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ethnical psychiatry

T van der Stoep
Compared to the percentage of ethnic minorities in the general population, ethnic minorities are overrepresented in forensic psychiatry. If these minorities are to be treated successfully, we need to know more about this group. So far, however, little is known about the differences between mental disorders and types of offences associated with patients of non-Dutch descent and those associated with patients of Dutch descent.<br/> AIM: To take the first steps to obtain the information we need in order to provide customised care for patients of non-Dutch descent...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Katherine Woolf, Antonia Rich, Rowena Viney, Sarah Needleman, Ann Griffin
OBJECTIVES: Explore trainee doctors' experiences of postgraduate training and perceptions of fairness in relation to ethnicity and country of primary medical qualification. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured focus group and interview study. SETTING: Postgraduate training in England (London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent Surrey and Sussex) and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: 137 participants (96 trainees, 41 trainers) were purposively sampled from a framework comprising: doctors from all stages of training in general practice, medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, psychiatry, radiology, surgery or foundation, in 4 geographical areas, from white and black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds, who qualified in the UK and abroad...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
M-L Wong, M Arcos-Burgos, S Liu, J I Vélez, C Yu, B T Baune, M C Jawahar, V Arolt, U Dannlowski, A Chuah, G A Huttley, R Fogarty, M D Lewis, S R Bornstein, J Licinio
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects around 350 million people worldwide; however, the underlying genetic basis remains largely unknown. In this study, we took into account that MDD is a gene-environment disorder, in which stress is a critical component, and used whole-genome screening of functional variants to investigate the 'missing heritability' in MDD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using single- and multi-locus linear mixed-effect models were performed in a Los Angeles Mexican-American cohort (196 controls, 203 MDD) and in a replication European-ancestry cohort (499 controls, 473 MDD)...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
K L Jones, L A Croen, C K Yoshida, L Heuer, R Hansen, O Zerbo, G N DeLorenze, M Kharrazi, R Yolken, P Ashwood, J Van de Water
Immune abnormalities have been described in some individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) as well as their family members. However, few studies have directly investigated the role of prenatal cytokine and chemokine profiles on neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans. In the current study, we characterized mid-gestational serum profiles of 22 cytokines and chemokines in mothers of children with ASD (N=415), developmental delay (DD) without ASD (N=188), and general population (GP) controls (N=428) using a bead-based multiplex technology...
May 24, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Manuel Paris, Michelle A Silva, Esperanza Diaz, Luis E Bedregal, Robert A Cole, Luis M Añez-Nava
The Connecticut Latino Behavioral Health System (LBHS) represents a culturally informed community-academic collaboration that includes agencies focused on mental health, addictions, behavioral health within community health centers, and social rehabilitation; the Yale University Department of Psychiatry; and the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services. The core mission of the LBHS is to expand and enhance the provision of recovery-oriented, and culturally and linguistically appropriate, services to the monolingual Spanish-speaking community in parts of South Central Connecticut...
May 2016: Psychological Services
Michal Juhás, Vincent I O Agyapong
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of liaison psychiatric patients in the emergency department (ED) of a medium sized hospital in the oil sands region of Northern Alberta. METHODS: ED psychiatry services users were evaluated using a data assessment tool designed to capture all relevant demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 477 patients (48.2% male) were assessed by the psychiatric team over the 12 month period...
September 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Carolina Montano, Margaret A Taub, Andrew Jaffe, Eirikur Briem, Jason I Feinberg, Rakel Trygvadottir, Adrian Idrizi, Arni Runarsson, Birna Berndsen, Ruben C Gur, Tyler M Moore, Rodney T Perry, Doug Fugman, Sarven Sabunciyan, Robert H Yolken, Thomas M Hyde, Joel E Kleinman, Janet L Sobell, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, Rodney C Go, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, Daniel R Weinberger, David Braff, Raquel E Gur, Margaret Daniele Fallin, Andrew P Feinberg
IMPORTANCE: DNA methylation may play an important role in schizophrenia (SZ), either directly as a mechanism of pathogenesis or as a biomarker of risk. OBJECTIVE: To scan genome-wide DNA methylation data to identify differentially methylated CpGs between SZ cases and controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Epigenome-wide association study begun in 2008 using DNA methylation levels of 456 513 CpG loci measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array (Illumina) in a consortium of case-control studies for initial discovery and in an independent replication set...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Gerard Leavey, Kate Loewenthal, Michael King
Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds...
