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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646112/crispr-cas12a-assisted-recombineering-in-bacteria
#1
Mei-Yi Yan, Hai-Qin Yan, Gai-Xian Ren, Ju-Ping Zhao, Xiao-Peng Guo, Yi-Cheng Sun
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas12a (Cpf1) has emerged as an effective genome editing tool in many organisms. Here, we developed and optimized a CRISPR-Cas12a assisted recombineering system to facilitate genetic manipulation in bacteria. Using this system, point mutations, deletions, insertions, and gene replacements can be easily generated on the chromosome or native plasmids in Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis Because CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted recombineering does not require introduction of an antibiotic resistance gene into the chromosome to select for recombinants, it is an efficient approach for generating markerless and scarless mutations in bacteria...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643091/sylvatic-plague-vaccine-partially-protects-prairie-dogs-cynomys-spp-in-field-trials
#2
Tonie E Rocke, Daniel W Tripp, Robin E Russell, Rachel C Abbott, Katherine L D Richgels, Marc R Matchett, Dean E Biggins, Randall Griebel, Greg Schroeder, Shaun M Grassel, David R Pipkin, Jennifer Cordova, Adam Kavalunas, Brian Maxfield, Jesse Boulerice, Michael W Miller
Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1-59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632140/thermal-stability-and-rheological-properties-of-the-non-stick-caf1-biomaterial
#3
Yakup Ulusu, Gema Dura, Helen Waller, Matthew Benning, David Fulton, Jeremy Lakey, Daniel Thomas Peters
The ability to culture cells in three dimensions has many applications, from drug discovery to wound healing. 3D cell culture methods often require appropriate scaffolds that mimic the cellular environments of different tissue types. The choice of material from which these scaffolds are made is of paramount importance, as its properties will define the manner in which cells interact with the scaffold. Caf1 is a protein polymer that is secreted from its host organism, Yersinia pestis, to enable escape from phagocytosis...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606812/novel-ctl-epitopes-identified-through-a-y-pestis-proteome-wide-analysis-in-the-search-for-vaccine-candidates-against-plague
#4
Anat Zvi, Shahar Rotem, Ayelet Zauberman, Uri Elia, Moshe Aftalion, Erez Bar-Haim, Emanuelle Mamroud, Ofer Cohen
The causative agent of Plague, Yersinia pestis, is a highly virulent pathogen and a potential bioweapon. Depending on the route of infection, two prevalent occurrences of the disease are known, bubonic and pneumonic. The latter has a high fatality rate. In the absence of a licensed vaccine, intense efforts to develop a safe and efficacious vaccine have been conducted, and humoral-driven subunit vaccines containing the F1 and LcrV antigens are currently under clinical trials. It is well known that a cellular immune response might have an essential additive value to immunity and protection against Y...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605977/linalool-induced-oxidative-stress-processes-in-the-human-pathogen-candida-albicans
#5
Gábor Máté, Dominika Kovács, Zoltán Gazdag, Miklós Pesti, Árpád Szántó
The present study investigated the linalool (Lol)-induced effects in acute toxicity tests in the human pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans). Lol treatments induced reduced germ tube formation of the pathogen, which plays a crucial role in the virulence. In comparison with the untreated control, the exposure of 107 cells ml(-1) to 0.7 mM or 1.4 mM Lol for one hour induced 20% and 30% decrements, respectively, in the colony-forming ability. At the same time, these treatments caused dose-dependent decrease in the levels of superoxide anion radical and total reactive oxygen species, while there was 1...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595365/evaluation-of-starter-dietary-digestible-lysine-level-on-broilers-raised-under-a-sex-separated-or-straight-run-housing-regime-part-2-economics-of-sex-separation-and-digestible-lysine-level-for-maximum-returns
#6
M J Da Costa, G Colson, T J Frost, J Halley, G M Pesti
The objective of this experiment was to determine the maximum net returns digestible lysine (dLys) levels (MNRL) when maintaining the ideal amino acid ratio for starter diets of broilers raised sex separate or comingled (straight-run). A total of 3,240 Ross 708 chicks was separated by sex and placed in 90 pens by 2 rearing types: sex separate (36 males or 36 females) or straight-run (18 males + 18 females). Each rearing type was fed 6 starter diets (25 d) formulated to have dLys levels between 1.05 and 1.80%...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556563/functionalization-promotes-pathogen-mimicking-characteristics-of-polyanhydride-nanoparticle-adjuvants
#7
Yashdeep Phanse, Brenda R Carrillo-Conde, Amanda E Ramer-Tait, Rajarshi Roychoudhury, Scott Broderick, Nicola Pohl, Krishna Rajan, Balaji Narasimhan, Michael J Wannemuehler, Bryan H Bellaire
Rational design of adjuvants and delivery systems will promote development of next-generation vaccines to control emerging and re-emerging diseases. To accomplish this, understanding the immune enhancing properties of new adjuvants relative to those induced by natural infections can help with the development of pathogen mimicking materials that will effectively initiate innate immune signaling cascades. In this work, the surfaces of polyanhydride nanoparticles composed of sebacic acid (SA) and 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) hexane (CPH) were decorated with an ethylene diamine spacer partially modified with either a glycolic acid linker or an α-1,2-linked di-mannopyranoside (di-mannose) to confer "pathogen-like" properties and enhance adjuvanticity...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544266/pcr-incorporation-of-polyoxometalate-modified-deoxynucleotide-triphosphates-and-their-application-in-molecular-electrochemical-sensing-of-yersinia-pestis
#8
Ciara K O'Sullivan, Mayreli Ortiz, Ahmed Debela Mehdi, Marketa Svobodova, Serge Thorimbert, Denis Lasage, Richard Cole, Bernold Hasenknopf
Redox-labeled nucleotides are of increasing interest for the fabrication of next generation molecular tools and should meet requirements of being thermally stable, sensitive, and compatible with polymerase-mediated incorporation whilst also being electrochemically discriminable. The synthesis and characterization of Keggin and Dawson polyoxometalate-deoxynucleotide (POM-dNTP) bioconjugates linked through 7-deaza-modified purines is described. The modified POM-dNTPs were used for polymerase based amplification of a DNA sequence specific for Yersinia pestis and the amplified DNA detected via an electrochemical DNA sensor...
