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ethnical psychiatry

Hui Lin Ong, Esmond Seow, Boon Yiang Chua, Huiting Xie, Jia Wang, Ying Wen Lau, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: There is a shortage of nurses working in the mental health field globally. The aim of the present study was to examine Singapore nursing students' attitudes towards specializing in psychiatric nursing by examining the pre-nursing and nursing school factors as well as attitudes towards psychiatry and personality traits. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted with 500 nursing students from four nursing institutions in Singapore. Students' attitudes towards psychiatry (ATP-18), perception of psychiatric nursing career aspects relative to other fields, and personality traits (mini-IPIP) were assessed...
February 24, 2017: Nurse Education Today
Gavin Miller
The US psychologist Gail Hornstein's monograph, Agnes's Jacket: A Psychologist's Search for the Meanings of Madness (2009), is an important intervention in the identity politics of the mad movement. Hornstein offers a resignified vision of mad identity that embroiders the central trope of an "anti-colonial" struggle to reclaim the experiential world "colonized" by psychiatry. A series of literal and figurative appeals makes recourse to the inner world and (corresponding) cultural world of the mad as well as to the ethno-symbolic cultural materials of dormant nationhood...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
Dimitrios Chartonas, Michalis Kyratsous, Sarah Dracass, Tennyson Lee, Kamaldeep Bhui
Aims and method In 1988, Lewis and Appleby demonstrated that psychiatrists hold negative attitudes towards patients with personality disorder. We assessed the attitudes of psychiatry trainees towards patients with borderline personality disorder and depression, expecting an improvement. 166 trainees were block randomised to receive one of four case vignettes that varied by diagnosis and ethnic group. We used Lewis and Appleby's original questionnaire and the Attitudes to Personality Disorder Questionnaire (APDQ)...
February 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
Susan G Kornstein
Substantial unmet needs exist regarding the awareness, diagnosis, and treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). Affecting both men and women and appearing in all ethnic groups, BED is the most prevalent of all the eating disorders in the United States and worldwide. Left untreated, BED causes significant impairment, reduced quality of life, and decreased productivity. Many patients are unaware of the disorder and present for treatment of weight-related issues or comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions. Communication barriers, such as the reluctance of patients to volunteer information about their eating habits and of clinicians to ask potentially sensitive questions, may be overcome with the use of diagnostic criteria along with appropriate assessment questions and screening tools...
2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Leah J Welty, Jennifer A Hershfield, Karen M Abram, Hongyun Han, Gayle R Byck, Linda A Teplin
OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of substance use disorders (SUDs) in youth during the 12 years after detention and how gender, race/ethnicity, and age at baseline predict trajectories. METHOD: As part of the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal study of 1,829 youth randomly sampled from detention in Chicago, Illinois from 1995 through 1998, participants were reinterviewed in the community or correctional facilities up to 9 times over 12 years. Independent interviewers assessed SUDs using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Simon P N Groen, Annemiek Richters, Cornelis J Laban, Walter L J M Devillé
Cultural identity in relation with mental health is of growing interest in the field of transcultural psychiatry. However, there is a need to clarify the concept of cultural identity in order to make it useful in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to unravel the complexity and many layers of cultural identity, and to assess how stress and acculturation relate to (changes in) cultural identity. As part of a larger study about cultural identity, trauma, and mental health, 85 patients from Afghanistan and Iraq in treatment for trauma-related disorders were interviewed with a Brief Cultural Interview...
January 20, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
T van der Stoep
Compared to the percentage of ethnic minorities in the general population, ethnic minorities are overrepresented in forensic psychiatry. If these minorities are to be treated successfully, we need to know more about this group. So far, however, little is known about the differences between mental disorders and types of offences associated with patients of non-Dutch descent and those associated with patients of Dutch descent.<br/> AIM: To take the first steps to obtain the information we need in order to provide customised care for patients of non-Dutch descent...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Katherine Woolf, Antonia Rich, Rowena Viney, Sarah Needleman, Ann Griffin
OBJECTIVES: Explore trainee doctors' experiences of postgraduate training and perceptions of fairness in relation to ethnicity and country of primary medical qualification. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured focus group and interview study. SETTING: Postgraduate training in England (London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent Surrey and Sussex) and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: 137 participants (96 trainees, 41 trainers) were purposively sampled from a framework comprising: doctors from all stages of training in general practice, medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, psychiatry, radiology, surgery or foundation, in 4 geographical areas, from white and black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds, who qualified in the UK and abroad...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
M-L Wong, M Arcos-Burgos, S Liu, J I Vélez, C Yu, B T Baune, M C Jawahar, V Arolt, U Dannlowski, A Chuah, G A Huttley, R Fogarty, M D Lewis, S R Bornstein, J Licinio
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects around 350 million people worldwide; however, the underlying genetic basis remains largely unknown. In this study, we took into account that MDD is a gene-environment disorder, in which stress is a critical component, and used whole-genome screening of functional variants to investigate the 'missing heritability' in MDD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using single- and multi-locus linear mixed-effect models were performed in a Los Angeles Mexican-American cohort (196 controls, 203 MDD) and in a replication European-ancestry cohort (499 controls, 473 MDD)...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
K L Jones, L A Croen, C K Yoshida, L Heuer, R Hansen, O Zerbo, G N DeLorenze, M Kharrazi, R Yolken, P Ashwood, J Van de Water
Immune abnormalities have been described in some individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) as well as their family members. However, few studies have directly investigated the role of prenatal cytokine and chemokine profiles on neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans. In the current study, we characterized mid-gestational serum profiles of 22 cytokines and chemokines in mothers of children with ASD (N=415), developmental delay (DD) without ASD (N=188), and general population (GP) controls (N=428) using a bead-based multiplex technology...