October 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Ann F Garland, Robin Taylor, Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Mary Baker-Ericzen, Rachel Haine-Schlagel, Yi Hui Liu, Sarina Wong
Race/ethnic disparities in utilization of children's mental health care have been well documented and are particularly concerning given the long-term risks of untreated mental health problems (Institute of Medicine, 2003; Kessler et al. Am J Psychiatry 152:10026-1032, 1995). Research investigating the higher rates of unmet need among race/ethnic minority youths has focused primarily on policy, fiscal, and individual child or family factors that can influence service access and use. Alternatively, this study examines provider behavior as a potential influence on race/ethnic disparities in mental health care...
June 2015: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
R E Marioni, J Yang, D Dykiert, R Mõttus, A Campbell, G Davies, C Hayward, D J Porteous, P M Visscher, I J Deary
Obesity and low cognitive function are associated with multiple adverse health outcomes across the life course. They have a small phenotypic correlation (r=-0.11; high body mass index (BMI)-low cognitive function), but whether they have a shared genetic aetiology is unknown. We investigated the phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits using data from 6815 unrelated, genotyped members of Generation Scotland, an ethnically homogeneous cohort from five sites across Scotland. Genetic correlations were estimated using the following: same-sample bivariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA)-GREML; independent samples bivariate GCTA-GREML using Generation Scotland for cognitive data and four other samples (n=20 806) for BMI; and bivariate LDSC analysis using the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data on cognitive function (n=48 462) and BMI (n=339 224) to date...
October 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Jaime Carrizosa Moog
With the Theory of Evolution, eugenics had its beginnings during the last decades of the 19th century. Academics discussed the results obtained from their observations, and progressively had influence on the promulgation of laws and norms related to ethnic hygiene and improvement of race. Such principles were the fundamentals to order eugenic and discriminatory laws. Colombia was not outside that discussion and developed immigration laws congruent to that thinking during the first half of the 20th century.
March 2014: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
I C McManus, Terry Ng-Knight, Lucy Riglin, Norah Frederickson, Katherine Shelton, Frances Rice
BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the extent to which eleven-year olds might consider a career in medicine. This exploratory study therefore asked children and their parents about medicine as a possible career, looking also at the relationship to a range of background measures. METHODS: A longitudinal, three-wave, questionnaire study of students transferring from primary to secondary school (STARS), with data collection at primary school (wave 1; mean age 11...
November 4, 2015: BMC Psychology
Esmahan Belhdj Kouider, Marc Dupont, Ute Koglin, Alfred L Lorenz, Franz Petermann
Interethnic Analyses of Distributions in Children and Adolescents Mental Disorders in a Health Care Utilization The study examines ethnic differences in mental disorders in a child and adolescent psychiatry population in a major German city from 2007 to 2011 (N = 5,680). Risks of developing specific mental disorders were calculated. African migrant children and adolescents showed higher risk in traumatic stress and adjustment disorders (F 43 in ICD-10), the Asiatic group in dissociative disorders (F 44-45)...
April 2014: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Bharath Chakravarthy, Allen Yang, Uzor Ogbu, Carole Kim, Anum Iqbal, Joanna Haight, Craig Anderson, Giancarlo DiMassa, Tim Bruckner, Rishi Bhargava, Merrit Schreiber, Shahram Lotfipour
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric mental illness poses a significant burden with an overall prevalence of approximately 10%. Increasingly, children with mental disorders seek care in the emergency department (ED). However, the ED is not an ideal setting. Pediatric mental health patients receive limited treatment and experience significantly longer length of stay (LOS) than other patients seen in the ED. This study examines patient and hospital factors associated with LOS and prolonged LOS (PLOS)...