May 22, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540946/zinc-transporters-ybtx-and-znuabc-are-required-for-the-virulence-of-yersinia-pestis-in-bubonic-and-pneumonic-plague-in-mice
#9
Alexander G Bobrov, Olga Kirillina, Marina Y Fosso, Jacqueline D Fetherston, M Clarke Miller, Tiva T VanCleave, Joseph A Burlison, William K Arnold, Matthew B Lawrenz, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Robert D Perry
A number of bacterial pathogens require the ZnuABC Zinc (Zn(2+)) transporter and/or a second Zn(2+) transport system to overcome Zn(2+) sequestration by mammalian hosts. Previously we have shown that in addition to ZnuABC, Yersinia pestis possesses a second Zn(2+) transporter that involves components of the yersiniabactin (Ybt), siderophore-dependent iron transport system. Synthesis of the Ybt siderophore and YbtX, a member of the major facilitator superfamily, are both critical components of the second Zn(2+) transport system...
June 21, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533472/yersinia-pestis-yopk-inhibits-bacterial-adhesion-to-host-cells-by-binding-to-the-extracellular-matrix-adaptor-protein-matrilin-2
#10
Yafang Tan, Wanbing Liu, Qingwen Zhang, Shiyang Cao, Haihong Zhao, Tong Wang, Zhizhen Qi, Yanping Han, Yajun Song, Xiaoyi Wang, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du
Pathogenic yersiniae harbor a type III secretion system (T3SS) that injects Yersinia outer protein (Yop) into host cells. YopK has been shown to control Yop translocation and prevent inflammasome recognition of T3SS by the innate immune system. Here, we demonstrate that YopK inhibits bacterial adherence to host cells by binding to the extracellular matrix adaptor protein matrilin-2 (MATN2). YopK binds to MATN2 and deleting the amino acids 91--124 disrupts binding of YopK to MATN2. A yopK null mutant exhibits hyper-adhesive phenotype, which could be responsible for the established Yop hyper-translocation phenotype of yopK mutant...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529271/evidence-of-infection-with-leptospira-interrogans-and-spotted-fever-group-rickettsiae-among-rodents-in-an-urban-area-of-osaka-city-japan
#11
Kenta Shimizu, Rie Isozumi, Kazutoshi Takami, Isao Kimata, Kanae Shiokawa, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Sanae Nishio, Jiro Arikawa
We examined 33 rodents captured in an urban area of Osaka City, Japan for IgG antibodies against Seoul virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, hepatitis E virus, Leptospira interrogans, Yersinia pestis, spotted fever, typhus and scrub typhus group rickettsiae. We found that 3 (9.1%) and 1 (3.0%) of the 33 rodents had antibodies against L. interrogans and spotted fever group rickettsiae, respectively. DNAs of leptospires were detected from 2 of the 3 seropositive rodents, but DNA of rickettsia was not detected...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522707/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-luminescent-strain-vibrio-campbellii-lb102-isolated-from-a-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon-broodstock-rearing-system
#12
Sujeet Kumar, Ashok Kumar Jangam, V Akhil, Vidya Rajendran, Vinaya Kumar Katneni, J Joseph Sahaya Rajan, Monendra Grover, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar, S V Alavandi, K K Vijayan
We report here the genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii LB102, isolated from the broodstock rearing system of a shrimp hatchery in India. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of effector toxins of the type III (YopT, sharing 39% identity with Yersinia pestis) and type VI (VgrG-3 and hemolysin coregulated protein of V. cholerae) secretion systems.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520514/flea-and-small-mammal-species-composition-in-mixed-grass-prairies-implications-for-the-maintenance-of-yersinia-pestis
#13
Lauren P Maestas, Hugh B Britten
Maintenance of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs (Cynomis spp.) was once thought unlikely due to high mortality rates; yet more recent findings indicate that low-level enzootic plague may be maintained in susceptible prairie dog populations. Another hypothesis for the maintenance of sylvatic plague involves small mammals, other than prairie dogs, as an alternative reservoir in the sylvatic plague system. These hypotheses, however, are not mutually exclusive, as both prairie dogs and small mammals could together be driving sylvatic cycles of plague...
