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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656536/mmr-deficiency-does-not-sensitize-or-compromise-the-function-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-low-and-high-let-radiation
#1
Rutulkumar Patel, Yulan Qing, Lucy Kennedy, Yan Yan, John Pink, Brittany Aguila, Amar Desai, Stanton L Gerson, Scott M Welford
One of the major health concerns on long-duration space missions will be radiation exposure to the astronauts. Outside the earth's magnetosphere, astronauts will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events that are principally composed of protons and He, Ca, O, Ne, Si, Ca, and Fe nuclei. Protons are by far the most common species, but the higher atomic number particles are thought to be more damaging to biological systems. Evaluation and amelioration of risks from GCR exposure will be important for deep space travel...
April 14, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652620/nasa-genelab-project-bridging-space-radiation-omics-with-ground-studies
#2
Afshin Beheshti, Jack Miller, Yared Kidane, Daniel Berrios, Samrawit G Gebre, Sylvain V Costes
Accurate assessment of risks of long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration. It is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major health risk factor for astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently, there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low-dose, low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E)...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651250/efficacy-of-stochastic-vestibular-stimulation-to-improve-locomotor-performance-during-adaptation-to-visuomotor-and-somatosensory-distortion
#3
David R Temple, Yiri E De Dios, Charles S Layne, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges affecting balance control when readapting to Earth's gravity upon return from spaceflight. Small amounts of electrical noise applied to the vestibular system have been shown to improve balance control during standing and walking under discordant sensory conditions in healthy subjects, likely by enhancing information transfer through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that imperceptible levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) could improve short-term adaptation to a locomotor task in a novel sensory discordant environment...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644336/limitations-in-predicting-the-space-radiation-health-risk-for-exploration-astronauts
#4
REVIEW
Jeffery C Chancellor, Rebecca S Blue, Keith A Cengel, Serena M Auñón-Chancellor, Kathleen H Rubins, Helmut G Katzgraber, Ann R Kennedy
Despite years of research, understanding of the space radiation environment and the risk it poses to long-duration astronauts remains limited. There is a disparity between research results and observed empirical effects seen in human astronaut crews, likely due to the numerous factors that limit terrestrial simulation of the complex space environment and extrapolation of human clinical consequences from varied animal models. Given the intended future of human spaceflight, with efforts now to rapidly expand capabilities for human missions to the moon and Mars, there is a pressing need to improve upon the understanding of the space radiation risk, predict likely clinical outcomes of interplanetary radiation exposure, and develop appropriate and effective mitigation strategies for future missions...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620686/physiological-and-functional-alterations-after-spaceflight-and-bed-rest
#5
Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Brian T Peters, Chris A Miller, Igor S Kofman, Millard F Reschke, Laura C Taylor, Emily L Lawrence, Scott J Wood, Steven S Laurie, Stuart M C Lee, Roxanne E Buxton, Tiffany R May-Phillips, Michael B Stenger, Lori L Ploutz-Snyder, Jeffrey W Ryder, Alan H Feiveson, Jacob J Bloomberg
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. METHODS: A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight...
April 3, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607691/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-bio-active-plant-extracts-useful-for-preventing-oxidative-damages
#6
Nadia Mulinacci, Alessio Valletta, Valentina Pasqualetti, Marzia Innocenti, Camilla Giuliani, Maria Bellumori, Giulia De Angelis, Alessia Carnevale, Vittoria Locato, Cristina Di Venanzio, Laura De Gara, Gabriella Pasqua
Humans are exposed to ionizing radiations in medical radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy that cause oxidative damages and degenerative diseases. Airplane pilots, and even more astronauts, are exposed to a variety of potentially harmful factors, including cosmic radiations. Among the phytochemicals, phenols are particularly efficient in countering the oxidative stress. In the present study, different extracts obtained from plant food, plant by-products and dietary supplements, have been compared for their antioxidant properties before and after irradiation of 140 cGy, a dose absorbed during a hypothetical stay of three years in the space...
April 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570535/overview-of-the-nasa-70-day-bed-rest-study
#7
Ronita L Cromwell, Jessica M Scott, Meghan Downs, Patrice O Yarbough, Susana B Zanello, Lori Ploutz-Snyder
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the NASA 70-day Bed Rest Study. The integrated complement of investigations and the standardized bed rest environment that served as the platform for this study complement are described. Outcomes of the studies will not be presented here, but will be reported in separate publications. METHODS: A set of studies running in an integrated fashion along the entire period (pre-, in- and post-bed rest) and utilizing the same subjects is referred in this paper as "the campaign" or "complement"...
