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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036726/contribution-of-different-particles-measured-with-track-etched-detectors-onboard-iss
#1
I Ambrožová, M Davídková, K Pachnerová Brabcová, R V Tolochek, V A Shurshakov
Cosmic radiation consists of primary high-energy galactic and solar particles. When passing through spacecraft walls and astronauts' bodies, the spectrum becomes even more complex due to generating of secondary particles through fragmentation and nuclear interactions. Total radiation exposure is contributed by both these components. With an advantage, space research uses track etched detectors from the group of passive detectors visualizing the tracks of particles, in this case by etching. The detectors can discriminate between various components of cosmic radiation...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036712/comparison-of-cosmic-ray-environments-on-earth-moon-mars-and-in-spacecarft-using-phits
#2
Tatsuhiko Sato, Aiko Nagamatsu, Haruka Ueno, Ryuho Kataoka, Shoko Miyake, Kazuo Takeda, Koji Niita
Estimation of cosmic-ray doses is of great importance not only in aircrew and astronaut dosimetry but also in evaluation of background radiation exposure to public. We therefore calculated the cosmic-ray doses on Earth, Moon and Mars as well as inside spacecraft, using Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS. The same cosmic-ray models and dose conversion coefficients were employed in the calculation to properly compare between the simulation results for different environments. It is quantitatively confirmed that the thickness of physical shielding including the atmosphere and soil of the planets is the most important parameter to determine the cosmic-ray doses and their dominant contributors...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030644/how-to-prevent-the-detrimental-effects-of-two-months-of-bed-rest-on-muscle-bone-and-cardiovascular-system-an-rct
#3
Andreas Kramer, Albert Gollhofer, Gabriele Armbrecht, Dieter Felsenberg, Markus Gruber
Physical inactivity leads to a deconditioning of the skeletal, neuromuscular and cardiovascular system. It can lead to impaired quality of life, loss of autonomy, falls and fractures. Regular exercise would be a logical remedy, but the generally recommended high-volume endurance and strength training programs require a lot of time and equipment. In this randomized controlled study with 23 healthy participants, we established that a short, intensive jump training program can prevent the large musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning effects caused by two months of physical inactivity during bed rest, particularly the loss of bone mineral mass and density, lean muscle mass, maximal leg strength and peak oxygen uptake...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023398/the-impact-of-oxidative-stress-on-the-bone-system-in-response-to-the-space-special-environment
#4
REVIEW
Ye Tian, Xiaoli Ma, Chaofei Yang, Peihong Su, Chong Yin, Ai-Rong Qian
The space special environment mainly includes microgravity, radiation, vacuum and extreme temperature, which seriously threatens an astronaut's health. Bone loss is one of the most significant alterations in mammalians after long-duration habitation in space. In this review, we summarize the crucial roles of major factors-namely radiation and microgravity-in space in oxidative stress generation in living organisms, and the inhibitory effect of oxidative stress on bone formation. We discussed the possible mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced skeletal involution, and listed some countermeasures that have therapeutic potentials for bone loss via oxidative stress antagonism...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993729/differential-impact-of-single-dose-fe-ion-and-x-ray-irradiation-on-endothelial-cell-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-responses
#5
Bjorn Baselet, Omid Azimzadeh, Nadine Erbeldinger, Mayur V Bakshi, Till Dettmering, Ann Janssen, Svetlana Ktitareva, Donna J Lowe, Arlette Michaux, Roel Quintens, Kenneth Raj, Marco Durante, Claudia Fournier, Mohammed A Benotmane, Sarah Baatout, Pierre Sonveaux, Soile Tapio, An Aerts
Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment. In order to spare normal tissues and to reduce the risk of normal tissue complications, particle therapy is a method of choice. Although a large part of healthy tissues can be spared due to improved depth dose characteristics, little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms altered after particle irradiation in healthy tissues. Elucidation of these effects is also required in the context of long term space flights, as particle radiation is the main contributor to the radiation effects observed in space...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967794/using-temporal-sensitivity-to-predict-performance-under-latency-in-teleoperation
#6
Federico Scholcover, Douglas J Gillan
Objective This article establishes a relationship between temporal sensitivity and task performance under one-way latency between input and response. Background As the latency between human input and telerobot response increases, performance (e.g., speed to complete task and accuracy) declines. Tools, such as predictive displays, have been developed to ameliorate performance costs. However, more work is needed to understand the relationship between individual differences and task performance. Temporal sensitivity in particular was the focus of this research...
