mutans-physiology-and-global-gene-expression
#3
Silvia S Orsini, April M Lewis, Kelly C Rice
Astronauts have been previously shown to exhibit decreased salivary lysozyme and increased dental calculus and gingival inflammation in response to space flight, host factors that could contribute to oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis. However, the specific physiological response of caries-causing bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans to space flight and/or ground-based simulated microgravity has not been extensively investigated. In this study, high aspect ratio vessel S. mutans simulated microgravity and normal gravity cultures were assessed for changes in metabolite and transcriptome profiles, H2O2 resistance, and competence in sucrose-containing biofilm media...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649625/the-effect-of-long-term-exposure-to-microgravity-on-the-perception-of-upright
#4
Laurence R Harris, Michael Jenkin, Heather Jenkin, James E Zacher, Richard T Dyde
Going into space is a disorienting experience. Many studies have looked at sensory functioning in space but the multisensory basis of orientation has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assess how prolonged exposure to microgravity affects the relative weighting of visual, gravity, and idiotropic cues to perceived orientation. We separated visual, body, and gravity (when present) cues to perceived orientation before, during, and after long-term exposure to microgravity during the missions of seven astronauts on the International Space Station (mean duration 168 days) and measuring perceived vertical using the subjective visual vertical and the perceptual upright...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641686/a-case-study-of-human-roll-tilt-perception-in-hypogravity
#5
Torin K Clark, Laurence R Young
BACKGROUND: Increased gravito-inertial acceleration, or hypergravity, such as produced in a centrifuge or in an aircraft coordinated turn, causes humans to systematically overestimate their roll tilt in the dark. This is known as the "G-excess" illusion. We have previously modified a mathematical observer model of dynamic orientation perception to replicate these illusory tilt perceptions. This modified model also made a novel, previously untested, prediction that humans would underestimate acute roll tilt in reduced gravitational environments (hypogravity)...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641684/novel-indications-for-commonly-used-medications-as-radiation-protectants-in-spaceflight
#6
Mark F McLaughlin, Dorit B Donoviel, Jeffrey A Jones
In the space environment, the traditional radioprotective principles of time, distance, and shielding become difficult to implement. Additionally, the complex radiation environment inherent in space, the chronic exposure timeframe, and the presence of numerous confounding variables complicate the process of creating appropriate risk models for astronaut exposure. Pharmaceutical options hold tremendous promise to attenuate acute and late effects of radiation exposure in the astronaut population. Pharmaceuticals currently approved for other indications may also offer radiation protection, modulation, or mitigation properties along with a well-established safety profile...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631760/-astronauts-asteroids-and-the-universe-of-antithrombotic-therapies-in-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#7
Leonardo De Luca, Antonino Granatelli
A sensation of self-awareness on the relativity of our certainties comes over looking to the huge amount of data on antithrombotic therapies assessed in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). This sensation can be compared to the so-called "overview effect", a cognitive shift in awareness reported by some astronauts during spaceflight, often while viewing the Earth from orbit. In this review we will mention drugs floated like meteors in the Universe of STEMI treatment and we will discuss the body of evidence on oral and intravenous antithrombotic therapies for patients undergoing pPCI...