March 22, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570425/a-kindergarten-based-child-health-promotion-program-the-adapted-national-aeronautics-and-space-administration-nasa-mission-x-for-improving-physical-fitness-in-south-korea
#8
Jungwon Min, Gilsook Kim, Hyunjung Lim, Nubia A Carvajal, Charles W Lloyd, Youfa Wang
BACKGROUND: Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed to promote physical activity (PA) in children. OBJECTIVES: To adapt the NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut program for use with South Korean children, and to evaluate its feasibility and effectiveness for promoting children's physical fitness. METHODS: Children 5 years old ( n = 212) and their parents were recruited from three kindergartens in three cities to participate in a 6-week intervention program in fall 2014...
March 1, 2018: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560415/biomedical-findings-from-nasa-s-project-mercury-a-case-series
#9
William R Carpentier, John B Charles, Mark Shelhamer, Amanda S Hackler, Tracy L Johnson, Catherine M M Domingo, Jeffrey P Sutton, Graham B I Scott, Virginia E Wotring
The United States first sent humans into space during six flights of Project Mercury from May 1961 to May 1963. These flights were brief, with durations ranging from about 15 min to just over 34 h. A primary purpose of the project was to determine if humans could perform meaningful tasks while in space. This was supported by a series of biomedical measurements on each astronaut before, during (when feasible), and after flight to document the effects of exposure to the spaceflight environment. While almost all of the data presented here have been published in technical reports, this is the first integrated summary of the main results...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545754/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-has-a-protective-effect-on-decompression-sickness-in-rats
#10
Aleksandra Mazur, Anthony Guernec, Jacky Lautridou, Julie Dupas, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Marc Belhomme, Michael Theron, François Guerrero
Introduction: Commercial divers, high altitude pilots, and astronauts are exposed to some inherent risk of decompression sickness (DCS), though the mechanisms that trigger are still unclear. It has been previously showed that diving may induce increased levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is one of the most important regulators of blood pressure and fluid volume. The purpose of the present study was to control the influence of angiotensin II on the appearance of DCS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527011/space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome-sans
#11
REVIEW
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Tyson J Brunstetter, William J Tarver
Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the "space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome" (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i...
March 12, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523302/sleep-and-gravity
#12
Alain A Gonfalone
What is known about sleep results from years of observation at the surface of the Earth. Since a few decade man has been able to reach space, escape from the earth attraction and spend days and nights in a weightless condition. Some major physiological changes have been observed during long stays and in particular the sleep duration in space is shorter than on ground. This paper reviews a novel hypothesis proposing that sleep is partly due to gravity. Gravity is a fundamental part of our environment, but is elusive and difficult to apprehend...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520055/global-transcriptomic-analysis-suggests-carbon-dioxide-as-an-environmental-stressor-in-spaceflight-a-systems-biology-genelab-case-study
#13
Afshin Beheshti, Egle Cekanaviciute, David J Smith, Sylvain V Costes
Spaceflight introduces a combination of environmental stressors, including microgravity, ionizing radiation, changes in diet and altered atmospheric gas composition. In order to understand the impact of each environmental component on astronauts it is important to investigate potential influences in isolation. Rodent spaceflight experiments involve both standard vivarium cages and animal enclosure modules (AEMs), which are cages used to house rodents in spaceflight. Ground control AEMs are engineered to match the spaceflight environment...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505848/psychophysiological-assessment-and-correction-of-spatial-disorientation-during-simulated-orion-spacecraft-re-entry
#14
Patricia S Cowings, William B Toscano, Millard F Reschke, Addis Tsehay
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation, motion sickness, and degraded performance to astronauts during re-entry and landing of the proposed Orion crew vehicle. The purpose of this study was to determine if a physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these adverse effects. Fourteen men and six women were assigned to two groups (AFTE, no-treatment Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494911/toxic-effects-and-foundation-of-proton-radiation-on-the-early-life-stage-of-zebrafish-development
#15
Xiaoman Li, Xiaodan Zha, Yongan Wang, Rong Jia, Burong Hu, Baoquan Zhao
Proton is a major particle of space radiation environment and a prospective radiotherapy beam. However, its risk needs to be fully evaluated for the understanding and to establish the better protective strategy for astronaut and patient. Zebrafish is an ideal model for the toxicity studies on medicines and environmental genetic toxicants. In the current study, embryos of zebrafish at 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to proton beam. Some toxic parameters of embryo-larval development were investigated...