September 24, 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ahmed Hankir, Rashid Zaman
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has identified a chronic shortage of psychiatrists worldwide whereas the demand for mental health services is on the rise. Indeed mental health problems are projected to be a leading cause of morbidity by 2020 according to the Global Burden of Disease study. Bhugra et al, under the auspices of the Royal College of Psychiatrists and the World Psychiatry Association, spearheaded an international study across 22 countries and identified myriad factors that can influence career choices at pre-medical school, medical school and postgraduate levels...
September 2015: Psychiatria Danubina
K A Kirnichnaya, D N Sosin, M V Ivanov, V A Mikhaylov, D V Ivashchenko, E E Ershov, A E Taraskina, R F Nasyrova, E M Krupitsky
"Typical" antipsychotics remain the wide-prescribed drugs in modern psychiatry. But these drugs are associated with development of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Preventive methods of EPS are actively developed and they concentrate on personalized approach. The method of taking into account genetic characteristics of patient for prescribing of treatment was proven as effective in cardiology, oncology, HIV-medicine. In this review the modern state of pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic-induced EPS are considered...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
G Nicolas, C Charbonnier, D Wallon, O Quenez, C Bellenguez, B Grenier-Boley, S Rousseau, A-C Richard, A Rovelet-Lecrux, K Le Guennec, D Bacq, J-G Garnier, R Olaso, A Boland, V Meyer, J-F Deleuze, P Amouyel, H M Munter, G Bourque, M Lathrop, T Frebourg, R Redon, L Letenneur, J-F Dartigues, E Génin, J-C Lambert, D Hannequin, D Campion
The SORL1 protein plays a protective role against the secretion of the amyloid β peptide, a key event in the pathogeny of Alzheimer's disease. We assessed the impact of SORL1 rare variants in early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) in a case-control setting. We conducted a whole exome analysis among 484 French EOAD patients and 498 ethnically matched controls. After collapsing rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤1%), we detected an enrichment of disruptive and predicted damaging missense SORL1 variants in cases (odds radio (OR)=5...
June 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Rose Anne C Illes, Aaron J Grace, José R Niño, Jeffrey M Ring
Primary care providers are increasingly responsible for providing mental health care in the United States. For those patients who do receive specialty mental health services, the primary care provider functions as the main entry point into the mental health system. Given the persistent racial and ethnic health disparities in the United States, it is not surprising that mental health disparities also present a difficult challenge for both the U.S. health system and for frontline practitioners. Physicians-in-training require tools for rapid psychiatric assessment that will quickly identify pertinent symptom clusters and distinguish between major psychological disorders...
2015: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Pınar Güzel Özdemir, Murat Boysan, Michael H Smolensky, Yavuz Selvi, Adem Aydin, Ekrem Yilmaz
OBJECTIVE: Phototherapy, ie, bright light therapy, is an effective and safe treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). It exerts rapid mood-elevating activity, similar to antidepressant medications, most likely mediated through both monoaminergic and circadian system melatonergic mechanisms. We assessed the efficiency of bright light therapy as an adjuvant treatment to antidepressant pharmacotherapy in patients with severe MDD randomized by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score to either (1) 150 mg venlafaxine hydrochloride daily at 7:00 AM or (2) 150 mg venlafaxine plus 60-minute light of 7000 lux the initial week of clinical management (venlafaxine + bright light therapy) daily at 7:00 AM...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
A J Williams, E Wallis, C Orkin
Exclusion criteria for HIV treatment-naïve drug trials can be stringent and selection bias exists, making it difficult to extrapolate results into the 'real world' clinical situation. We aim to compare the demographics, virological outcomes and psychosocial complexity in adult HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients from our cohort initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in research trials versus standard clinics. In our unit from 2006 to 2011, 1202 standard clinic and 69 research trial patients initiated cART; every eighth standard clinics patient was included to create a standard clinics:research trials patient ratio of 2:1...
June 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
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