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Methyl cyclodextrin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913241/evaluation-of-highly-branched-cyclic-dextrin-in-inhalable-particles-of-combined-antibiotics-for-the-pulmonary-delivery-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#1
Kazunori Kadota, Arisa Senda, Hideaki Tagishi, John Oluwasogo Ayorinde, Yuichi Tozuka
This work aims to identify a suitable formulation for the pulmonary delivery of combinations of inhalational drugs using highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) macromolecules. We compared the effectiveness between powders prepared from HBCD with those prepared from five alternative excipients (lactose, maltose, sucrose, β-cyclodextrin and methyl β-cyclodextrin) in the pulmonary delivery of a single-dosage form of two anti-tuberculosis drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin). Fine particles of untreated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and combination products using excipients were prepared by spray drying...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910224/separating-and-identifying-the-four-stereoisomers-of-methyl-jasmonate-by-rp-hplc-and-using-cyclodextrins-in-a-novel-way
#2
Adrián Matencio, Mario J Bermejo-Gimeno, Francisco García-Carmona, José Manuel López-Nicolás
INTRODUCTION: Several authors have reported on the different bioactivities of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) stereoisomers. However, no simple, precise and cheap method for separating and identifying them using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been developed. OBJECTIVE: (1) To create a simple, precise and cheap method for separating and identifying the four stereoisomers present in commercial racemic mixtures of MeJA and (2) to identify the four stereoisomers using molecular docking techniques and coinjection...
December 2, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908629/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-mucus-permeation-capacity-of-several-surface-modified-poly-anhydride-nanoparticles-designed-for-oral-drug-delivery
#3
T Iglesias, A López de Cerain, Juan Manuel Irache, N Martín-Arbella, M Wilcox, J Pearson, A Azqueta
The main concerns with drugs designed for oral administration are their inactivation or degradation in the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, their poor solubility through the gastrointestinal mucus gel layer, the poor intestinal epithelium permeability that limits their absorption, and their toxicity. In this context, poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are capable of protecting the drug from the harsh environment, reduce the drug's toxicity and, by virtue of surface modification, to enhance or reduce their mucus permeability and the bioadhesion to specific target cells...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908496/mixed-mode-acrylamide-based-continuous-beds-bearing-tert-butyl-groups-for-capillary-electrochromatography-synthesized-via-complexation-of-n-tert-butylacrylamide-with-a-water-soluble-cyclodextrin-part-i-retention-properties
#4
Ayat Allah Al-Massaedh, Ute Pyell
With the aim to improve the understanding of morphology and efficiency properties, we investigate in this series the impact of the complex formation constant of the hydrophobic monomer with respect to statistically methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) on the electrochromatographic properties of highly crosslinked amphiphilic mixed-mode acrylamide-based monolithic stationary phases. Based on our previous work on amphiphilic mixed-mode monolithic stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) using N-(1-adamantyl)acrylamide (Ad-AAm) as hydrophobic monomer that forms an extremely strong water-soluble inclusion complex with Me-β-CD, we now selected N-tert-butylacrylamide (NTBA) as hydrophobic monomer forming an inclusion complex with Me-β-CD with a much lower value of the formation constant...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903454/effects-of-frequently-used-pharmaceutical-excipients-on-the-organic-cation-transporters-1-3-and-peptide-transporters-1-2-stably-expressed-in-mdckii-cells
#5
Marcus Otter, Stefan Oswald, Werner Siegmund, Markus Keiser
There is ample evidence that pharmaceutical excipients, which are supposed to be pharmacologically inactive, have an impact on drug metabolism and efflux transport. So far, little is known whether they also modulate uptake transporter proteins. We have recently shown that commonly used solubilizing agents exert significant effects on the function of organic anion uptake transporting polypeptides. Therefore, we investigated in this study the influence of frequently used pharmaceutical excipients on the transport activity of organic cation transporters OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3 and the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872310/efficient-replacement-of-plasma-membrane-outer-leaflet-phospholipids-and-sphingolipids-in-cells-with-exogenous-lipids
#6
Guangtao Li, JiHyun Kim, Zhen Huang, Johnna R St Clair, Deborah A Brown, Erwin London
Our understanding of membranes and membrane lipid function has lagged far behind that of nucleic acids and proteins, largely because it is difficult to manipulate cellular membrane lipid composition. To help solve this problem, we show that methyl-α-cyclodextrin (MαCD)-catalyzed lipid exchange can be used to maximally replace the sphingolipids and phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells with exogenous lipids, including unnatural lipids. In addition, lipid exchange experiments revealed that 70-80% of cell sphingomyelin resided in the plasma membrane outer leaflet; the asymmetry of metabolically active cells was similar to that previously defined for erythrocytes, as judged by outer leaflet lipid composition; and plasma membrane outer leaflet phosphatidylcholine had a significantly lower level of unsaturation than phosphatidylcholine in the remainder of the cell...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862220/7-dehydrocholesterol-7-dhc-but-not-cholesterol-causes-suppression-of-canonical-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-and-is-likely-involved-in-the-development-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-ascvd
#7
Shuan Shian Huang, I-Hua Liu, Chun-Lin Chen, Jia-Ming Chang, Frank E Johnson, Jung San Huang
For several decades, cholesterol has been thought to cause ASCVD. Limiting dietary cholesterol intake has been recommended to reduce the risk of the disease. However, several recent epidemiological studies do not support a relationship between dietary cholesterol and/or blood cholesterol and ASCVD. Consequently, the role of cholesterol in atherogenesis is now uncertain. Much evidence indicates that TGF-β, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, protects against ASCVD and that suppression of canonical TGF-β signaling (Smad2-dependent) is involved in atherogenesis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853933/lipid-rafts-promote-trans-fatty-acid-induced-inflammation-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#8
Yao Pan, Benxin Liu, Zeyuan Deng, Yawei Fan, Jing Li, Hongyan Li
The effects of two fatty acids, oleic acid (OLA) and elaidic acid (ELA) on normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and non-rafts HUVEC were investigated in this study. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-6) were analyzed. Western blot was used to analyze the expression levels of inflammation-related proteins (NF-κB, ERK1/2) and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). The results showed that the levels of nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were significantly decreased only in non-lipid rafts cells pretreated with trans fatty acid (TFA)...
