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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167671/defining-the-ail-ligand-binding-surface-hydrophobic-residues-in-two-extracellular-loops-mediate-cell-and-extracellular-matrix-binding-to-facilitate-yop-delivery
#1
Tiffany M Tsang, Jeffrey S Wiese, Jamal A Alhabeil, Lisa D Usselman, Joshua J Thomson, Rafla Matti, Malte Kronshage, Natalie Maricic, Shanedah Williams, Naama H Sleiman, Suleyman Felek, Eric S Krukonis
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, binds host cells to deliver cytotoxic Yop proteins into the cytoplasm that prevent phagocytosis and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ail is an eight-stranded β-barrel outer membrane protein with four extracellular loops that mediates cell binding and resistance to human serum. Following deletion of each of the four extracellular loops that potentially interact with host cells, the Ail-Δloop 2 and Ail-Δloop 3 mutants had no cell binding activity while Ail-Δloop 4 maintained cell binding (the Ail-Δloop 1 protein was unstable)...
February 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166384/cryptosporidium-identification-and-genetic-typing
#2
Jan Šlapeta
Cryptosporidium spp. are obligate protozoan parasites of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans. In the majority of human cases, the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis is caused by either the human-adapted species Cryptosporidium hominis or the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum 'bovine genotype' (also known as Cryptosporidium pestis). The infectious stage, environmentally resilient Cryptosporidium oocysts, are shed by the infected host. Cryptosporidium parasites are transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are one of the major water-borne pathogens...
February 6, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165493/a-noise-trimming-and-positional-significance-of-transposon-insertion-system-to-identify-essential-genes-in-yersinia-pestis
#3
Zheng Rong Yang, Helen L Bullifent, Karen Moore, Konrad Paszkiewicz, Richard J Saint, Stephanie J Southern, Olivia L Champion, Nicola J Senior, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Petra C F Oyston, Timothy P Atkins, Richard W Titball
Massively parallel sequencing technology coupled with saturation mutagenesis has provided new and global insights into gene functions and roles. At a simplistic level, the frequency of mutations within genes can indicate the degree of essentiality. However, this approach neglects to take account of the positional significance of mutations - the function of a gene is less likely to be disrupted by a mutation close to the distal ends. Therefore, a systematic bioinformatics approach to improve the reliability of essential gene identification is desirable...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125398/successful-treatment-of-human-plague-with-oral-ciprofloxacin
#4
Titus Apangu, Kevin Griffith, Janet Abaru, Gordian Candini, Harriet Apio, Felix Okoth, Robert Okello, John Kaggwa, Sarah Acayo, Geoffrey Ezama, Brook Yockey, Christopher Sexton, Martin Schriefer, Edward Katongole Mbidde, Paul Mead
The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved ciprofloxacin for treatment of plague (Yersina pestis infection) based on animal studies. Published evidence of efficacy in humans is sparse. We report 5 cases of culture-confirmed human plague treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin, including 1 case of pneumonic plague.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122816/effectiveness-of-fipronil-as-a-systemic-control-agent-against-xenopsylla-cheopis-siphonaptera-pulicidae-in-madagascar
#5
D M Rajonhson, A Miarinjara, S Rahelinirina, M Rajerison, S Boyer
Fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), the main vector of Yersinia pestis (Yersin), the causative agent of plague, in Madagascar. The effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against X. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "Lethal Dose 50" (LD50). Two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil mixture from which X...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121078/research-highlights
#6
(no author information available yet)
In this issue, we highlight work from Cecchinato et al. revealing a technique for restoring chemotaxis in HIV-infected Th17 cells, a study by Wei et al. showing that Yersinia pestis YopM is an E3 ligase that can regulate host inflammasomes, a paper by Prokesch et al. reporting that p53 regulates metabolic adaptation to starvation in normal hepatocytes and work from Singh et al. that shows that Salmonella acquires nutrients from host cells by hijacking chaperone-mediated autophagy.
January 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117561/wildlife-plague-surveillance-near-the-china-kazakhstan-border-2012-2015
#7
S-S Zhao, Y Pulati, X-P Yin, W Li, B-J Wang, K Yang, C-F Chen, Y-Z Wang
Plague is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This pathogen can be transmitted by fleas and has an enzootic cycle, circulating among small mammals, and occasionally epizootic cycles, infecting other species. In China, infected wild rodents are primarily reservoirs of Y. Pestis and are related to human infection (Int. J. Infect. Dis., 33, 2015 and 67; BMC Microbiol., 9, 2009 and 205). Because shepherd dogs prey on and eat rodents (e.g. marmots and mice), they are valuable sentinel animals for plague serosurveillance in endemic disease foci, although their infections are usually asymptomatic (Vet...
