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James E Frampton
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine; Elvanse® ; Tyvense® ), an orally-active dexamfetamine prodrug, is indicated in the EU for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged ≥ 6 years (including adolescents) when the response to previous methylphenidate (MPH) treatment is clinically inadequate. The original approval of the drug was based on the results of phase III trials in children and adolescents with ADHD who had an inadequate response to previous pharmacotherapy (e...
July 2018: Drugs
Frank Besag, Giuseppe Gobbi, Rochelle Caplan, Matti Sillanpää, Albert Aldenkamp, David W Dunn
ADHD occurs in about 30% of children with epilepsy. The causes of ADHD features include some antiepileptic drugs, the epilepsy itself and underlying brain dysfunction. Management of the ADHD will depend on the cause. Treatment with methylphenidate is effective in about 70% of cases; standard treatments with methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine are very unlikely to exacerbate seizures.
May 19, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Frank Besag, Albert Aldenkamp, Rochelle Caplan, David W Dunn, Giuseppe Gobbi, Matti Sillanpää
The most important factor in deciding whether psychotropic medication should be prescribed is a meticulous assessment of the possible causes of the behavioural/psychiatric disturbance. This assessment should include a consideration of the possible roles of the epilepsy itself, treatment of the epilepsy, associated brain damage or dysfunction, reactions to the epilepsy and causes that are unrelated to the epilepsy or its treatment. If the epilepsy itself or antiepileptic drug treatment are responsible for the disorder then a review of antiepileptic medication is required...
May 16, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Mascha Nuijten, Peter Blanken, Ben van de Wetering, Bastiaan Nuijen, Wim van den Brink, Vincent M Hendriks
BACKGROUND: Heroin-assisted treatment is effective for methadone treatment-refractory heroin-dependent patients, but continued comorbid cocaine dependence remains problematic. Sustained-release dexamfetamine is a promising agonist pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence and we aimed to assess its acceptance, efficacy, and safety. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients who were treatment-refractory, as indicated by at least two earlier failed treatments aimed at reducing or abstaining from cocaine use, and who regularly (≥8 days/month) used crack-cocaine were enrolled from four heroin-assisted treatment centres in the Netherlands...
May 28, 2016: Lancet
Stefan Spulber, Pascal Kilian, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim, Natalia Onishchenko, Mazhar Ulhaq, Leif Norrgren, Sara Negri, Marcello Di Tuccio, Sandra Ceccatelli
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widely spread environmental contaminant. It accumulates in the brain and has potential neurotoxic effects. The exposure to PFOS has been associated with higher impulsivity and increased ADHD prevalence. We investigated the effects of developmental exposure to PFOS in zebrafish larvae, focusing on the modulation of activity by the dopaminergic system. We exposed zebrafish embryos to 0.1 or 1 mg/L PFOS (0.186 or 1.858 µM, respectively) and assessed swimming activity at 6 dpf...
2014: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the commonest behavioural disorder in the UK, affecting 2-5% of school-aged children and young people.(1) Guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) state that medication is not indicated as first-line treatment for school-age children and young people with ADHD, but should be reserved for those with severe symptoms and impairment, or those with moderate levels of impairment who have refused non-drug interventions, or those whose symptoms have not responded sufficiently to parent-training/education programmes or group psychological treatment...
October 2013: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
Suzanne McCarthy, Lynda Wilton, Macey Murray, Paul Hodgkins, Philip Asherson, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: Compared to existing literature on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little published adult data are available, particularly outside of the United States. Using General Practitioner (GP) questionnaires from the United Kingdom, this study aimed to examine a number of issues related to ADHD in adults, across three cohorts of patients, adults who received ADHD drug treatment in childhood/adolescence but stopped prior to adulthood; adults who received ADHD drug treatment in childhood/adolescence and continued treatment into adulthood and adults who started ADHD drug treatment in adulthood...
February 22, 2013: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Suzanne McCarthy, Lynda Wilton, Macey L Murray, Paul Hodgkins, Philip Asherson, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: ADHD guidelines in the UK suggest that children and adults who respond to pharmacological treatment should continue for as long as remains clinically effective, subject to regular review. To what extent patients persist with treatment from childhood and adolescence into adulthood is not clear. This study aims to describe, in UK primary care, the persistence of pharmacological treatment for patients with ADHD who started treatment aged 6-17 years and to estimate the percentage of patients who continued treatment from childhood and adolescence into adulthood...
December 5, 2012: BMC Psychiatry
Vibhore Prasad, Ellen Brogan, Caroline Mulvaney, Matthew Grainge, Wendy Stanton, Kapil Sayal
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a significant impact on children's classroom behaviour, daily functioning and experience of school life. However, the effects of drug treatment for ADHD on learning and academic achievement are not fully understood. This review was undertaken to describe the effects of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine, mixed amfetamine salts and atomoxetine on children's on-task behaviour and their academic performance, and to perform a meta-analysis to quantify these effects...