September 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962911/from-the-international-space-station-to-the-clinic-how-prolonged-unloading-may-disrupt-lumbar-spine-stability
#7
Jeannie F Bailey, Stephanie L Miller, Kristine Khieu, Conor W O'Neill, Robert M Healey, Dezba G Coughlin, Jojo V Sayson, Douglas G Chang, Alan R Hargens, Jeffrey C Lotz
Background context Prolonged microgravity exposure is associated with localized low back pain and an elevated risk of post-flight disc herniation. Though the mechanisms by which microgravity impairs the spine are unclear, they should be foundational for developing in-flight countermeasures for maintaining astronaut spine health. Because human spine anatomy has adapted to upright posture on Earth, observations of how spaceflight affects the spine should also provide new and potentially important information on spine biomechanics that benefit the general population...
September 26, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961076/long-term-deficits-in-behavior-performances-caused-by-low-and-high-linear-energy-transfer-radiation
#8
Rutulkumar Patel, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Tomas Radivoyevic, Stanton L Gerson, Scott M Welford
Efforts to protect astronauts from harmful galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) require a better understanding of the effects of GCR on human health. In particular, little is known about the lasting effects of GCR on the central nervous system (CNS), which may lead to behavior performance deficits. Previous studies have shown that high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in rodents leads to short-term declines in a variety of behavior tests. However, the lasting impact of low-, medium- and high-LET radiation on behavior are not fully defined...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960477/real-time-ultrasound-assessment-of-astronaut-spinal-anatomy-and-disorders-on-the-international-space-station
#9
Kathleen M Garcia, Michael F Harrison, Ashot E Sargsyan, Douglas Ebert, Scott A Dulchavsky
OBJECTIVES: Back pain is one of the most common conditions of astronauts during spaceflight and is hypothesized to be attributed to pathologic anatomic changes. Ultrasound (US) represents the only available imaging modality on the International Space Station, but a formal US protocol for imaging the structures of the spinal column does not exist. This investigation developed a method of acquiring diagnostic-quality images of the anterior lumbar and cervical regions of the spine during long-duration spaceflight...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952911/high-let-radiation-increases-tumor-progression-in-a-k-ras-driven-model-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#10
Marie-Liesse Asselin-Labat, Rishi Rampersad, Xia Xu, Matthew E Ritchie, Jacob Michalski, Lingling Huang, Mark W Onaitis
High-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation encountered by astronauts in space generates clustered DNA damage that is potentially oncogenic. Analysis of the impact of exposure to space radiation on cancer formation is necessary to determine the best ways to prepare astronauts for space travel so they are protected for the duration of the space mission. A mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma driven by oncogenic K-Ras was used to ascertain the effect of low- and high-LET radiation on tumor formation. We observed increased tumor progression and tumor cell proliferation after single dose or fractionated high-LET doses, which was not observed in mice exposed to low-LET radiation...
September 27, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945526/whole-body-exposure-to-28-si-radiation-dose-dependently-disrupts-dentate-gyrus-neurogenesis-and-proliferation-in-the-short-term-and-new-neuron-survival-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-the-long-term
#11
Cody W Whoolery, Angela K Walker, Devon R Richardson, Melanie J Lucero, Ryan P Reynolds, David H Beddow, K Lyles Clark, Hung-Ying Shih, Junie A LeBlanc, Mara G Cole, Wellington Z Amaral, Shibani Mukherjee, Shichuan Zhang, Francisca Ahn, Sarah E Bulin, Nathan A DeCarolis, Phillip D Rivera, Benjamin P C Chen, Sanghee Yun, Amelia J Eisch
Astronauts traveling to Mars will be exposed to chronic low doses of galactic cosmic space radiation, which contains highly charged, high-energy (HZE) particles. (56)Fe-HZE-particle exposure decreases hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and disrupts hippocampal function in young adult rodents, raising the possibility of impaired astronaut cognition and risk of mission failure. However, far less is known about how exposure to other HZE particles, such as (28)Si, influences hippocampal neurogenesis and function...
