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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433811/rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-salmonid-alphavirus-using-taqman-real-time-pcr
#1
Wen Shi, Aochen Song, Shuai Gao, Yuting Wang, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Tong Ren, Yijing Li, Min Liu
Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) infection has led to the spread of salmon pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) to salmonids in several countries in Europe, resulting in tremendous economic losses to the fish farming industry. Recently, with increases in the fish import trade, many countries in which SAV has been unreported, such as China, may be seriously threatened by these diseases. It is therefore necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the prevention and diagnosis of SAV infection. In this study, a rapid and sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR method was established and assessed for this purpose...
April 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433053/the-envelope-proteins-of-the-bunyavirales
#2
Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Félix A Rey
The Bunyavirales Order encompasses nine families of enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome divided into three segments. The small (S) and large (L) segments encode proteins participating in genome replication in the infected cell cytoplasm. The middle (M) segment encodes the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are derived from a precursor polyprotein by host cell proteases. Entry studies are available only for a few viruses in the Order, and in each case they were shown to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429853/molecular-cloning-of-mda5-phylogenetic-analysis-of-rig-i-like-receptors-rlrs-and-differential-gene-expression-of-rlrs-interferons-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-after-in%C3%A2-vitro-challenge-with-ipnv-isav-and-sav-in-the-salmonid-cell-line-to
#3
I-K G Nerbøvik, M A Solheim, H Ø Eggestøl, A Rønneseth, R A Jakobsen, H I Wergeland, G T Haugland
The RIG-I receptors RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 are involved in viral recognition, and they have different ligand specificity and recognize different viruses. Activation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) leads to production of cytokines essential for antiviral immunity. In fish, most research has focused on interferons, and less is known about the production of proinflammatory cytokines during viral infections. In this study, we have cloned the full-length MDA5 sequence in Atlantic salmon, and compared it with RIG-I and LGP2...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417936/oncolytic-alphaviruses-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Kenneth Lundstrom
Oncolytic viruses show specific targeting and killing of tumor cells and therefore provide attractive assets for cancer immunotherapy. In parallel to oncolytic viral vectors based on adenoviruses and herpes simplex viruses, oncolytic RNA viruses and particularly alphaviruses have been evaluated as delivery vehicles. Immunization studies in experimental rodent models for various cancers including glioblastoma, hematologic, hepatocellular, colon, cervix, and lung cancer as well as melanoma have been conducted with naturally occurring oncolytic alphavirus strains such as M1 and Sindbis AR339...
April 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414993/chikungunya-virus-infections-time-to-act-time-to-treat
#5
REVIEW
Rana Abdelnabi, Johan Neyts, Leen Delang
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus that caused massive outbreaks of Chikungunya fever in several countries and regions in Africa, Asia and more recently in Central and South America. An acute CHIKV infection is usually associated with fever and arthritis and it is rarely fatal. However, 15-60% of patients suffer from chronic polyarthralgia for weeks, months or even for several years after the acute infection. There are currently no vaccines or antivirals available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections...
