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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209740/quantitative-mri-volumetry-diffusivity-cerebrovascular-flow-and-cranial-hydrodynamics-during-head-down-tilt-and-hypercapnia-the-spacecot-study
#1
Larry Allen Kramer, Khader M Hasan, Ashot E Sargsyan, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Jörn Rittweger, Dorit Donoviel, Saki Higashi, Benson Mwangi, Darius A Gerlach, Eric M Bershad
PURPOSE: In order to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of visual changes observed in astronauts, we aimed to use quantitative MRI to measure anatomic and physiologic responses during a ground-based spaceflight analogue (head down tilt, HDT) combined with increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). METHODS: Six healthy, male subjects participated in the double-blinded, randomized cross-over design study with two conditions: 26.5 h of -12° HDT with ambient air and with 0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190622/effect-of-carbon-dioxide-on-the-twinkling-artifact-in-ultrasound-imaging-of-kidney-stones-a-pilot-study
#2
Julianna C Simon, Yak-Nam Wang, Bryan W Cunitz, Jeffrey Thiel, Frank Starr, Ziyue Liu, Michael R Bailey
Bone demineralization, dehydration and stasis put astronauts at increased risk of forming kidney stones in space. The color-Doppler ultrasound "twinkling artifact," which highlights kidney stones with color, can make stones readily detectable with ultrasound; however, our previous results suggest twinkling is caused by microbubbles on the stone surface which could be affected by the elevated levels of carbon dioxide found on space vehicles. Four pigs were implanted with kidney stones and imaged with ultrasound while the anesthetic carrier gas oscillated between oxygen and air containing 0...
February 9, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176862/laser-plasma-based-space-radiation-reproduction-in-the-laboratory
#3
B Hidding, O Karger, T Königstein, G Pretzler, G G Manahan, P McKenna, R Gray, R Wilson, S M Wiggins, G H Welsh, A Beaton, P Delinikolas, D A Jaroszynski, J B Rosenzweig, A Karmakar, V Ferlet-Cavrois, A Costantino, M Muschitiello, E Daly
Space radiation is a great danger to electronics and astronauts onboard space vessels. The spectral flux of space electrons, protons and ions for example in the radiation belts is inherently broadband, but this is a feature hard to mimic with conventional radiation sources. Using laser-plasma-accelerators, we reproduced relativistic, broadband radiation belt flux in the laboratory, and used this man-made space radiation to test the radiation hardness of space electronics. Such close mimicking of space radiation in the lab builds on the inherent ability of laser-plasma-accelerators to directly produce broadband Maxwellian-type particle flux, akin to conditions in space...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173932/systematic-review-of-countermeasures-to-minimise-physiological-changes-and-risk-of-injury-to-the-lumbopelvic-area-following-long-term-microgravity
#4
Andrew Winnard, Mona Nasser, Dorothee Debuse, Maria Stokes, Simon Evetts, Mick Wilkinson, Julie Hides, Nick Caplan
BACKGROUND: No studies have been published on an astronaut population to assess the effectiveness of countermeasures for limiting physiological changes in the lumbopelvic region caused by microgravity exposure during spaceflight. However, several studies in this area have been done using spaceflight simulation via bed-rest. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to limit physiological changes to the lumbopelvic region caused by spaceflight simulation by means of bed-rest...
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173930/methodology-for-astronaut-reconditioning-research
#5
David J Beard, Jonathan A Cook
Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports...
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173929/postflight-reconditioning-for-european-astronauts-a-case-report-of-recovery-after-six-months-in-space
#6
Nora Petersen, Gunda Lambrecht, Jonathan Scott, Natalie Hirsch, Maria Stokes, Joachim Mester
BACKGROUND: Postflight reconditioning of astronauts is understudied. Despite a rigorous, daily inflight exercise countermeasures programme during six months in microgravity (μG) on-board the International Space Station (ISS), physiological impairments occur and postflight reconditioning is still required on return to Earth. Such postflight programmes are implemented by space agency reconditioning specialists. Case Description and Assessments: A 38 year old male European Space Agency (ESA) crewmember's pre- and postflight (at six and 21 days after landing) physical performance from a six-month mission to ISS are described...
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173928/the-role-of-physiotherapy-in-the-european-space-agency-strategy-for-preparation-and-reconditioning-of-astronauts-before-and-after-long-duration-space-flight
#7
Gunda Lambrecht, Nora Petersen, Guillaume Weerts, Casey Pruett, Simon Evetts, Maria Stokes, Julie Hides
Spaceflight and exposure to microgravity have wide-ranging effects on many systems of the human body. At the European Space Agency (ESA), a physiotherapist plays a key role in the multidisciplinary ESA team responsible for astronaut health, with a focus on the neuro-musculoskeletal system. In conjunction with a sports scientist, the physiotherapist prepares the astronaut for spaceflight, monitors their exercise performance whilst on the International Space Station (ISS), and reconditions the astronaut when they return to Earth...