May 18, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512097/glutathionylation-of-yersinia-pestis-lcrv-and-its-effects-on-plague-pathogenesis
#14
Anthony Mitchell, Christina Tam, Derek Elli, Thomas Charlton, Patrick Osei-Owusu, Farbod Fazlollahi, Kym F Faull, Olaf Schneewind
Glutathionylation, the formation of reversible mixed disulfides between glutathione and protein cysteine residues, is a posttranslational modification previously observed for intracellular proteins of bacteria. Here we show that Yersinia pestis LcrV, a secreted protein capping the type III secretion machine, is glutathionylated at Cys(273) and that this modification promotes association with host ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), moderates Y. pestis type III effector transport and killing of macrophages, and enhances bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504448/efficacy-of-a-fipronil-bait-in-reducing-the-number-of-fleas-oropsylla-spp-infesting-wild-black-tailed-prairie-dogs
#15
David M Poché, Daniel Hartman, Larisa Polyakova, Richard M Poché
Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487429/rationally-designed-tlr4-ligands-for-vaccine-adjuvant-discovery
#16
Kelsey A Gregg, Erin Harberts, Francesca M Gardner, Mark R Pelletier, Corinne Cayatte, Li Yu, Michael P McCarthy, Jason D Marshall, Robert K Ernst
Adjuvant properties of bacterial cell wall components like MPLA (monophosphoryl lipid A) are well described and have gained FDA approval for use in vaccines such as Cervarix. MPLA is the product of chemically modified lipooligosaccharide (LOS), altered to diminish toxic proinflammatory effects while retaining adequate immunogenicity. Despite the virtually unlimited number of potential sources among bacterial strains, the number of useable compounds within this promising class of adjuvants are few. We have developed bacterial enzymatic combinatorial chemistry (BECC) as a method to generate rationally designed, functionally diverse lipid A...
May 9, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486652/swabbing-prairie-dog-burrows-for-fleas-that-transmit-yersinia-pestis-influences-on-efficiency
#17
David A Eads
Scientists and health-care professionals sometimes use a swabbing technique to collect fleas from rodent burrows, and later test the fleas for Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Detection of Y. pestis is enhanced when large pools of fleas are available. The following study investigated factors that might affect the rate at which fleas are collected from burrows in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Data were collected from 13 colonies in New Mexico during 0600-1000 hours, June-August 2010-2011...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486528/identification-and-characterization-of-a-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibody-that-provides-complete-protection-against-yersinia-pestis
#18
Weicen Liu, Jun Ren, Jinlong Zhang, Xiaohong Song, Shuling Liu, Xiangyang Chi, Yi Chen, Zhonghua Wen, Jianmin Li, Wei Chen
Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) has caused an alarming number of deaths throughout recorded human history, and novel prophylactics and therapeutics are necessary given its potential as a bioweapon. Only one monoclonal antibody has been identified to date that provides complete protection against Y. pestis. Here, we describe a second novel murine monoclonal antibody (F2H5) that provided complete protection against Y. pestis 141 infection when administered prophylactically to Balb/c mice (100 μg intravenously). We humanized F2H5, characterized its ability to bind to the Y...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468083/-advance-on-genome-research-of-yersinia-pestis-bacteriophage
#19
H L Tan, P Wang, W Li
Completion of the genome sequences on Yersinia pestis bacteriophage offered unprecedented opportunity for researchers to carry out related genomic studies. This review was based on the genomic sequences and provided a genomic perspective in describing the essential features of genome on Yersinia pestis bacteriophage. Based on the comparative genomics, genetic evolutionary relationship was discussed. Description of functions from the gene prediction and protein annotation provided evidence for further related studies...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463626/responses-of-juvenile-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus-to-a-commercially-produced-oral-plague-vaccine-delivered-at-two-doses
#20
Elsa M Cárdenas-Canales, Lisa L Wolfe, Daniel W Tripp, Tonie E Rocke, Rachel C Abbott, Michael W Miller
We confirmed safety and immunogenicity of mass-produced vaccine baits carrying an experimental, commercial-source plague vaccine (RCN-F1/V307) expressing Yersinia pestis V and F1 antigens. Forty-five juvenile black-tailed prairie dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n=15 animals/group). Animals in the first group received one standard-dose vaccine bait (5×10(7) plaque-forming units [pfu]; STD). The second group received a lower-dose bait (1×10(7) pfu; LOW). In the third group, five animals received two standard-dose baits and 10 were left untreated but in contact...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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