January 24, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103160/yersinia-pestis-acetyltransferase-mediated-dual-acetylation-at-the-serine-and-lysine-residues-enhances-the-auto-ubiquitination-of-ubiquitin-ligase-march8-in-human-cells
#8
Cuiling Li, Daoguang Wang, Xin Lv, Ruirui Jing, Baibin Bi, Xinjun Chen, Jisheng Guo, Fengqin Wang, Shengnan Sun, Kazem M Azadzoi, Jing-Hua Yang
Lysine acetylation is known as a post translational modification (PTM) by histone acetyltransferases (HAT) that modifies histones and non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression. Serine acetylation, however, is reported in mammalian hosts by serine acetyltransferase of Yersinia pestis (YopJ) during infection. The protein target and cellular function of bacterial YopJ in mammalian systems are not fully addressed. Here we report dual acetylation at the serine and lysine residues by transiently expressed serine acetyltransferase YopJ mimicking Y...
January 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#9
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 26, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090753/inferring-infection-hazard-in-wildlife-populations-by-linking-data-across-individual-and-population-scales
#10
Kim M Pepin, Shannon L Kay, Ben D Golas, Susan S Shriner, Amy T Gilbert, Ryan S Miller, Andrea L Graham, Steven Riley, Paul C Cross, Michael D Samuel, Mevin B Hooten, Jennifer A Hoeting, James O Lloyd-Smith, Colleen T Webb, Michael G Buhnerkempe
Our ability to infer unobservable disease-dynamic processes such as force of infection (infection hazard for susceptible hosts) has transformed our understanding of disease transmission mechanisms and capacity to predict disease dynamics. Conventional methods for inferring FOI estimate a time-averaged value and are based on population-level processes. Because many pathogens exhibit epidemic cycling and FOI is the result of processes acting across the scales of individuals and populations, a flexible framework that extends to epidemic dynamics and links within-host processes to FOI is needed...
January 16, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090086/centrality-in-the-host-pathogen-interactome-is-associated-with-pathogen-fitness-during-infection
#11
Núria Crua Asensio, Elisabet Muñoz Giner, Natalia Sánchez de Groot, Marc Torrent Burgas
To perform their functions proteins must interact with each other, but how these interactions influence bacterial infection remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that connectivity in the host-pathogen interactome is directly related to pathogen fitness during infection. Using Y. pestis as a model organism, we show that the centrality-lethality rule holds for pathogen fitness during infection but only when the host-pathogen interactome is considered. Our results suggest that the importance of pathogen proteins during infection is directly related to their number of interactions with the host...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081130/comparative-ability-of-oropsylla-montana-and-xenopsylla-cheopis-fleas-to-transmit-yersinia-pestis-by-two-different-mechanisms
#12
B Joseph Hinnebusch, David M Bland, Christopher F Bosio, Clayton O Jarrett
BACKGROUND: Transmission of Yersinia pestis by flea bite can occur by two mechanisms. After taking a blood meal from a bacteremic mammal, fleas have the potential to transmit the very next time they feed. This early-phase transmission resembles mechanical transmission in some respects, but the mechanism is unknown. Thereafter, transmission occurs after Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the proventricular valve in the flea foregut. The biofilm can impede and sometimes completely block the ingestion of blood, resulting in regurgitative transmission of bacteria into the bite site...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068343/the-fleas-siphonaptera-in-iran-diversity-host-range-and-medical-importance
#13
Naseh Maleki-Ravasan, Samaneh Solhjouy-Fard, Jean-Claude Beaucournu, Anne Laudisoit, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067495/upconversion-nanocrystals-mediated-lateral-flow-nanoplatform-for-in-vitro-detection
#14
Zhiqin Liang, Xiaochen Wang, Wei Zhu, Pingping Zhang, Yongxin Yang, Chongyun Sun, Junjie Zhang, Xinrui Wang, Zheng Xu, Yong Zhao, Ruifu Yang, Suling Zhao, Lei Zhou
Upconversion phosphors (UCPs) that are free from interference from biological sample autofluorescence have attracted attention for in vivo and in vitro bioapplications. However, UCPs need to be water-dispersible, nanosized, and highly luminous to realize broad applications. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop UCPs that meet these comprehensive criteria for in vitro diagnosis. To combine nano size with high luminous intensity, β-NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) upconversion nanocrystals (UCNPs) codoped with Li(+) and K(+) are prepared that display high upconversion intensities as well as small size...
