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David Gur, Itai Glinert, Moshe Aftalion, Yaron Vagima, Yinon Levy, Shahar Rotem, Ayelet Zauberman, Avital Tidhar, Arnon Tal, Sharon Maoz, Raphael Ber, Avi Pass, Emanuelle Mamroud
Pneumonic plague is an infectious disease characterized by rapid and fulminant development of acute pneumonia and septicemia that results in death within days of exposure. The causative agent of pneumonic plague, Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) , is a Tier-1 bio-threat agent. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is effective when given within a narrow therapeutic window after symptom onset. However, the non-specific "flu-like" symptoms often lead to delayed diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated inhalational gentamicin therapy in an infected mouse model as a means to improve antibiotic treatment efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Roberto Mazzoli, Enrica Pessione
The present review article reports the most innovative methods to detect proteins in historical and archeological samples as well as to characterize proteins used as binders in artworks. Difficulties to ascribe proteins to a certain animal species are often due to post-translational modifications originated by chemical or microbial deterioration during aging. Combining different techniques such as peptide mass fingerprinting and tandem mass spectrometry can solve some of these problems and also allow discrimination between taxonomically related species like sheep and goat...
May 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jing Neng, Yina Li, Ashley J Driscoll, William C Wilson, Patrick Alfred Johnson
A robust immunoassay based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been developed to simultaneously detect trace quantities of multiple pathogenic antigens from West Nile virus, Rift Valley Fever virus and Yersinia pestis in fetal bovine serum. Antigens were detected by capture with silica-encapsulated nanotags and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with polyclonal antibodies. The magnetic pull-down resulted in aggregation of the immune complexes and the silica-encapsulated nanotags provided distinct spectra corresponding to each antigen captured...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Qingmei Jia, Richard Bowen, Barbara Jane Dillon, Saša Masleša-Galić, Brennan T Chang, Austin C Kaidi, Marcus A Horwitz
Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis are the causative agents of Tier 1 Select Agents anthrax, plague, and tularemia, respectively. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines against plague and tularemia and the licensed anthrax vaccine is suboptimal. Here we report F. tularensis LVS ΔcapB (Live Vaccine Strain with a deletion in capB)- and attenuated multi-deletional Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-vectored vaccines against all three aforementioned pathogens. We show that LVS ΔcapB- and Lm-vectored vaccines express recombinant B...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yvan Jamilloux, Flora Magnotti, Alexandre Belot, Thomas Henry
Numerous pathogens including Clostridium difficile and Yersinia pestis have evolved toxins or effectors targeting GTPases from the RhoA subfamily (RhoA/B/C) to inhibit or hijack the host cytoskeleton dynamics. The resulting impairment of RhoA GTPases activity is sensed by the host via an innate immune complex termed the pyrin inflammasome in which caspase-1 is activated. The cascade leading to activation of the pyrin inflammasome has been recently uncovered. In this review, following a brief presentation of RhoA GTPases-modulating toxins, we present the pyrin inflammasome and its regulatory mechanisms...
April 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Mary Danforth, James Tucker, Mark Novak
It has long been theorized that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are a primary reservoir of Yersinia pestis in California. However, recent research from other parts of the western USA has implicated deer mice as spillover hosts during epizootic plague transmission. This retrospective study analyzed deer mouse data collected for plague surveillance by public health agencies in California from 1971 to 2016 to help elucidate the role of deer mice in plague transmission. The fleas most commonly found on deer mice were poor vectors of Y...
April 26, 2018: EcoHealth
Jeffrey C Chandler, Laurie A Baeten, Doreen L Griffin, Thomas Gidlewski, Thomas J DeLiberto, Jeannine M Petersen, Ryan Pappert, John W Young, Sarah N Bevins
Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, and is considered a category A priority pathogen due to its potential for high transmissibility and the significant morbidity and mortality it causes in humans. Y. pestis is endemic to the Western United States and much of the world, necessitating programs to monitor for this pathogen on the landscape. Elevated human risk of plague infection has been spatially correlated with spikes in seropositive wildlife numbers, particularly rodent-eating carnivores which are frequently in contact with the enzootic hosts and the associated arthropod vectors of Y...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Ioannis Solos, Yuan Liang
Chinese tongue diagnosis was initially developed to quickly and efficiently diagnose and prescribe medicine, while at the same time allowing the doctor to have minimal contact with the patient. At the time of its compiling, the spread of Yersinia pestis, often causing septicaemia and gangrene of the extremities, may have discouraged doctors to come in direct contact with their patients and take the pulse. However, in recent decades, modern developments in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as the spread of antibiotics in conjunction with the advancements of microbiology, have overshadowed the original purpose of this methodology...
