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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460455/brain-quantitative-mri-metrics-in-astronauts-as-a-unique-professional-group
#1
Khader M Hasan, Benson Mwangi, Zafer Keser, Roy Riascos, Ashot E Sargsyan, Larry A Kramer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As part of its technological sophistication, the International Space Station (ISS) Program operates a robust medical surveillance schedule for its rotating 6-person crew to control the known health risks and to address knowledge gaps related to human health in space flight environment. Recent evidence on visual impairment in a subset of ISS crew has renewed the interest in the effects of long-duration space flight on the central nervous system (CNS). Through retrospective analysis in a sample of 10 healthy astronauts, we demonstrate the utility of multimodal quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based customized brain templates to examine the structural attributes of various CNS compartments in this occupational group...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445728/radiation-induced-cardiovascular-disease-mechanisms-and-importance-of-linear-energy-transfer
#2
REVIEW
Christopher B Sylvester, Jun-Ichi Abe, Zarana S Patel, K Jane Grande-Allen
Radiation therapy (RT) in the form of photons and protons is a well-established treatment for cancer. More recently, heavy charged particles have been used to treat radioresistant and high-risk cancers. Radiation treatment is known to cause cardiovascular disease (CVD) which can occur acutely during treatment or years afterward in the form of accelerated atherosclerosis. Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD) can be a limiting factor in treatment as well as a cause of morbidity and mortality in successfully treated patients...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422869/the-effect-of-bed-rest-and-hypoxic-environment-on-postural-balance-and-trunk-automatic-re-actions-in-young-healthy-males
#3
Nejc Šarabon, Igor B Mekjavić, Ola Eiken, Jan Babič
Prolonged inactivity, such as bed rest induces several detrimental changes within a short timeframe. Impaired postural balance and responses of trunk muscles to (un)expected perturbations were both shown to be impaired after bed rest. Certain populations (e.g., astronauts) are exposed to hypoxic environment in addition to inactivity, similar to bed rest. While the isolated negative effects of hypoxia on postural balance have been observed before, no study to date has examined the combined effects of hypoxia and bed rest on postural balance or trunk muscle responses...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414598/combination-of-hindlimb-suspension-and-immobilization-by-casting-exaggerates-sarcopenia-by-stimulating-autophagy-but-does-not-worsen-osteopenia
#4
Toni L Speacht, Andrew R Krause, Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang, Henry J Donahue
Astronauts in space experience a unique environment that causes the concomitant loss of bone and muscle. However, the interaction between these tissues and how osteopenia and sarcopenia affect each other is unclear. We explored this relationship by exaggerating unloading-induced muscle loss using a unilateral casting model in conjunction with hindlimb suspension (HLS). Five-month-old, male C57Bl/6J mice subjected to HLS for 2 weeks displayed a significant decrease in gastrocnemius and quadriceps weight (-9-10%), with a two-fold greater decrease in muscle mass observed in the HLS + casted limb...
February 2, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402845/key-proteins-involved-in-spheroid-formation-and-angiogenesis-in-endothelial-cells-after-long-term-exposure-to-simulated-microgravity
#5
Anita Dittrich, Daniela Grimm, Jayashree Sahana, Johann Bauer, Marcus Krüger, Manfred Infanger, Nils E Magnusson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular complications are common in astronauts returning from a prolonged spaceflight. These health problems might be driven by complex modulations of gene expression and protein synthesis in endothelial cells (ECs). Studies on the influence of microgravity on phenotype, growth pattern and biological processes of ECs can help to understand these complications. METHODS: We exposed ECs (EA.hy926) to a Random Positioning Machine (RPM). Proteins associated with cell structure, angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction were investigated in distinct pools of multicellular spheroids (MCS), adherent cells (AD) and tubular structures (TS) formed after a 35-day RPM-exposure...