February 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Manuel Paris, Michelle A Silva, Esperanza Diaz, Luis E Bedregal, Robert A Cole, Luis M Añez-Nava
The Connecticut Latino Behavioral Health System (LBHS) represents a culturally informed community-academic collaboration that includes agencies focused on mental health, addictions, behavioral health within community health centers, and social rehabilitation; the Yale University Department of Psychiatry; and the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services. The core mission of the LBHS is to expand and enhance the provision of recovery-oriented, and culturally and linguistically appropriate, services to the monolingual Spanish-speaking community in parts of South Central Connecticut...
May 2016: Psychological Services
Michal Juhás, Vincent I O Agyapong
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of liaison psychiatric patients in the emergency department (ED) of a medium sized hospital in the oil sands region of Northern Alberta. METHODS: ED psychiatry services users were evaluated using a data assessment tool designed to capture all relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 477 patients (48.2% male) were assessed by the psychiatric team over the 12 month period...
September 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Carolina Montano, Margaret A Taub, Andrew Jaffe, Eirikur Briem, Jason I Feinberg, Rakel Trygvadottir, Adrian Idrizi, Arni Runarsson, Birna Berndsen, Ruben C Gur, Tyler M Moore, Rodney T Perry, Doug Fugman, Sarven Sabunciyan, Robert H Yolken, Thomas M Hyde, Joel E Kleinman, Janet L Sobell, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, Rodney C Go, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Daniel R Weinberger, David Braff, Raquel E Gur, Margaret Daniele Fallin, Andrew P Feinberg
IMPORTANCE: DNA methylation may play an important role in schizophrenia (SZ), either directly as a mechanism of pathogenesis or as a biomarker of risk. OBJECTIVE: To scan genome-wide DNA methylation data to identify differentially methylated CpGs between SZ cases and controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Epigenome-wide association study begun in 2008 using DNA methylation levels of 456 513 CpG loci measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array (Illumina) in a consortium of case-control studies for initial discovery and in an independent replication set...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Gerard Leavey, Kate Loewenthal, Michael King
Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds...
October 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Ann F Garland, Robin Taylor, Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Mary Baker-Ericzen, Rachel Haine-Schlagel, Yi Hui Liu, Sarina Wong
Race/ethnic disparities in utilization of children's mental health care have been well documented and are particularly concerning given the long-term risks of untreated mental health problems (Institute of Medicine, 2003; Kessler et al. Am J Psychiatry 152:10026-1032, 1995). Research investigating the higher rates of unmet need among race/ethnic minority youths has focused primarily on policy, fiscal, and individual child or family factors that can influence service access and use. Alternatively, this study examines provider behavior as a potential influence on race/ethnic disparities in mental health care...
June 2015: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
R E Marioni, J Yang, D Dykiert, R Mõttus, A Campbell, G Davies, C Hayward, D J Porteous, P M Visscher, I J Deary
Obesity and low cognitive function are associated with multiple adverse health outcomes across the life course. They have a small phenotypic correlation (r=-0.11; high body mass index (BMI)-low cognitive function), but whether they have a shared genetic aetiology is unknown. We investigated the phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits using data from 6815 unrelated, genotyped members of Generation Scotland, an ethnically homogeneous cohort from five sites across Scotland. Genetic correlations were estimated using the following: same-sample bivariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA)-GREML; independent samples bivariate GCTA-GREML using Generation Scotland for cognitive data and four other samples (n=20 806) for BMI; and bivariate LDSC analysis using the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data on cognitive function (n=48 462) and BMI (n=339 224) to date...
October 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Jaime Carrizosa Moog
With the Theory of Evolution, eugenics had its beginnings during the last decades of the 19th century. Academics discussed the results obtained from their observations, and progressively had influence on the promulgation of laws and norms related to ethnic hygiene and improvement of race. Such principles were the fundamentals to order eugenic and discriminatory laws. Colombia was not outside that discussion and developed immigration laws congruent to that thinking during the first half of the 20th century.
March 2014: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
I C McManus, Terry Ng-Knight, Lucy Riglin, Norah Frederickson, Katherine Shelton, Frances Rice
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the extent to which eleven-year olds might consider a career in medicine. This exploratory study therefore asked children and their parents about medicine as a possible career, looking also at the relationship to a range of background measures. METHODS: A longitudinal, three-wave, questionnaire study of students transferring from primary to secondary school (STARS), with data collection at primary school (wave 1; mean age 11...
November 4, 2015: BMC Psychology
Esmahan Belhdj Kouider, Marc Dupont, Ute Koglin, Alfred L Lorenz, Franz Petermann
Interethnic Analyses of Distributions in Children and Adolescents Mental Disorders in a Health Care Utilization The study examines ethnic differences in mental disorders in a child and adolescent psychiatry population in a major German city from 2007 to 2011 (N = 5,680). Risks of developing specific mental disorders were calculated. African migrant children and adolescents showed higher risk in traumatic stress and adjustment disorders (F 43 in ICD-10), the Asiatic group in dissociative disorders (F 44-45)...
April 2014: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Bharath Chakravarthy, Allen Yang, Uzor Ogbu, Carole Kim, Anum Iqbal, Joanna Haight, Craig Anderson, Giancarlo DiMassa, Tim Bruckner, Rishi Bhargava, Merrit Schreiber, Shahram Lotfipour
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric mental illness poses a significant burden with an overall prevalence of approximately 10%. Increasingly, children with mental disorders seek care in the emergency department (ED). However, the ED is not an ideal setting. Pediatric mental health patients receive limited treatment and experience significantly longer length of stay (LOS) than other patients seen in the ED. This study examines patient and hospital factors associated with LOS and prolonged LOS (PLOS)...
September 24, 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
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