May 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
A Galy, P Loubet, N Peiffer-Smadja, Y Yazdanpanah
Plague is a bacterial zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, usually found in fleas and small rodents that constitute the reservoir of the disease. It is transmitted to humans by flea bite, contact with rodents or inhalation of infected droplets. There are three clinical forms: bubonic plague, pulmonary plague and septicemic plague. The usual presentation is a flu-like syndrome possibly accompanied by an inflammatory lymphadenopathy which appears after 1 to 7days of incubation. Bubonic plague has a case fatality rate of about 50% while other forms of plague are almost always fatal without treatment...
April 5, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
K W Bafundo, M J da Costa, G M Pesti
Four floor pen studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of nicarbazin (NIC) administration on blood glucose concentrations and the onset of hypoglycemia in broiler chickens. All tests involved continuous NIC feeding at 0, 100, or 125 ppm to 28 days of age. In each study, birds were reared at both standard environmental temperatures and at 3 C below this level. In addition, two studies were conducted in the presence of coccidial infection and two were carried out in noninfected broilers. At 26 days of age in each test, two birds per pen were bled by puncture of the brachial vein, and whole blood glucose concentrations were determined...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Jeffrey S McFarlane, Cara L Davis, Audrey L Lamb
Opine dehydrogenases (ODH) from the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Yersinia pestis perform the final enzymatic step in the biosynthesis of a new class of opine metallophores, which includes staphylopine, pseudopaline, and yersinopine, respectively. Growing evidence indicates the important role of this pathway in metal acquisition and virulence, including in lung and burn wound infections ( P. aeruginosa ) and in blood and heart infections ( S. aureus ). Here, we present a kinetic and structural characterization of these three opine dehydrogenases...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wanbing Liu, Yafang Tan, Shiyang Cao, Haihong Zhao, Haihong Fang, Xiaoyan Yang, Tong Wang, Yazhou Zhou, Yanfeng Yan, Yanping Han, Yajun Song, Yujing Bi, Xiaoyi Wang, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du
Recent studies have revealed that acetylation is a widely used protein modification in prokaryotic organisms. The major protein acetylation acetyltransferase YfiQ and the sirtuin-like deacetylase CobB have been found to be involved in basic physiological processes such as primary metabolism, chemotaxis and stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella However, little is known about protein acetylation modifications in Yersinia pestis, a lethal pathogen responsible for millions of human deaths in three worldwide pandemics...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Olga O Bochkareva, Natalia O Dranenko, Elena S Ocheredko, German M Kanevsky, Yaroslav N Lozinsky, Vera A Khalaycheva, Irena I Artamonova, Mikhail S Gelfand
Genome rearrangements have played an important role in the evolution of Yersinia pestis from its progenitor Yersinia pseudotuberculosis . Traditional phylogenetic trees for Y. pestis based on sequence comparison have short internal branches and low bootstrap supports as only a small number of nucleotide substitutions have occurred. On the other hand, even a small number of genome rearrangements may resolve topological ambiguities in a phylogenetic tree. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees based on genome rearrangements using several popular approaches such as Maximum likelihood for Gene Order and the Bayesian model of genome rearrangements by inversions...