February 23, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492564/spaceflight-induced-visual-impairment-and-globe-deformations-in-astronauts-are-linked-to-orbital-cerebrospinal-fluid-volume-increase
#16
Noam Alperin, Ahmet M Bagci
OBJECTIVE: Most of the astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) develop visual impairment and ocular structural changes that are not fully reversible upon return to earth. Current understanding assumes that the so-called visual impairments/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is caused by cephalad vascular fluid shift. This study assesses the roles of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and intracranial pressure (ICP) in VIIP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen astronauts, 9 who flew a short-duration mission on the space shuttle (14...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481528/the-past-informs-the-future-an-overview-of-the-million-worker-study-and-the-mallinckrodt-chemical-works-cohort
#17
John D Boice, Elizabeth D Ellis, Ashley P Golden, David J Girardi, Sarah S Cohen, Heidi Chen, Michael T Mumma, Roy E Shore, Richard W Leggett
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of ongoing work on the Million Worker Study (MWS), highlighting some of the key methods and progress so far as exemplified by the study of workers at the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (MCW). The MWS began nearly 25 y ago and continues in a stepwise fashion, evaluating one study cohort at a time. It includes workers from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manhattan Project facilities, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulated nuclear power plants, industrial radiographers, U...
April 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475524/age-as-a-factor-in-the-responsiveness-of-the-organism-to-the-disruption-of-cognitive-performance-by-exposure-to-hze-particles-differing-in-linear-energy-transfer
#18
Bernard M Rabin, Kirsty L Carrihill-Knoll, Marshall G Miller, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Exposure to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) can produce decrements in cognitive performance. A series of experiments exposing rats to different HZE particles was run to evaluate whether the performance decrement was dependent on the age of the subject at the time of irradiation. Fischer 344 rats that were 2-, 11- and 15/16-months of age were exposed to16 O,48 Ti, or4 He particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. As previously observed following exposure to56 Fe particles, exposure to the higher LET48 Ti particles produced a disruption of cognitive performance at a lower dose in the older subjects compared to the dose needed to disrupt performance in the younger subjects...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475522/dynamical-modeling-approach-to-risk-assessment-for-radiogenic-leukemia-among-astronauts-engaged-in-interplanetary-space-missions
#19
Olga A Smirnova, Francis A Cucinotta
A recently developed biologically motivated dynamical model of the assessment of the excess relative risk (ERR) for radiogenic leukemia among acutely/continuously irradiated humans (Smirnova, 2015, 2017) is applied to estimate the ERR for radiogenic leukemia among astronauts engaged in long-term interplanetary space missions. Numerous scenarios of space radiation exposure during space missions are used in the modeling studies. The dependence of the ERR for leukemia among astronauts on several mission parameters including the dose equivalent rates of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and large solar particle events (SPEs), the number of large SPEs, the time interval between SPEs, mission duration, the degree of astronaut's additional shielding during SPEs, the degree of their additional 12-hour's daily shielding, as well as the total mission dose equivalent, is examined...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475518/an-innovative-in-vitro-device-providing-continuous-low-doses-of-%C3%AE-rays-mimicking-exposure-to-the-space-environment-a-dosimetric-study
#20
V Pereda-Loth, X Franceries, A S Afonso, A Ayala, B Eche, D Ginibrière, G Gauquelin-Koch, M Bardiès, L Lacoste-Collin, M Courtade-Saïdi
Astronauts are exposed to microgravity and chronic irradiation but experimental conditions combining these two factors are difficult to reproduce on earth. We have created an experimental device able to combine chronic irradiation and altered gravity that may be used for cell cultures or plant models in a ground based facility. Irradiation was provided by thorium nitrate powder, conditioned so as to constitute a sealed source that could be placed in an incubator. Cell plates or plant seedlings could be placed in direct contact with the source or at various distances above it...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
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