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173927/terrestrial-neuro-musculoskeletal-rehabilitation-and-astronaut-reconditioning-reciprocal-knowledge-transfer
#8
EDITORIAL
Maria Stokes, Simon Evetts, Julie Hides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156212/changes-in-the-hippocampal-proteome-associated-with-spatial-memory-impairment-after-exposure-to-low-20-cgy-doses-of-1-gev-n-56-fe-radiation
#9
Richard A Britten, Jessica S Jewell, Leslie K Davis, Vania D Miller, Melissa M Hadley, O John Semmes, György Lonart, Sucharita M Dutta
Exposure to low (∼20 cGy) doses of high-energy charged(HZE) particles, such as 1 GeV/n (56)Fe, results in impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (e.g., novel object recognition and spatial memory) in rodents. While these findings raise the possibility that astronauts on deep-space missions may develop cognitive deficits, not all rats develop HZE-induced cognitive impairments, even after exposure to high (200 cGy) HZE doses. The reasons for this differential sensitivity in some animals that develop HZE-induced cognitive failure remain speculative...
February 3, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153941/decreases-in-maximal-oxygen-uptake-following-long-duration-spaceflight-role-of-convective-and-diffusive-o2-transport-mechanisms
#10
Carl J Ade, Ryan M Broxterman, Alan Moore, Thomas J Barstow
We have previously predicted that the decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) that accompanies time in microgravity reflects decrements in both convective and diffusive O2 transport to the mitochondria of the contracting myocytes. The aim of this investigation was therefore to quantify the relative changes in convective O2 transport (QO2) and O2 diffusing capacity (DO2) following long duration spaceflight. In 9 astronauts, resting hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), VO2max, maximal cardiac output (QTmax), and differences in arterial and venous O2 contents (CaO2-CvO2) were obtained retrospectively for International Space Station Increments 19 through 33 (April 2009-November 2012)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128778/the-contributions-of-occupational-science-to%C3%A2-the-readiness-of-long-duration-deep-space-exploration
#11
Janis Davis, Macy Burr, Maria Absi, Rochelle Telles, Howard Koh
BACKGROUND: This study introduces the contributions of occupational science (OS) to the preparation and support of astronauts during long duration space exploration. Given the hostile environment of space, it is not surprising that there is grave deterioration of both physical and mental health when off Earth. However, OS, through occupational therapy (OT), can identify strategies that maintain health and minimize disruptions in task performance for mission success. OBJECTIVE: To determine the gaps in NASA's preparation of astronauts for long duration space exploration and the viable contributions of OT...
January 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092926/effect-of-gravity-and-microgravity-on-intracranial-pressure
#12
Justin S Lawley, Lonnie G Petersen, Erin J Howden, Satyam Sarma, William K Cornwell, Rong Zhang, Louis A Whitworth, Michael A Williams, Benjamin D Levine
Astronauts have recently been discovered to have impaired vision, with a presentation that resembles syndromes of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This syndrome is considered the most mission critical medical problem identified in the past decade of manned spaceflight. We recruited five men and three women who had an Ommaya reservoir inserted for the delivery of prophylactic central nervous system chemotherapy, but were free of their malignant disease for at least 1 year. ICP was assessed by placing a fluid-filled 25 ga butterfly needle into the Ommaya reservoir...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087888/simulated-microgravity-decreases-circulating-iron-in-rats-role-of-inflammation-induced-hepcidin-upregulation
#13
Thibault Cavey, Nicolas Pierre, Kévin Nay, Coralie Allain, Martine Ropert, Olivier Loréal, Frédéric Derbré
During spaceflight, humans exposed to microgravity exhibit an increase of iron storage and a reduction of circulating iron. Such perturbations could promote oxidative stress and anemia in astronauts. The mechanism by which microgravity modulates iron metabolism is still unknown. Herein, we hypothesized that microgravity up-regulates hepcidin, a hormone produced by the liver that is the main controller of iron homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading (HU), the reference model to mimic the effects of microgravity in rodents...
January 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073867/the-maimed-martian-credible-intervals-and-bias-against-benefit
#14
David Kault
A sad little story about a maimed Martian astronaut is used to illustrate a method of improving confidence interval (CI) calculations. CIs in medical statistics are currently calculated from the data available in a clinical trial or meta-analysis considered in isolation from all other information available on earth. Likewise, the Martian in the story uses only information available to it, in isolation from further information from earth. However, there is further objective knowledge available to people on earth to improve the Martian's estimate...