January 24, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388695/microgravity-modulation-of-syncytin-a-expression-enhance-osteoclast-formation
#6
Purushoth Ethiraj, Jessica R Link, James M Sinkway, Gabriella D Brown, William A Parler, Sakamuri V Reddy
Microgravity (µXg) experienced by astronauts during space flights causes accelerated bone loss. However, the molecular basis of µXg induced bone loss in space is unclear. Osteoclast (OCL) is the primary bone-resorbing cell. We previously demonstrated that simulated µXg promotes OCL formation. In this study, we identified that µXg induces syncytin-A expression in RAW264.7 preosteoclast cells without RANKL stimulation. We further tested the effect of osteotropic factors such as CXCL5 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 to regulate the syncytin-A expression in preosteoclast cells subjected to µXg compared to ground based (Xg) cultures...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357516/effects-of-12-degree-sign-head-down-tilt-with-and-without-elevated-levels-of-co2-on-cognitive-performance-the-spacecot-study
#7
Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sarah McGuire, David F Dinges, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Jörn Rittweger, Edwin Mulder, Martin Wittkowski, Dorit Donoviel, Brian Stevens, Eric M Bershad
Microgravity and elevated levels of CO2 are two common environmental stressors in spaceflight that may affect cognitive performance of astronauts. In this randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial (SPACECOT), N=6 healthy males (mean{plus minus}SD age: 41{plus minus}5yr) were exposed to 0.04% (ambient air) and 0.5% CO2 concentrations during 26.5-hour periods of -12{degree sign} head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest with a one-week washout period between exposures. Subjects performed the 10 tests of the Cognition Test Battery before and on average 0...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354685/inflammatory-gene-expression-signatures-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-possible-implications-in-microgravity-induced-icp-elevation
#8
Susana B Zanello, Vasisht Tadigotla, James Hurley, Johan Skog, Brian Stevens, Eusebia Calvillo, Eric Bershad
The visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a neuro-ophthalmologic condition described in astronauts returning from long duration space missions. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also known as pseudotumor cerebri, is characterized by a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of an intracranial mass lesion. Because VIIP and IIH share some neurologic and ophthalmologic manifestations, the latter might be used as a model to study some of the processes underlying VIIP...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354280/medical-judgement-analogue-studies-with-applications-to-spaceflight-crew-medical-officer
#9
Michele L McCarroll, Rami A Ahmed, Alan Schwartz, Michael David Gothard, Steven Scott Atkinson, Patrick Hughes, Jose Cepeda Brito, Lori Assad, Jerry Myers, Richard L George
Background: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed plans for potential emergency conditions from the Exploration Medical Conditions List. In an effort to mitigate conditions on the Exploration Medical Conditions List, NASA implemented a crew medical officer (CMO) designation for eligible astronauts. This pilot study aims to add knowledge that could be used in the Integrated Medical Model. Methods: An analogue population was recruited for two categories: administrative physicians (AP) representing the physician CMOs and technical professionals (TP) representing the non-physician CMOs...
October 2017: BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339831/detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-associated-with-the-international-space-station-environmental-surfaces
#10
C Urbaniak, A Checinska Sielaff, K G Frey, J E Allen, N Singh, C Jaing, K Wheeler, K Venkateswaran
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health issue. In an effort to minimize this threat to astronauts, who may be immunocompromised and thus at a greater risk of infection from antimicrobial resistant pathogens, a comprehensive study of the ISS "resistome' was conducted. Using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and disc diffusion antibiotic resistance assays, 9 biosafety level 2 organisms isolated from the ISS were assessed for their antibiotic resistance. Molecular analysis of AMR genes from 24 surface samples collected from the ISS during 3 different sampling events over a span of a year were analyzed with Ion AmpliSeq™ and metagenomics...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332539/whole-body-oxygen-16o-ion-exposure-induced-impairments-in-social-odor-recognition-memory-in-rats-are-dose-and-time-dependent
#11
Ami Mange, Yuqing Cao, SiYuan Zhang, Robert D Hienz, Catherine M Davis
Future long-duration space missions will involve travel outside of the Earth's magnetosphere, which will result in increased radiation exposure for astronauts. Exposure could permanently damage multiple tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS), and result in deleterious effects on cognition and behavior during and beyond the mission. Here, we assessed the effects of whole-body oxygen ion (16O; 1,000 MeV/n) exposure (5 or 25 cGy) on social odor recognition memory in male Long-Evans rats at one and six months after exposure...
January 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327060/optical-coherence-tomography-analysis-of-the-optic-nerve-head-and-surrounding-structures-in-long-duration-international-space-station-astronauts
#12
Nimesh Patel, Anastas Pass, Sara Mason, Charles R Gibson, Christian Otto
Importance: After long-duration spaceflight, morphological changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and surrounding tissues have been reported. Objective: To develop methods to quantify ONH and surrounding tissue changes using preflight and postflight optical coherence tomographic scans of the ONH region. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two separate analyses were done on retrospective data, with the first comparing a preflight group with a control group, followed by preflight to postflight analysis...
