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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293231/isolation-of-francisella-tularensis-and-yersinia-pestis-from-blood-cultures-by-plasma-purification-and-immunomagnetic-separation-accelerates-antibiotic-susceptibility-determination
#1
Ronit Aloni-Grinstein, Ofir Schuster, Shmuel Yitzhaki, Moshe Aftalion, Sharon Maoz, Ida Steinberger-Levy, Raphael Ber
The early symptoms of tularemia and plague, which are caused by Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis infection, respectively, are common to other illnesses, resulting in a low index of suspicion among clinicians. Moreover, because these diseases can be treated only with antibiotics, rapid isolation of the bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are preferable. Blood cultures of patients may serve as a source for bacteria isolation. However, due to the slow growth rates of F. tularensis and Y...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260338/-genotyping-by-crispr-and-regional-distribution-of-yersinia-pestis-in-qinghai-plateau-from-1954-to-2011
#2
X Q Xu, Y Q Xin, X Li, Q W Zhang, X Y Yang, Y Jin, H H Zhao, X Jin, Z Z Qi
Objective: To investigate the CRISPR genotypes (clusters) and regional distribution of Yersinia pestis in Qinghai-plateau. Methods: One hundred and two isolates of Y. pestis isolated from human plague patients, host animal and insect vectors from Qinghai-plateau were selected. The DNAs were extracted using the traditional sodium dodecyl sulfate decomposition and phenol-chloroform method. Three CRISPR loci YPa, YPb and YPc of 102 isolates of Y. pesits were amplified and sequenced, and then the CRISPR sequence analysis was carried out by comparing the latest published CRISPR spacer dictionary and the NCBI database to identify the spacer and spacer array...
March 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257423/mechanism-study-on-a-plague-outbreak-driven-by-the-construction-of-a-large-reservoir-in-southwest-china-surveillance-from-2000-2015
#3
Xin Wang, Xiaoyu Wei, Zhizhong Song, Mingliu Wang, Jinxiao Xi, Junrong Liang, Yun Liang, Ran Duan, Kecheng Tian, Yong Zhao, Guangpeng Tang, Lv You, Guirong Yang, Xuebin Liu, Yuhuang Chen, Jun Zeng, Shengrong Wu, Shoujun Luo, Gang Qin, Huijing Hao, Huaiqi Jing
BACKGROUND: Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years' surveillance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show the prevalence of plague within the natural plague focus is closely related to the stability of local ecology...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243913/immunogenesis-in-white-mice-infected-with-yersinia-pestis-with-different-plasmid-composition
#4
S V Balakhonov, S A Vityazeva, V I Dubrovina, T P Starovoitova, G B Mukhturgin, T A Ivanova, K M Korytov, S I Kolesnikov
Morphological changes in the immunocompetent organs of white mice with experimental plague infection manifested in activation of the immune response of different degree and pathological process of different severity that depended on the plasmid composition of Y. pestis. Widening of the T-dependent zones in the immune organs of white mice infected with isogenic strains of Y. pestis with different plasmid composition attests to activation of cellular immunity. Our findings allow considering Y. pestis subsp. altaica I-2948/3, Y...
February 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239773/high-resolution-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy-of-the-yersinia-pestis-outer-membrane-protein-ail-in-lipid-membranes
#5
Yong Yao, Samit Kumar Dutta, Sang Ho Park, Ratan Rai, L Miya Fujimoto, Andrey A Bobkov, Stanley J Opella, Francesca M Marassi
The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail's biological activity...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236809/methods-for-simulating-nutritional-requirement-and-response-studies-with-all-organisms-to-increase-research-efficiency
#6
Dmitry Vedenov, Rashed A Alhotan, Runlian Wang, Gene M Pesti
Nutritional requirements and responses of all organisms are estimated using various models representing the response to different dietary levels of the nutrient in question. To help nutritionists design experiments for estimating responses and requirements, we developed a simulation workbook using Microsoft Excel. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the influence of different numbers of nutrient levels, ranges of nutrient levels and replications per nutrient level on the estimates of requirements based on common nutritional response models...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223382/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-omadacycline-against-two-biothreat-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#7
Judith Steenbergen, S Ken Tanaka, Lynda L Miller, Stephanie A Halasohoris, Jeremy R Hershfield