September 25, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941279/suppressing-angiogenesis-regulates-the-irradiation-induced-stimulation-on-osteoclastogenesis-in-vitro
#12
Ling Tong, Guoying Zhu, Jianping Wang, Ruilian Sun, Feilong He, Jianglong Zhai
Ionizing radiation-induced bone loss is a potential health concern in radiotherapy, occupational exposure and astronauts. Although impaired bone vasculature and reduced proliferation of bone-forming osteoblasts has been implicated in this process, it has not been clearly characterized that whether radiation affects the growth of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The molecular crosstalk between different cell populations in the skeletal system has not yet been elucidated in detail, especially between the increased bone resorption at early stage of post-irradiation and bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931714/early-career-researchers-an-interview-with-kakani-katija
#13
(no author information available yet)
Kakani Katija is a Principal Engineer at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, USA, where she designs and builds instrumentation to study marine invertebrate ecomechanics. She received her Bachelor's degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics from the University of Washington, USA, before moving to the California Institute of Technology, USA, for her Master's degree in Aeronautics with Morteza Gharib and PhD in Bioengineering in the laboratory of John Dabiri, completed in 2010. Katija was recognised as a National Geographic Emerging Explorer in 2011 and has given presentations at TEDYouth and TEDWomen...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925865/structural-changes-of-human-serum-albumin-hsa-in-simulated-microgravity
#14
Azadeh Hekmat, Zahra Hajebrahimi, Amir Motamedzade
Nowadays, the biological effects of microgravity have been the subject of various experimental researches. The purpose of this study was to investigate the probable biological effects of microgravity on the human serum albumin (HSA) structure after 3 and 24 h exposure via various spectroscopic instruments. The UV-Visible, near-UV-CD and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy represented that microgravity can remarkably change the tertiary structure of HSA. Additionally, the ANS affinity for HSA incremented when the protein was exposed to simulate microgravity compared to unexposed HSA, which may possibly have appeared attributable to expansion of the structure of simulated HSA...
September 17, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923143/validation-of-the-cognition-test-battery-for-spaceflight-in-a-sample-of-highly-educated-adults
#15
Tyler M Moore, Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sushila Kabadi, David R Roalf, Sarah McGuire, Adrian J Ecker, Kosha Ruparel, Allison M Port, Chad T Jackson, David F Dinges, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923141/carotid-and-femoral-arterial-wall-distensibility-during-long-duration-spaceflight
#16
Philippe Arbeille, Romain Provost, Kathryn Zuj
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess changes in common carotid (CA) and superficial femoral (FA) arterial stiffness during long-duration spaceflight. METHODS: Ultrasound imaging was used to investigate the CA and FA of 10 astronauts preflight (PRE), on flight day 15 (FD15), after 4-5 mo (FD4-5m), and 4 d after return to Earth (R+4). Arterial wall properties were assessed through the calculation of strain, stiffness (β), pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), and distensibility (DI)...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923138/orientation-preferences-and-motion-sickness-induced-in-a-virtual-reality-environment
#17
Wei Chen, Jian-Gang Chao, Yan Zhang, Jin-Kun Wang, Xue-Wen Chen, Cheng Tan
BACKGROUND: Astronauts' orientation preferences tend to correlate with their susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). Orientation preferences appear universally, since variable sensory cue priorities are used between individuals. However, SMS susceptibility changes after proper training, while orientation preferences seem to be intrinsic proclivities. The present study was conducted to investigate whether orientation preferences change if susceptibility is reduced after repeated exposure to a virtual reality (VR) stimulus environment that induces SMS...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923137/carbon-dioxide-physiological-training-at-nasa
#18
Jennifer Law, Millennia Young, David Alexander, Sara S Mason, Mary L Wear, Claudia M Méndez, David Stanley, Valerie Meyers Ryder, Mary Van Baalen
INTRODUCTION: Astronauts undergo CO2 exposure training to recognize their symptoms that can arise acutely both on the ground and in spaceflight. This article describes acute CO2 exposure training at NASA and examines the symptoms reported by astronauts during training. METHODS: In a controlled training environment, astronauts are exposed to up to 8% CO2 (60 mmHg) by a rebreathing apparatus. Symptoms are reported using a standard form. RESULTS: Symptom documentation forms between April 1994 and February 2012 were obtained for 130 astronauts...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904800/alterations-in-hematologic-indices-during-long-duration-spaceflight
#19
Hawley Kunz, Heather Quiriarte, Richard J Simpson, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Kathleen McMonigal, Clarence Sams, Brian Crucian
BACKGROUND: Although a state of anemia is perceived to be associated with spaceflight, to date a peripheral blood hematologic assessment of red blood cell (RBC) indices has not been performed during long-duration space missions. METHODS: This investigation collected whole blood samples from astronauts participating in up to 6-months orbital spaceflight, and returned those samples (ambient storage) to Earth for analysis. As samples were always collected near undock of a returning vehicle, the delay from collection to analysis never exceeded 48 h...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901176/an-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-national-aeronautics-and-space-administration-mission-x-child-health-promotion-program-in-the-united-states
#20
Jungwon Min, Zhengqi Tan, Laurie Abadie, Scott Townsend, Hong Xue, Youfa Wang
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission-X: Train Like an Astronaut program (MX) on children's health-related knowledge and behaviors of a sample of US participants. DESIGN: A nonexperimental pilot intervention study in 5 cities with a pre-post comparison of children's health-related knowledge and behaviors in the United States in 2014 and 2015. SAMPLE: Children (n = 409) with a mean age (standard deviation) of 10...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
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