February 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054667/yersinia-pestis-halotolerance-illuminates-plague-reservoirs
#15
Maliya Alia Malek, Idir Bitam, Anthony Levasseur, Jérôme Terras, Jean Gaudart, Said Azza, Christophe Flaudrops, Catherine Robert, Didier Raoult, Michel Drancourt
The plague agent Yersinia pestis persists for years in the soil. Two millennia after swiping over Europe and North Africa, plague established permanent foci in North Africa but not in neighboring Europe. Mapping human plague foci reported in North Africa for 70 years indicated a significant location at <3 kilometers from the Mediterranean seashore or the edge of salted lakes named chotts. In Algeria, culturing 352 environmental specimens naturally containing 0.5 to 70 g/L NaCl yielded one Y. pestis Orientalis biotype isolate in a 40 g/L NaCl chott soil specimen...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043017/evolution-and-structural-dynamics-of-bacterial-glycan-binding-adhesins
#16
REVIEW
Kristof Moonens, Han Remaut
Infectious disease processes like bacterial adherence or the activity of secreted toxins frequently gain host and tissue specificity by glycan binding interactions with the host glycome. Recent functional and structural studies highlight the high niche specialization of bacterial lectins, but also reveal a remarkable plasticity in their glycan binding sites and mechanisms, to adapt to host glycome dynamics or changing environmental conditions at the site of infection. In this review we put emphasis on new structural insights in host adaptation and dynamics of bacterial carbohydrate binding adhesins and toxins in human pathogens like uropathogenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Yersinia pestis or Vibrio cholerae...
December 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030576/functional-and-structural-analysis-of-a-highly-expressed-yersinia-pestis-small-rna-following-infection-of-cultured-macrophages
#17
Nan Li, Scott P Hennelly, Chris J Stubben, Sofiya Micheva-Viteva, Bin Hu, Yulin Shou, Momchilo Vuyisich, Chang-Shung Tung, Patrick S Chain, Karissa Y Sanbonmatsu, Elizabeth Hong-Geller
Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are found in practically all bacterial genomes and play important roles in regulating gene expression to impact bacterial metabolism, growth, and virulence. We performed transcriptomics analysis to identify sRNAs that are differentially expressed in Yersinia pestis that invaded the human macrophage cell line THP-1, compared to pathogens that remained extracellular in the presence of host. Using ultra high-throughput sequencing, we identified 37 novel and 143 previously known sRNAs in Y...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019002/characterization-of-yersinia-species-by-protein-profiling-using-automated-microfluidic-capillary-electrophoresis
#18
Victoria M Bennett, Dennis McNevin, Paul Roffey, Michelle E Gahan
Yersinia pestis is a biological agent of high risk to national security due to its ability to be easily disseminated and transmitted among humans. If Y. pestis was to be utilized in a deliberate disease outbreak it would be essential to rapidly and accurately identify the agent. Current identification methods for Yersinia species are limited by their reliance on cultivation, the time taken to achieve results and/or the use of protocols that are not amenable for field use. Faster identification methods are urgently required...
March 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018363/plague-vaccine-development-current-research-and-future-trends
#19
REVIEW
Shailendra Kumar Verma, Urmil Tuteja
Plague is one of the world's most lethal human diseases caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative bacterium. Despite overwhelming studies for many years worldwide, there is no safe and effective vaccine against this fatal disease. Inhalation of Y. pestis bacilli causes pneumonic plague, a fast growing and deadly dangerous disease. F1/LcrV-based vaccines failed to provide adequate protection in African green monkey model in spite of providing protection in mice and cynomolgus macaques. There is still no explanation for this inconsistent efficacy, and scientists leg behind to search reliable correlate assays for immune protection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981238/new-insights-into-autoinducer-2-signaling-as-a-virulence-regulator-in-a-mouse-model-of-pneumonic-plague
#20
Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, Michelle L Kirtley, Jian Sha, Tatiana E Erova, Sadhana Chauhan, Vladimir L Motin, Ashok K Chopra
The Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the infamous Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, have a highly conserved interbacterial signaling system that is mediated by the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing molecule. The AI-2 system is implicated in regulating various bacterial virulence genes in diverse environmental niches. Deletion of the gene encoding the synthetic enzyme for the AI-2 substrate, luxS, leads to either no significant change or, paradoxically, an increase in in vivo bacterial virulence...
November 2016: MSphere
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