January 11, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320953/spaceflight-activates-protein-kinase-c-alpha-signaling-and-modifies-the-developmental-stage-of-human-neonatal-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells
#13
Jonathan Baio, Aida F Martinez, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh Hasaniya, Michael Pecaut, Mary Kearns-Jonker
Spaceflight impacts cardiovascular function in astronauts; however, its impact on cardiac development and the stem cells that form the basis for cardiac repair is unknown. Accordingly, further research is needed to uncover the potential relevance of such changes to human health. Using simulated microgravity (SMG) generated via two-dimensional clinorotation and culture aboard the International Space Station (ISS), we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on human neonatal cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) developmental properties and signaling...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298650/potential-application-of-centrifuges-to-protect-the-cns-in-space-and-on-earth
#14
Yoshiki Takamatsu, Gilbert Ho, Yuki Shimizu, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Masaaki Waragai, Jianshe Wei, Makoto Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Centrifuges are the principal means of generating physiological hypergravity and have been used for many medical purposes, including the therapy of psychiatric diseases and evaluation of vestibular system in the pilots. In particular, modern centrifuges have evolved into mechanically sophisticated precision instruments compared to primitive ones in old times, indicating that centrifuges might possess great potential in modern medicine. Indeed, studies are in progress to apply centrifuges to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia...
December 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276139/ultrasound-monitoring-of-jugular-venous-pulse-during-space-missions-proof-of-concept
#15
Paolo Zamboni, Francesco Sisini, Erica Menegatti, Angelo Taibi, Giacomo Gadda, Valentina Tavoni, Anna Maria Malagoni, Mirko Tessari, Sergio Gianesini, Mauro Gambaccini
The jugular venous pulse (JVP) is one of the main parameters of cardiac function and is used by cardiologists in diagnosing heart failure. Its waveform comprises three positive waves (a, c and v) and two negative waves (x and y). Recently, it was found that JVP can be extrapolated from an ultrasound (US) video recording of the internal jugular vein (IJV), suggesting its application in space missions, on which US scanners are already widely used. To date, the feasibility of assessing JVP in microgravity (microG) has not been investigated...
December 21, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233246/intraocular-lens-use-in-an-astronaut-during-long-duration-spaceflight
#16
Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Josef F Schmid, William Lipsky, Ashot E Sargsyan, Kathleen Garcia, Jeffrey N Williams
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to report the first use of an intraocular lens (IOL) in an astronaut during long duration spaceflight (LDSF). An astronaut developed a unilateral cataract and underwent phacoemulsification with insertion of an acrylic IOL. Approximately 15 mo later he flew on a Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS), where he successfully completed a 6-mo mission. CASE REPORT: Ocular examination, including ultrasound (US), was performed before, during, and after his mission and he was questioned regarding visual changes during each portion of his flight...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233245/occupational-specific-strength-predicts-astronaut-related-task-performance-in-a-weighted-suit
#17
Andrew Taylor, Christopher J Kotarsky, Colin W Bond, Kyle J Hackney
BACKGROUND: Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. METHODS: Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233242/preflight-in-flight-and-postflight-imaging-of-the-cervical-and-lumbar-spine-in-astronauts
#18
Michael F Harrison, Kathleen M Garcia, Ashot E Sargsyan, Douglas Ebert, Roy F Riascos-Castaneda, Scott A Dulchavsky
BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common complaint during spaceflight that is commonly attributed to intervertebral disc swelling in microgravity. Ultrasound (US) represents the only imaging modality on the International Space Station (ISS) to assess its etiology. The present study investigated: 1) The agreement and correlation of spinal US assessments as compared to results of pre- and postflight MRI studies; and 2) the trend in intervertebral disc characteristics over the course of spaceflight to ISS...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232383/low-doses-of-oxygen-ion-irradiation-cause-long-term-damage-to-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-progenitor-and-stem-cells-in-mice
#19
Yingying Wang, Jianhui Chang, Xin Li, Rupak Pathak, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Tamako Jones, Xiao Wen Mao, Gregory Nelson, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
During deep space missions, astronauts will be exposed to low doses of charged particle irradiation. The long-term health effects of these exposures are largely unknown. We previously showed that low doses of oxygen ion (16O) irradiation induced acute damage to the hematopoietic system, including hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in a mouse model. However, the chronic effects of low dose 16O irradiation remain undefined. In the current study, we investigated the long-term effects of low dose 16O irradiation on the mouse hematopoietic system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206597/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-of-rats-with-gcr-induced-spatial-memory-impairment
#20
Sucharita M Dutta, Melissa M Hadley, Scott Peterman, Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Richard A Britten
NASA is planning future missions to Mars, which will result in astronauts being exposed to ∼13 cGy/year of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Previous ground-based experiments have demonstrated that low (15 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/n 56Fe ions impair hippocampus-dependent spatial memory in rats. However, some irradiated rats maintain a spatial memory performance comparable to that seen in the sham-irradiated rats, suggesting that some of these animals are able to ameliorate the deleterious effects of the GCR, while others are not...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Research
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