April 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403165/triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts-accumulate-prevalence-more-slowly-than-diploid-salmon-following-bath-challenge-with-salmonid-alphavirus-subtype-3
#6
Lindsey J Moore, Tom Ole Nilsen, Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may play an important role in the sustainable expansion of the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Therefore, the susceptibility of triploid salmon to common infections such as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causative agent of pancreas disease (PD), requires investigation. In this study, shortly after seawater transfer, diploid and triploid post-smolts were exposed to SAV type 3 (SAV3) using a bath challenge model where the infectious dose was 48 TCID50 ml-1 of tank water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400766/function-and-structural-organization-of-the-replication-protein-of-bamboo-mosaic-virus
#7
REVIEW
Menghsiao Meng, Cheng-Cheng Lee
The genus Potexvirus is one of the eight genera belonging to the family Alphaflexiviridae according to the Virus Taxonomy 2015 released by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (www.ictvonline.org/index.asp). Currently, the genus contains 35 known species including many agricultural important viruses, e.g., Potato virus X (PVX). Members of this genus are characterized by flexuous, filamentous virions of 13 nm in diameter and 470-580 nm in length. A potexvirus has a monopartite positive-strand RNA genome, encoding five open-reading frames (ORFs), with a cap structure at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376065/chikungunya-virus-and-autoimmunity
#8
Amir Tanay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus. Fever, rash and severe arthralgia are the hallmarks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF), the disease caused by this virus. The acute course of the disease usually lasts few weeks to months. Chronic, relapsing or persistent arthralgia and arthritis have been described mimicking rheumatoid arthritis (RA), requiring immunosuppressive drugs.The purpose of this review is to characterize both the chronic clinical course of CHIKF-associated arthritis and the immunological pathogenic mechanisms involved...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374252/alphavirus-based-vaccines
#9
Kenneth Lundstrom
Alphavirus-based vectors have been engineered from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and applied for vaccine development. Immunization in preclinical animal models has been conducted with naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles and layered DNA-RNA vectors. Most commonly, the targets for the immunization have been viral surface proteins and tumor antigens, which have elicited strong immune responses and even provided protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365217/tropical-arthritogenic-alphaviruses
#10
Carla-Ruth Mejía, Rogelio López-Vélez
Tropical alphaviruses have special tropism for bone and joint tissue. Patients can develop chronic rheumatic disorders similar to rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The prototype is Chikungunya virus, although other lesser known viruses in our environment such as Sindbis, Ross River, Mayaro, O'nyong nyong and Barmah Forest viruses have the potential to be sped through vectors and cause chronic rheumatic disease. International population movements have increased the numbers of patients diagnosed with these tropical viruses in areas in which they are not endemic...
March 29, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350454/structural-optimizations-of-thieno-3-2-b-pyrrole-derivatives-for-the-development-of-metabolically-stable-inhibitors-of-chikungunya-virus
#11
Kuan-Chieh Ching, Thi Ngoc Quy Tran, Siti Naqiah Amrun, Yiu-Wing Kam, Lisa F P Ng, Christina L L Chai
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging vector-borne alphavirus, and there is no approved effective antiviral treatment currently available for CHIKV. We previously reported the discovery of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole 1b that displayed good antiviral activity against CHIKV infection in vitro. However, it has a short half-life in the presence of human liver microsomes (HLMs) (T1/2 = 2.91 min). Herein, we report further optimization studies in which potential metabolically labile sites on compound 1b were removed or modified, resulting in the identification of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole 20 and pyrrolo[2,3-d]thiazole 23c possessing up to 17-fold increase in metabolic half-lives in HLMs and good in vivo pharmacokinetic properties...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341533/epidemiology-of-infectious-encephalitis-causes-in-2016
#12
REVIEW
A Boucher, J L Herrmann, P Morand, R Buzelé, Y Crabol, J P Stahl, A Mailles
We performed a literature search in the Medline database, using the PubMed website. The incidence of presumably infectious encephalitis is estimated at 1.5-7 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year, excluding epidemics. Infectious encephalitis and immune-mediated encephalitis share similar clinical signs and symptoms. The latter accounts for a significant proportion of presumably infectious encephalitis cases without any established etiological diagnosis; as shown from a prospective cohort study where 21% of cases were due to an immune cause...
March 22, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334511/elongated-and-shortened-peptidomimetic-inhibitors-of-the-proprotein-convertase-furin
#13
Kornelia Hardes, Teodora Ivanova, Bastian Thaa, Gerald M McInerney, Tove Irene Klokk, Kirsten Sandvig, Sebastian Künzel, Iris Lindberg, Torsten Steinmetzer
Novel elongated and shortened derivatives of the peptidomimetic furin inhibitor phenylacetyl-Arg-Val-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide were synthesized. The most potent compounds, such as N(α) (carbamidoyl)Arg-Arg-Val-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide (Ki =6.2 pm), contain additional basic residues at the N terminus and inhibit furin in the low-picomolar range. Furthermore, to decrease the molecular weight of this inhibitor type, compounds that lack the P5 moiety were prepared. The best inhibitors of this series, 5-(guanidino)valeroyl-Val-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide and its P3 tert-leucine analogue displayed Ki values of 2...