June 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611667/dammarane-sapogenins-ameliorates-neurocognitive-functional-impairment-induced-by-simulated-long-duration-spaceflight
#8
Xiaorui Wu, Dong Li, Junlian Liu, Lihong Diao, Shukuan Ling, Yuheng Li, Jianyi Gao, Quanchun Fan, Weijia Sun, Qi Li, Dingsheng Zhao, Guohui Zhong, Dengchao Cao, Min Liu, Jiaping Wang, Shuang Zhao, Yu Liu, Guie Bai, Hongzhi Shi, Zi Xu, Jing Wang, Chunmei Xue, Xiaoyan Jin, Xinxin Yuan, Hongxing Li, Caizhi Liu, Huiyuan Sun, Jianwei Li, Yongzhi Li, Yingxian Li
Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE), which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611153/effects-of-short-term-mild-hypercapnia-during-head-down-tilt-on-intracranial-pressure-and-ocular-structures-in-healthy-human-subjects
#9
Steven S Laurie, Gianmarco Vizzeri, Giovanni Taibbi, Connor R Ferguson, Xiao Hu, Stuart M C Lee, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Michael B Stenger
Many astronauts experience ocular structural and functional changes during long-duration spaceflight, including choroidal folds, optic disc edema, globe flattening, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) distension, retinal nerve fiber layer thickening, and decreased visual acuity. The leading hypothesis suggests that weightlessness-induced cephalad fluid shifts increase intracranial pressure (ICP), which contributes to the ocular structural changes, but elevated ambient CO2 levels on the International Space Station may also be a factor...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590761/proteome-wide-adaptations-of-mouse-skeletal-muscles-during-a-full-month-in-space
#10
Georg Tascher, Thomas Brioche, Pauline Maes, Angèle Chopard, Donal O'Gorman, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stephane Blanc, Fabrice Bertile
The safety of space flight is challenged by a severe loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and endurance that may compromise the health and performance of astronauts. The molecular mechanisms underpinning muscle atrophy and decreased performance have been studied mostly after short duration flights, and are still not fully elucidated. By deciphering the muscle proteome changes elicited in mice after a full month aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite, we observed that the antigravity soleus incurred the greatest changes compared to locomotor muscles...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588307/irisin-prevents-and-restores-bone-loss-and-muscle-atrophy-in-hind-limb-suspended-mice
#11
Graziana Colaianni, Teresa Mongelli, Concetta Cuscito, Paolo Pignataro, Luciana Lippo, Giovanna Spiro, Angela Notarnicola, Ilenia Severi, Giovanni Passeri, Giorgio Mori, Giacomina Brunetti, Biagio Moretti, Umberto Tarantino, Silvia C Colucci, Janne E Reseland, Roberto Vettor, Saverio Cinti, Maria Grano
We previously showed that Irisin, a myokine released from skeletal muscle after physical exercise, plays a central role in the control of bone mass. Here we report that treatment with recombinant Irisin prevented bone loss in hind-limb suspended mice when administered during suspension (preventive protocol) and induced recovery of bone mass when mice were injected after bone loss due to a suspension period of 4 weeks (curative protocol). MicroCT analysis of femurs showed that r-Irisin preserved both cortical and trabecular bone mineral density, and prevented a dramatic decrease of the trabecular bone volume fraction...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574653/cortical-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-did-not-recover-at-weight-bearing-skeletal-sites-and-progressively-deteriorated-at-non-weight-bearing-sites-during-the-year-following-international-space-station-missions
#12
Laurence Vico, Bert Van Rietbergen, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Hervé Locrelle, Myriam Normand, Mohamed Zouch, Maude Gerbaix, Nicolas Bonnet, Valery Novikov, Thierry ThomC, Galina Vassilieva
Risk for premature osteoporosis is a major health concern in astronauts and cosmonauts and the reversibility of the bone lost at the weight-bearing bone sites is not established although it is suspected to take longer than the mission length. The bone three-dimensional structure and strength which could be uniquely affected by weightlessness, is currently unknown. Our objective is to evaluate bone mass, microarchitecture and strength of weight- and non-weight-bearing bone in 13 cosmonauts before and for 12 months after 4-6-month sojourn in the International Space Station (ISS)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554509/low-and-high-dose-rate-heavy-ion-radiation-induced-intestinal-and-colonic-tumorigenesis-in-apc-1638n-mice
#13
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Bo-Hyun Moon, Albert J Fornace, Kamal Datta
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a recognized risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and astronauts undertaking long duration space missions are expected to receive IR doses in excess of permissible limits with implications for colorectal carcinogenesis. Exposure to IR in outer space occurs at low doses and dose rates, and energetic heavy ions due to their high linear energy transfer (high-LET) characteristics remain a major concern for CRC risk in astronauts. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal tumorigenesis in a mouse model (APC(1638N/+)) of human colorectal cancer was significantly higher after exposure to high dose rate energetic heavy ions relative to low-LET γ radiation...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554508/-28-si-total-body-irradiation-injures-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-stem-cells-via-induction-of-cellular-apoptosis
#14
Jianhui Chang, Wei Feng, Yingying Wang, Antiño R Allen, Jennifer Turner, Blair Stewart, Jacob Raber, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including (28)Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of (28)Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of (28)Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554507/track-structure-model-of-microscopic-energy-deposition-by-protons-and-heavy-ions-in-segments-of-neuronal-cell-dendrites-represented-by-cylinders-or-spheres
#15
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Changes to cognition, including memory, following radiation exposure are a concern for cosmic ray exposures to astronauts and in Hadron therapy with proton and heavy ion beams. The purpose of the present work is to develop computational methods to evaluate microscopic energy deposition (ED) in volumes representative of neuron cell structures, including segments of dendrites and spines, using a stochastic track structure model. A challenge for biophysical models of neuronal damage is the large sizes (> 100µm) and variability in volumes of possible dendritic segments and pre-synaptic elements (spines and filopodia)...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554504/predictions-of-space-radiation-fatality-risk-for-exploration-missions
#16
Francis A Cucinotta, Khiet To, Eliedonna Cacao
In this paper we describe revisions to the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model focusing on updates to probability distribution functions (PDF) representing the uncertainties in the radiation quality factor (QF) model parameters and the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF). We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis. In an earlier work we introduced distinct QFs for leukemia and solid cancer risk predictions, and here we consider liver cancer risks separately because of the higher RBE's reported in mouse experiments compared to other tumors types, and distinct risk factors for liver cancer for astronauts compared to the U...