2018: PeerJ
Ashot Margaryan, Henrik B Hansen, Simon Rasmussen, Martin Sikora, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Alexandr Khoklov, Andrey Epimakhov, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Aivar Kriiska, Liivi Varul, Lehti Saag, Niels Lynnerup, Eske Willerslev, Morten E Allentoft
Recent ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human pathogens have provided invaluable insights into their evolutionary history and prevalence in space and time. Most of these studies were based on DNA extracted from teeth or postcranial bones. In contrast, no pathogen DNA has been reported from the petrous bone which has become the most desired skeletal element in ancient DNA research due to its high endogenous DNA content. To compare the potential for pathogenic aDNA retrieval from teeth and petrous bones, we sampled these elements from five ancient skeletons, previously shown to be carrying Yersinia pestis ...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Peng Wang, Liyuan Shi, Fuxin Zhang, Ying Guo, Zhikai Zhang, Hongli Tan, Zhigang Cui, Yibo Ding, Ying Liang, Yun Liang, Dongzheng Yu, Jianguo Xu, Wei Li, Zhizhong Song
Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, was classified as a reemerging infectious disease by the World Health Organization. The five human pneumonic plague cases in Yulong County in 2005 gave rise to the discovery of a Yulong plague focus in Yunnan province, China. Thereafter, continuous wild rodent plague (sylvatic plague) was identified as the main plague reservoir of this focus. In this study, the epizootics in Yulong focus were described, and three molecular typing methods, including the different region (DFR) analysis, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) (14+12), were used for the molecular typing and source tracing of Y...
March 30, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mikhail A Moldovan, Mikhail S Gelfand
The pangenome is the collection of all groups of orthologous genes (OGGs) from a set of genomes. We apply the pangenome analysis to propose a definition of prokaryotic species based on identification of lineage-specific gene sets. While being similar to the classical biological definition based on allele flow, it does not rely on DNA similarity levels and does not require analysis of homologous recombination. Hence this definition is relatively objective and independent of arbitrary thresholds. A systematic analysis of 110 accepted species with the largest numbers of sequenced strains yields results largely consistent with the existing nomenclature...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jeremy T Ritzert, Wyndham W Lathem
Bacterial pathogenesis depends on changes in metabolic and virulence gene expression in response to changes within a pathogen's environment. The plague-causing pathogen, Yersinia pestis, requires expression of the gene encoding the Pla protease for progression of pneumonic plague. The catabolite repressor protein Crp, a global transcriptional regulator, may serve as the activator of pla in response to changes within the lungs as disease progresses. By using gene reporter fusions, the spatial and temporal activation of the crp and pla promoters was measured in a mouse model of pneumonic plague...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Leonardo da Costa Bastos, Felipe Rodrigues de Souza, Lucas Miguel Pereira Souza, Pat Forgione, Teobaldo Cuya, Ricardo Bicca de Alencastro, Andre Silva Pimentel, Tanos Celmar Costa França
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Deepti Chaturvedi, Radhakrishnan Mahalakshmi
Transmembrane β-barrel proteins (OMPs) are highly robust structures for engineering and development of nanopore channels, surface biosensors, and display libraries. Expanding the applications of designed OMPs requires the identification of elements essential for β-barrel scaffold formation and stability. Here, we have designed chimeric 8-stranded OMPs composed of strand hybrids of Escherichia coli OmpX and Yersinia pestis Ail, and identified molecular motifs essential for β-barrel scaffold formation. For the OmpX/Ail chimeras, we find that the central hairpin strands β4-β5 in tandem are vital for β-barrel folding...
March 14, 2018: Biochemistry
Katalin Szabó, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Nóra Lampé, Rita Kiss, Judit Remenyik, Georgina Pesti-Asbóth, Dániel Priksz, Zoltán Szilvássy, Béla Juhász
Fenugreek is a common herb possessing several bioactive components including diosgenin. Here, dietary fenugreek seed flour and diosgenin were evaluated on a model of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by abdominal aortas isolated from rats receiving high-fat, high-sugar diet (HFHSD). 60 male Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: (i) negative control getting conventional rat feed regimen; (ii) positive control receiving HFHSD; (iii) a test group fed 2 g/kg bw/day fenugreek seed flour (containing 10 mg/kg bw/day diosgenin) + HFHSD; (iv) three test groups fed 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg bw/day diosgenin + HFHSD...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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