November 16, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848109/monitoring-of-aflatoxin-g1-b1-g2-and-b2-occurrence-in-some-samples-of-walnut
#9
Reza Habibipour, Parisa Rahimi Tamandegani, Abbas Farmany
This research was conducted to monitor the aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of walnut in the Hamedan province. For this purpose, 40 samples were analyzed. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, yeast, and some different bacteria were isolated from walnuts. Aspergillus is the most frequent genus. Aspergillus flavus was predominantly isolated. HPLC was used for evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of walnut samples. Aflatoxins G1 (AFG1), B1 (AFB1), G2 (AFG2), and B2 (AFB2) were produced by 20 isolates...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833999/methyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-treatment-combined-to-incubation-with-interleukin-4-reproduces-major-features-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-a-3d-culture-model
#10
Tatiana do Nascimento Pedrosa, Evelyne De Vuyst, Abdallah Mound, Catherine Lambert de Rouvroit, Silvya Stuchi Maria-Engler, Yves Poumay
Atopic dermatitis (AD) skin is characterized by over-expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13 and IL-25. When methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment preceded exposure to these interleukins, combination of both treatments was found to mimic hallmarks of AD in vitro, such as barrier weakening, histological alterations and typical signaling responses in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). However, the respective role of each IL and whether any of them is critical when combined with MβCD treatment was unknown...
November 11, 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825863/comparison-of-liposomal-and-nlc-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-formulations-for-improving-the-transdermal-delivery-of-oxaprozin-effect-of-cyclodextrin-complexation
#11
N Mennini, M Cirri, F Maestrelli, P Mura
The combined strategy of drug-cyclodextrin (CD) complexation and complex loading into nanocarriers (deformable liposomes or nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC)), was exploited to develop effective topical formulations for oxaprozin transdermal administration. Oxaprozin was loaded as ternary complex with randomly-methylated-ßCD and arginine, selected as the best system in improving drug solubility. The colloidal dispersions, characterized for particle size, zeta-potential and entrapment efficiency, were investigated for drug permeation properties in comparison with a plain drug aqueous suspension, a ternary complex aqueous solution and a plain drug liposomal or NLC dispersion...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823675/per-3-chloro-4-methyl-phenylcarbamate-cyclodextrin-clicked-stationary-phase-for-chiral-separation-in-multiple-modes-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#12
Jian Tang, Limin Pang, Jie Zhou, Shaopeng Zhang, Weihua Tang
In this work, a detail study has been performed on the enantioselectivity of per(3-chloro-4-methyl)phenylcarbamate-β-CD clicked chiral stationary phase (CSP) in high-performance liquid chromatography. Both normal phase and polar organic mobile phases have been explored for the enantioseparation of 39 model racemic pairs including aromatic alcohols, flavonoids, β-blockers and amino acids. Chiral resolution values over 10 were achieved for flavonoids. The comparison study with reference perphenylcarbamate-β-CD clicked CSP reveals the significance of 3-chloro-4-methyl functionality in improving the enantioselectivities...
November 23, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784219/serum-starvation-induces-bace1-processing-and-secretion
#13
Alexandra-Vasiliki Stavropoulou, Olga Mavrofrydi, Paul Saftig, Spiros Efthimiopoulos
β-secretase (BACE1) is a type 1 transmembrane protein implicated in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis. Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), initiated by BACE1 and followed by γ-secretase, leads to the formation of toxic Aβ peptides. Increased levels of BACE1 have been detected in the CSF of AD patients compared to age-matched healthy controls indicating that neurodegenerative conditions induce shedding of BACE1. To mimic such conditions, we examined whether serum deprivation stimulates proteolysis-dependent secretion of BACE1...