May 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546470/ocular-changes-over-60-minutes-in-supine-and-prone-postures
#17
Allison P Anderson, Gautam Babu, Jacob G Swan, Scott D Phillips, Darin A Knaus, Christine M Toutain-Kidd, Michael E Zegans, Abigail M Fellows, Jiang Gui, Jay C Buckey
Some astronauts are returning from long duration spaceflight with structural ocular and visual changes. We investigated both the transient and sustained effects of changes in the direction of the gravity vector acting on the eye using changes in body posture. Intraocular pressure (IOP-Perkins tonometer), ocular geometry (axial length, corneal thickness, and aqueous depth-noncontact biometer), and the choroidal (volume and subfoveal thickness optical coherence tomography) was measured in 10 subjects (5M, 5F)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546443/astronaut-ophthalmic-syndrome
#18
Sara R Zwart, Charles R Gibson, Jesse F Gregory, Thomas H Mader, Patrick J Stover, Steven H Zeisel, Scott M Smith
During and after missions on the International Space Station, some astronauts experience ophthalmic changes, including choroidal folds, optic disc edema, cotton-wool spots, globe flattening, and refraction changes. Astronauts with ophthalmic issues had significantly higher plasma concentrations of metabolites that are associated with the 1-carbon metabolic pathway than those without ophthalmic issues. We hypothesized that genetic differences might explain the metabolite differences. Indeed, genetics and B vitamin status were significant predictors of ophthalmic issues...
May 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539145/workplace-social-support-and-behavioral-health-prior-to-long-duration-spaceflight
#19
Charlene A Deming, Jennifer J Vasterling
INTRODUCTION: Preparation and training for long-duration spaceflight bring with them psychosocial stressors potentially affecting the well-being and performance of astronauts, before and during spaceflight. Social support from within the workplace may mitigate behavioral health concerns arising during the preflight period and enhance resiliency before and during extended missions. The purpose of this review was to evaluate evidence addressing the viability of workplace social support as a pre-mission countermeasure, specifically addressing: 1) the observed relationships between workplace social support and behavioral health; 2) perceived need, acceptability, and format preference for workplace social support among high-achievers; 3) potential barriers to delivery/receipt of workplace social support; 4) workplace social support interventions; and 5) delivery timeframe and anticipated duration of workplace social support countermeasure benefits...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539140/hemoglobin-oxygen-saturation-with-mild-hypoxia-and-microgravity
#20
Johnny Conkin, James H Wessel, Jason R Norcross, Omar S Bekdash, Andrew F J Abercromby, Matthew D Koslovsky, Michael L Gernhardt
INTRODUCTION: Microgravity (μG) exposure and even early recovery from μG in combination with mild hypoxia may increase the alveolar-arterial oxygen (O2) partial pressure gradient. METHODS: Four male astronauts on STS-69 (1995) and four on STS-72 (1996) were exposed on Earth to an acute sequential hypoxic challenge by breathing for 4 min 18.0%, 14.9%, 13.5%, 12.9%, and 12.2% oxygen-balance nitrogen. The 18.0% O2 mixture at sea level resulted in an inspired O2 partial pressure (PIo2) of 127 mmHg...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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