March 23, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323214/immunological-interactions-between-piscine-orthoreovirus-and-salmonid-alphavirus-infections-in-atlantic-salmon
#14
Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Morten Lund, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Turhan Markussen, Vidar Aspehaug, Hilde Sindre, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and pancreas disease (PD) cause substantial losses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. The respective causative agents, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) and Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), are widespread and often concurrently present in farmed salmon. An experimental infection in Atlantic salmon was conducted to study the interaction between the two viruses, including the immunological mechanisms involved. The co-infected fish were infected with PRV four or ten weeks before they were infected with SAV...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322700/increased-proinflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-prolonged-arthralgia-in-ross-river-virus-infection
#15
Dennis Tappe, José Vicente Pérez-Girón, Sergio Gómez-Medina, Stephan Günther, César Muñoz-Fontela, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit
Ross River virus, a mosquitoborne alphavirus, causes epidemic polyarthritis in Australia and the Pacific region. We analyzed serum cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels in travelers returning to Germany from Australia. Serum samples showed elevated concentrations in the acute phase of the illness and, more pronounced, in the long-lasting convalescent phase.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288924/global-expansion-of-chikungunya-virus-mapping-the-64-year-history
#16
REVIEW
Braira Wahid, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that is emerging as a global threat because of the highly debilitating nature of the associated disease and unprecedented magnitude of its spread. Chikungunya originated in Africa and has since spread across the entire globe causing large numbers of epidemics that have infected millions of people in Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Europe, the Americas, and Pacific Islands. Phylogenetic analysis has identified four different genotypes of CHIKV: Asian, West African, East/Central/South African (ECSA), and Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL)...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288385/alphaviruses-suppress-host-immunity-by-preventing-myeloid-cell-replication-and-antagonizing-innate-immune-responses
#17
REVIEW
Derek W Trobaugh, William B Klimstra
Alphaviruses are medically important mosquito-borne viruses that cause a range of diseases in humans from febrile illness to arthritis or encephalitis. The innate immune response functions to suppress virus replication through upregulation of antiviral molecules and contributes to development of the adaptive immune response. Myeloid cells act as master regulators of virus infection by initiating both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Alphaviruses are capable of antagonizing individual components of these responses to increase replicative fitness in vivo...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278416/arboviral-diseases-and-malaria-in-australia-2013-14-annual-report-of-the-national-arbovirus-and-malaria-advisory-committee
#18
Katrina E Knope, Mike Muller, Nina Kurucz, Stephen L Doggett, Rebecca Feldman, Cheryl A Johansen, Michaela Hobby, Sonya Bennett, Stacey Lynch, Angus Sly, Bart J Currie
This report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases of public health importance in Australia during the 2013-14 season (1 July 2013 to 30 June 2014) and includes data from human notifications, sentinel chicken, vector and virus surveillance programs. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received notifications for 8,898 cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes during the 2013-14 season. The Australasian alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus accounted for 6,372 (72%) total notifications...
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264056/salmonid-alphavirus-infection-causes-skin-dysbiosis-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts
#19
Kristin M Reid, Sonal Patel, Aaron J Robinson, Lijing Bu, Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Lindsey J Moore, Irene Salinas
Interactions among host, microbiota and viral pathogens are complex and poorly understood. The goal of the present study is to assess the changes in the skin microbial community of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in response to experimental infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The salmon skin microbial community was determined using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing in five different experimental groups: control, 7 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 14 days after infection with low-dose SAV, 7 days after infection with high-dose SAV, and 14 days after infection with high-dose SAV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249012/correction-a-prime-boost-vaccination-strategy-in-cattle-to-prevent-foot-and-mouth-disease-using-a-single-cycle-alphavirus-vector-and-empty-capsid-particles
#20
Maria Gullberg, Louise Lohse, Anette Bøtner, Gerald M McInerney, Alison Burman, Terry Jackson, Charlotta Polacek, Graham J Belsham
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157435.].
2017: PloS One
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