October 25, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774742/enantioselective-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-of-lavender-essential-oil
#14
Ján Krupčík, Roman Gorovenko, Ivan Špánik, Daniel W Armstrong, Pat Sandra
The enantiomeric composition of several chiral markers in lavender essential oil was studied by flow modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography operated in the reverse flow mode and hyphenated to flame ionization and quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Two capillary column series were used in this study, 2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin or 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin, as the chiral column in the first dimension and α polyethylene glycol column in the second dimension...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755650/adp-induced-ca-2-signalling-and-proliferation-of-rat-ventricular-myofibroblasts-depend-on-phospholipase-c-linked-trp-channels-activation-within-lipid-rafts
#15
Mariana Certal, Adriana Vinhas, Aurora Barros-Barbosa, Fátima Ferreirinha, Maria Adelina Costa, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Nucleotides released during heart injury affect myocardium electrophysiology and remodelling through P2 purinoceptors activation in cardiac myofibroblasts. ATP and UTP endorse [Ca(2) +]i accumulation and growth of DDR-2/a-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts from adult rat ventricles via P2Y4 and P2Y2 receptors activation, respectively. Ventricular myofibroblasts also express ADP-sensitive P2Yi, P2Yi2 and P2Yi3 receptors as demonstrated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and western blot analysis, but little information exists on ADP effects in these cells...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744428/mobilization-of-tlr4-into-lipid-rafts-by-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-in-gingival-epithelial-cells
#16
Haruka Imai, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Mikihito Kajiya, Kazuhisa Ouhara, Tetsuya Yoshimoto, Shinji Matsuda, Katsuhiro Takeda, Hidemi Kurihara
BACKGROUND: An investigation of the mechanisms underlying the production of inflammatory cytokines through the stimulation of microorganisms on gingival epithelial cells may provide insights into the pathogenesis of the initiation of periodontitis. Lipid rafts, microdomains in the cell membrane, include a large number of receptors, and are centrally involved in signal transduction. We herein examined the involvement of lipid rafts in the expression of interleukin (IL-6) and IL-8 in gingival epithelial cells stimulated by periodontal pathogens...
October 17, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744130/combination-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-reduces-atherogenesis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-by-inhibiting-macrophage-activation
#17
Akira Takashima, Daiju Fukuda, Kimie Tanaka, Yasutomi Higashikuni, Yoichiro Hirata, Sachiko Nishimoto, Shusuke Yagi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Yutaka Taketani, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are major components of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) which inhibit atherogenesis, although few studies have examined the effects of the combination of EPA and DHA on atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DHA has additional anti-atherosclerotic effects when combined with EPA. METHODS: Male 8-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice were fed a western-type diet supplemented with different amounts of EPA and DHA; EPA (2...
October 5, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733157/n-acetylcysteine-attenuates-myocardial-dysfunction-and-postischemic-injury-by-restoring-caveolin-3-enos-signaling-in-diabetic-rats
#18
Wating Su, Yuan Zhang, Qiongxia Zhang, Jinjin Xu, Liying Zhan, Qiqi Zhu, Qingquan Lian, Huimin Liu, Zhong-Yuan Xia, Zhengyuan Xia, Shaoqing Lei
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are prone to develop cardiac hypertrophy and more susceptible to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, which are concomitant with hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and impaired endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)/NO signaling. Caveolae are critical in the transduction of eNOS/NO signaling in cardiovascular system. Caveolin (Cav)-3, the cardiomyocytes-specific caveolae structural protein, is decreased in the diabetic heart in which production of reactive oxygen species are increased...
October 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725448/clostridium-perfringens-%C3%AE-toxin-impairs-lipid-raft-integrity-in-neutrophils
#19
Masaya Takehara, Teruhisa Takagishi, Soshi Seike, Kyohei Oishi, Yoshino Fujihara, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Clostridium perfringens type A, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium, causes gas gangrene. Recently, we reported that C. perfringens α-toxin blocked neutrophil differentiation in an enzyme activity-dependent manner to impair host innate immunity, which should be crucial for the pathogenesis of C. perfringens. However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Lipid rafts have been reported to be platforms for signaling molecules involved in the regulation of cell differentiation in many different cell types...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721167/effect-of-o-methyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-modified-magnetic-nanoparticles-on-the-uptake-and-extracellular-level-of-l-glutamate-in-brain-nerve-terminals
#20
Daniel Horák, Milan Beneš, Zuzana Procházková, Miroslava Trchová, Arsenii Borysov, Artem Pastukhov, Konstantin Paliienko, Tatiana Borisova
Changes in cholesterol concentration in the plasma membrane of presynaptic nerve terminals nonspecifically modulate glutamate transport and homeostasis in the central nervous system. Reduction of the cholesterol content in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) using cholesterol-depleting agents decreases the glutamate uptake and increases the extracellular level of glutamate in nerve terminals. Extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane and its further removal from the synaptosomes by external magnetic field can be achieved by means of magnetic nanoparticles with immobilized cholesterol-depleting agent such as O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD)...
October 4, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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