Introduction: The in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of omadacycline (OMC) were evaluated against the causative pathogens of anthrax and plague, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, respectively.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of OMC were determined by microbroth dilution according to CLSI guidelines for 30 isolates each of Y. pestis and B. anthracis The in vivo efficacy of omadacycline was studied at a range of dosages in both a post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) murine model of anthrax and plague as well as in a delayed treatment model of inhalational anthrax...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221119/pneumonic-plague-transmission-moramanga-madagascar-2015
#8
Beza Ramasindrazana, Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Jean Marius Rakotondramanga, Dawn N Birdsell, Maherisoa Ratsitorahina, Minoarisoa Rajerison
During a pneumonic plague outbreak in Moramanga, Madagascar, we identified 4 confirmed, 1 presumptive, and 9 suspected plague case-patients. Human-to-human transmission among close contacts was high (reproductive number 1.44) and the case fatality rate was 71%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yersinia pestis isolates belonged to group q3, different from the previous outbreak.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220110/inhaled-liposomal-ciprofloxacin-protects-against-a-lethal-infection-in-a-murine-model-of-pneumonic-plague
#9
Karleigh A Hamblin, Stuart J Armstrong, Kay B Barnes, Carwyn Davies, Thomas Laws, James D Blanchard, Sarah V Harding, Helen S Atkins
Inhalation of Yersinia pestis can lead to pneumonic plague, which without treatment is inevitably fatal. Two novel formulations of liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin, 'ciprofloxacin for inhalation' (CFI, Lipoquin(®)) and 'dual release ciprofloxacin for inhalation' (DRCFI, Pulmaquin(®)) containing CFI and ciprofloxacin solution, are in development. These were evaluated as potential therapies for infection with Y. pestis. In a murine model of pneumonic plague, human-like doses of aerosolized CFI, aerosolized DRCFI or intraperitoneal (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219158/-experimental-observation-on-the-histopathological-and-ultrastructural-pathology-of-great-gerbils-rhombomys-opimus-in-the-junggar-basin-by-subcutaneous-injecting-of-yersinia-pestis
#10
B Li, Rehemu Azhati, W W Meng, T Luo, B Li, Maituohuti Abulimiti, X H Wang, X Dai, Y J Zhang
Objective: To understand the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology changes of great gerbils in the Junggar Basin to Yersinia pestis infection. Methods: Forty captured great gerbils from the Junggar Basin that tested negative for anti-F1 antibodies were infected. The Y. pestis strain 2504, isolated from a live great gerbil in the natural plague foci of the Junggar Basin in 2005 with a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of <10 CFU/ml, was used in this study. Forty great gerbils were divided into seven infection groups and were subcutaneously infected with 7...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167671/defining-the-ail-ligand-binding-surface-hydrophobic-residues-in-two-extracellular-loops-mediate-cell-and-extracellular-matrix-binding-to-facilitate-yop-delivery
#11
Tiffany M Tsang, Jeffrey S Wiese, Jamal A Alhabeil, Lisa D Usselman, Joshua J Thomson, Rafla Matti, Malte Kronshage, Natalie Maricic, Shanedah Williams, Naama H Sleiman, Suleyman Felek, Eric S Krukonis
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, binds host cells to deliver cytotoxic Yop proteins into the cytoplasm that prevent phagocytosis and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ail is an eight-stranded β-barrel outer membrane protein with four extracellular loops that mediates cell binding and resistance to human serum. Following deletion of each of the four extracellular loops that potentially interact with host cells, the Ail-Δloop 2 and Ail-Δloop 3 mutants had no cell binding activity while Ail-Δloop 4 maintained cell binding (the Ail-Δloop 1 protein was unstable)...
February 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166384/cryptosporidium-identification-and-genetic-typing
#12
Jan Šlapeta
Cryptosporidium spp. are obligate protozoan parasites of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans. In the majority of human cases, the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis is caused by either the human-adapted species Cryptosporidium hominis or the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum 'bovine genotype' (also known as Cryptosporidium pestis). The infectious stage, environmentally resilient Cryptosporidium oocysts, are shed by the infected host. Cryptosporidium parasites are transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are one of the major water-borne pathogens...