January 10, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068518/impact-of-space-environment-on-stability-of-medicines-challenges-and-prospects
#15
REVIEW
Priti Mehta, Dhara Bhayani
To upkeep health of astronauts in a unique, isolated, and extreme environment of space is the primary goal for a successful space mission, hence, safe and efficacious medications are essential for the wellness of astronauts. Space medication has been challenged with problems related to efficacy. Along with altered physiology, one of the possible reasons could be instability of space medications in the presence of harsh spaceflight environmental conditions. Altered physical and chemical stability can result in reduced potency which can result in reduced efficacy...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061916/intracranial-and-intraocular-pressure-during-various-degrees-of-head-down-tilt
#16
Karina Marshall-Goebel, Edwin Mulder, Eric Bershad, Charles Laing, Anders Eklund, Jan Malm, Claudia Stern, Jörn Rittweger
BACKGROUND: More than half of astronauts develop ophthalmic changes during long-duration spaceflight consistent with an abnormal intraocular and intracranial pressure (IOP, ICP) difference. The aim of our study was to assess IOP and ICP during head-down tilt (HDT) and the additive or attenuating effects of 1% CO2 and lower body negative pressure (LBNP). METHODS: In Experiment I, IOP and ICP were measured in nine healthy subjects after 3.5 h HDT in five conditions: -6°, -12°, and -18° HDT, -12° with 1% CO2, and -12° with -20 mmHg LBNP...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050606/long-term-exposure-to-space-s-microgravity-alters-the-time-structure-of-heart-rate-variability-of-astronauts
#17
Kuniaki Otsuka, Germaine Cornelissen, Satoshi Furukawa, Yutaka Kubo, Mitsutoshi Hayashi, Koichi Shibata, Koh Mizuno, Tatsuya Aiba, Hiroshi Ohshima, Chiaki Mukai
BACKGROUND: Spaceflight alters human cardiovascular dynamics. The less negative slope of the fractal scaling of heart rate variability (HRV) of astronauts exposed long-term to microgravity reflects cardiovascular deconditioning. We here focus on specific frequency regions of HRV. METHODS: Ten healthy astronauts (8 men, 49.1 ± 4.2 years) provided five 24-hour electrocardiographic (ECG) records: before launch, 20.8 ± 2.9 (ISS01), 72.5 ± 3.9 (ISS02) and 152.8 ± 16...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039409/internal-jugular-pressure-increases-during-parabolic-flight
#18
David S Martin, Stuart M C Lee, Timothy P Matz, Christian M Westby, Jessica M Scott, Michael B Stenger, Steven H Platts
One hypothesized contributor to vision changes experienced by >75% of International Space Station astronauts is elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). While no definitive data yet exist, elevated ICP might be secondary to the microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift, resulting in venous congestion (overfilling and distension) and inhibition of cerebrospinal and lymphatic fluid drainage from the skull. The objective of this study was to measure internal jugular venous pressure (IJVP) during normo- and hypo-gravity as an index of venous congestion...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027021/whole-body-movements-in-long-term-weightlessness-hierarchies-of-the-controlled-variables-are-gravity-dependent
#19
Claudia Casellato, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Giancarlo Ferrigno
Switching between contexts affects the mechanisms underlying motion planning, in particular it may entail reranking the variables to be controlled in defining the motor solutions. Three astronauts performed multiple sessions of whole-body pointing, in normogravity before launch, in prolonged weightlessness onboard the International Space Station, and after return. The effect of gravity context on kinematic and dynamic components was evaluated. Hand trajectory was gravity independent; center-of-mass excursion was highly variable within and between subjects...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001909/neudose-a-cubesat-mission-for-dosimetry-of-charged-particles-and-neutrons-in-low-earth-orbit
#20
A R Hanu, J Barberiz, D Bonneville, S H Byun, L Chen, C Ciambella, E Dao, V Deshpande, R Garnett, S D Hunter, A Jhirad, E M Johnston, M Kordic, M Kurnell, L Lopera, M McFadden, A Melnichuk, J Nguyen, A Otto, R Scott, D L Wagner, M Wiendels
During space missions, astronauts are exposed to a stream of energetic and highly ionizing radiation particles that can suppress immune system function, increase cancer risks and even induce acute radiation syndrome if the exposure is large enough. As human exploration goals shift from missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) to long-duration interplanetary missions, radiation protection remains one of the key technological issues that must be resolved. In this work, we introduce the NEUtron DOSimetry & Exploration (NEUDOSE) CubeSat mission, which will provide new measurements of dose and space radiation quality factors to improve the accuracy of cancer risk projections for current and future space missions...
January 2017: Radiation Research
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