April 2013: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Christopher Steer, Jan Froelich, César A Soutullo, Mats Johnson, Monica Shaw
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional, clinical and economic burdens. It is among the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, and often persists into adulthood. Both medication and psychosocial interventions are recommended for the treatment of ADHD. However, ADHD treatment practices vary considerably, depending on medication availability, reimbursement and the evolution of clinical practice in each country. In Europe, stimulants and atomoxetine are widely available medications for the treatment of ADHD, whereas in the US approved treatment options also include extended-release formulations of clonidine and guanfacine...
August 1, 2012: CNS Drugs
Suzanne McCarthy, Lynda Wilton, Macey L Murray, Paul Hodgkins, Philip Asherson, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5-4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK...
June 19, 2012: BMC Pediatrics
Scott H Kollins, Joseph S English, Nilda Itchon-Ramos, Allan K Chrisman, Rachel Dew, Benjamin O'Brien, F Joseph McClernon
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of lis-dexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) as an adjunct to nicotine replacement therapy in adult smokers with ADHD who were undergoing a quit attempt. METHODS: Thirty-two regular adult smokers with ADHD were randomized to receive LDX (n = 17) or placebo (n = 15) in addition to nicotine patch concurrent with a quit attempt. RESULTS: There were no differences between smokers assigned to LDX versus placebo in any smoking outcomes...
February 2014: Journal of Attention Disorders
(no author information available yet)
Methylphenidate is an amphetamine psychostimulant used as a symptomatic treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A randomised trial examined changes in the height and weight of 521 hyperactive children. After 14 months, children treated with methylphenidate had gained less height and less weight (-1.23 cm per year and -2.48 kg per year) than untreated children. After 3 years, the differences were about 2 cm and 2.7 kg. Systematic reviews have provided similar results: methylphenidate slows growth by about 1 to 1...
October 2011: Prescrire International
Suzanne McCarthy, Noel Cranswick, Laura Potts, Eric Taylor, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: Following reports of sudden death in patients taking medication to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study aimed to identify cases of death in patients prescribed stimulants and atomoxetine and to determine any association between these and sudden death. METHOD: The UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was used to identify patients aged 2-21 years from 1 January 1993 to 30 June 2006 with a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine...
2009: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Suzanne McCarthy, Philip Asherson, David Coghill, Chris Hollis, Macey Murray, Laura Potts, Kapil Sayal, Ruwan de Soysa, Eric Taylor, Tim Williams, Ian C K Wong
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to persist into adulthood in the majority of cases. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine prescribing and treatment discontinuation in adolescents and young adults. METHOD: A descriptive cohort study using the UK General Practice Research Database included patients aged 15-21 years from 1999 to 2006 with a prescription for a study drug...
March 2009: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
V A Harpin
In recent years the medication options for the treatment of ADHD in children and young people have increased. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) produced updated guidelines in 2006. This paper aims to interpret these guidelines by reviewing the medication options in light of relevant research and clinical practice. The properties of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine are discussed.
April 2008: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
(no author information available yet)
In 2001, we concluded that methylphenidate or dexamfetamine can be useful adjunctive therapy for children with severe hyperactivity in whom non-drug approaches alone have been inadequate. Since then, atomoxetine (pronounced a-toe-moks-e-teen; Strattera - Lilly) and three modified-release formulations of methylphenidate have been launched for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we reconsider drugs for ADHD in childhood, focusing on the newer products.
May 2007: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
S King, S Griffin, Z Hodges, H Weatherly, C Asseburg, G Richardson, S Golder, E Taylor, M Drummond, R Riemsma
OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of oral methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH), dexamfetaminesulphate (DEX) and atomoxetine (ATX) in children and adolescents (<18 years of age) diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (including hyperkinetic disorder). DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases covering 1999--July 2004 for MPH, 1997--July 2004 for DEX and 1981--July 2004 for ATX. REVIEW METHODS: Selected studies were assessed using modified criteria based on CRD Report No...
July 2006: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Gillian M Keating, Michael J Raffin
Modafinil (Provigil is a wake-promoting agent that is pharmacologically distinct from CNS stimulants, such as amfetamine, dexamfetamine and methylphenidate. Modafinil is approved for use in the US and certain European countries for use in patients with excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSA/HS) or shift work sleep disorder (SWSD). Oral modafinil promotes wakefulness in patients with OSA/HS and SWSD. It is an effective adjunctive therapy in patients with residual excessive sleepiness associated with OSA/HS who are receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy...
2005: CNS Drugs
Marcelo L Berthier
Aphasia, the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage, is one of the most devastating cognitive impairments of stroke. Aphasia is present in 21-38% of acute stroke patients and is associated with high short- and long-term morbidity, mortality and expenditure. Recovery from aphasia is possible even in severe cases. While speech-language therapy remains the mainstay treatment of aphasia, the effectiveness of conventional therapies has not been conclusively proved. This has motivated attempts to integrate knowledge from several domains in an effort to plan more rational therapies and to introduce other therapeutic strategies, including the use of intensive language therapy and pharmacological agents...
2005: Drugs & Aging
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