February 6, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165493/a-noise-trimming-and-positional-significance-of-transposon-insertion-system-to-identify-essential-genes-in-yersinia-pestis
#13
Zheng Rong Yang, Helen L Bullifent, Karen Moore, Konrad Paszkiewicz, Richard J Saint, Stephanie J Southern, Olivia L Champion, Nicola J Senior, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Petra C F Oyston, Timothy P Atkins, Richard W Titball
Massively parallel sequencing technology coupled with saturation mutagenesis has provided new and global insights into gene functions and roles. At a simplistic level, the frequency of mutations within genes can indicate the degree of essentiality. However, this approach neglects to take account of the positional significance of mutations - the function of a gene is less likely to be disrupted by a mutation close to the distal ends. Therefore, a systematic bioinformatics approach to improve the reliability of essential gene identification is desirable...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125398/successful-treatment-of-human-plague-with-oral-ciprofloxacin
#14
Titus Apangu, Kevin Griffith, Janet Abaru, Gordian Candini, Harriet Apio, Felix Okoth, Robert Okello, John Kaggwa, Sarah Acayo, Geoffrey Ezama, Brook Yockey, Christopher Sexton, Martin Schriefer, Edward Katongole Mbidde, Paul Mead
The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved ciprofloxacin for treatment of plague (Yersina pestis infection) based on animal studies. Published evidence of efficacy in humans is sparse. We report 5 cases of culture-confirmed human plague treated successfully with oral ciprofloxacin, including 1 case of pneumonic plague.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122816/effectiveness-of-fipronil-as-a-systemic-control-agent-against-xenopsylla-cheopis-siphonaptera-pulicidae-in-madagascar
#15
D M Rajonhson, A Miarinjara, S Rahelinirina, M Rajerison, S Boyer
Fipronil was evaluated as a systemic control agent for the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), the main vector of Yersinia pestis (Yersin), the causative agent of plague, in Madagascar. The effectiveness of fipronil as a systemic control agent against X. cheopis was assessed by determining the toxicity values of the "Lethal Dose 50" (LD50). Two techniques were used to evaluate the systemic action of the insecticide on the vector: 1) an artificial feeding device filled with blood-fipronil mixture from which X...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121078/research-highlights
#16
(no author information available yet)
In this issue, we highlight work from Cecchinato et al. revealing a technique for restoring chemotaxis in HIV-infected Th17 cells, a study by Wei et al. showing that Yersinia pestis YopM is an E3 ligase that can regulate host inflammasomes, a paper by Prokesch et al. reporting that p53 regulates metabolic adaptation to starvation in normal hepatocytes and work from Singh et al. that shows that Salmonella acquires nutrients from host cells by hijacking chaperone-mediated autophagy.
January 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117561/wildlife-plague-surveillance-near-the-china-kazakhstan-border-2012-2015
#17
S-S Zhao, Y Pulati, X-P Yin, W Li, B-J Wang, K Yang, C-F Chen, Y-Z Wang
Plague is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This pathogen can be transmitted by fleas and has an enzootic cycle, circulating among small mammals, and occasionally epizootic cycles, infecting other species. In China, infected wild rodents are primarily reservoirs of Y. Pestis and are related to human infection (Int. J. Infect. Dis., 33, 2015 and 67; BMC Microbiol., 9, 2009 and 205). Because shepherd dogs prey on and eat rodents (e.g. marmots and mice), they are valuable sentinel animals for plague serosurveillance in endemic disease foci, although their infections are usually asymptomatic (Vet...
January 24, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103160/yersinia-pestis-acetyltransferase-mediated-dual-acetylation-at-the-serine-and-lysine-residues-enhances-the-auto-ubiquitination-of-ubiquitin-ligase-march8-in-human-cells
#18
Cuiling Li, Daoguang Wang, Xin Lv, Ruirui Jing, Baibin Bi, Xinjun Chen, Jisheng Guo, Fengqin Wang, Shengnan Sun, Kazem M Azadzoi, Jing-Hua Yang
Lysine acetylation is known as a post translational modification (PTM) by histone acetyltransferases (HAT) that modifies histones and non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression. Serine acetylation, however, is reported in mammalian hosts by serine acetyltransferase of Yersinia pestis (YopJ) during infection. The protein target and cellular function of bacterial YopJ in mammalian systems are not fully addressed. Here we report dual acetylation at the serine and lysine residues by transiently expressed serine acetyltransferase YopJ mimicking Y...
January 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#19
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 26, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090753/inferring-infection-hazard-in-wildlife-populations-by-linking-data-across-individual-and-population-scales
#20
Kim M Pepin, Shannon L Kay, Ben D Golas, Susan S Shriner, Amy T Gilbert, Ryan S Miller, Andrea L Graham, Steven Riley, Paul C Cross, Michael D Samuel, Mevin B Hooten, Jennifer A Hoeting, James O Lloyd-Smith, Colleen T Webb, Michael G Buhnerkempe
Our ability to infer unobservable disease-dynamic processes such as force of infection (infection hazard for susceptible hosts) has transformed our understanding of disease transmission mechanisms and capacity to predict disease dynamics. Conventional methods for inferring FOI estimate a time-averaged value and are based on population-level processes. Because many pathogens exhibit epidemic cycling and FOI is the result of processes acting across the scales of individuals and populations, a flexible framework that extends to epidemic dynamics and links within-host processes to FOI is needed...
March 2017: Ecology Letters
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