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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719301/development-of-a-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-o-nyong-nyong-virus-and-evaluation-with-clinical-and-mosquito-specimens-from-kenya
#1
Jesse Waggoner, Claire Jane Heath, Bryson Ndenga, Francis Mutuku, Malaya K Sahoo, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, John Vulule, Dunstan Mukoko, A Desiree LaBeaud, Benjamin A Pinsky
O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), an alphavirus closely related to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has been the documented cause of two large outbreaks in east Africa; however, little is known about the contribution of ONNV to cases of acute febrile illness during interepidemic periods. An ONNV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was developed and evaluated using clinical and mosquito pool samples. The ONNV rRT-PCR linear range extended from 8.0 to 2.0 log10 copies/μL, and the lower limit of 95% detection was 22...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718925/a-historical-review-of-the-key-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-of-scottish-wild-fish
#2
REVIEW
I S Wallace, P McKay, A G Murray
Thousands of Scottish wild fish were screened for pathogens by Marine Scotland Science. A systematic review of published and unpublished data on six key pathogens (Renibacterium salmoninarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, IPNV, ISAV, SAV and VHSV) found in Scottish wild and farmed fish was undertaken. Despite many reported cases in farmed fish, there was a limited number of positive samples from Scottish wild fish, however, there was evidence for interactions between wild and farmed fish. A slightly elevated IPNV prevalence was reported in wild marine fish caught close to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715413/zika-virus-alters-the-microrna-expression-profile-and-elicits-an-rnai-response-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#3
Miguel A Saldaña, Kayvan Etebari, Charles E Hart, Steven G Widen, Thomas G Wood, Saravanan Thangamani, Sassan Asgari, Grant L Hughes
Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti, has recently spread globally in an unprecedented fashion, yet we have a poor understanding of host-microbe interactions in this system. To gain insights into the interplay between ZIKV and the mosquito, we sequenced the small RNA profiles in ZIKV-infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes at 2, 7 and 14 days post-infection. ZIKA induced an RNAi response in the mosquito with virus-derived short interfering RNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs dramatically increased in abundance post-infection...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701392/partially-uncleaved-alphavirus-replicase-forms-spherule-structures-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-rna-template
#4
Kirsi Hellström, Katri Kallio, Age Utt, Tania Quirin, Eija Jokitalo, Andres Merits, Tero Ahola
Alphaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses expressing their replicase as a polyprotein P1234, which is cleaved to four final products, nonstructural proteins nsP1-nsP4. The replicase proteins together with viral RNA and host factors form membrane invaginations termed spherules, which act as the replication complexes producing progeny RNAs. We have previously shown that the wild type alphavirus replicase requires a functional RNA template and active polymerase to generate spherule structures. However, we now find that specific partially processed forms of the replicase proteins alone can give rise to membrane invaginations, in the absence of RNA or replication...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700065/encephalitis-associated-with-the-chikungunya-epidemic-outbreak-in-brazil-report-of-2-cases-with-neuroimaging-findings
#5
Licia Pacheco Pereira, Rafaela Villas-Bôas, Stephanie Suzanne de Oliveira Scott, Paulo Ribeiro Nóbrega, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Bruno Cavalcante, Pedro Braga-Neto
Chikungunya, an alphavirus infection presenting with fever, rash, and polyarthritis, is most often an acute febrile illness. Neurologic complications of chikungunya infection have been reported. Here we report the clinical and neuroimaging data of 2 patients with chikungunya-associated encephalitis during the recent Brazilian epidemic.
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689975/the-medicinal-chemistry-of-chikungunya-virus
#6
REVIEW
Edeildo F da Silva-Júnior, Giovanni O Leoncini, Érica E S Rodrigues, Thiago M Aquino, João X Araújo-Júnior
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an important threat to human and animal health globally. Among these, zoonotic diseases account for billions of cases of human illness and millions of deaths every year, representing an increasing public health problem. Chikungunya virus belongs to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togariridae, and is transmitted mainly by the bite of female mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti and/or A. albopictus species. The focus of this review will be on the medicinal chemistry of Chikungunya virus, including synthetic and natural products, as well as rationally designed compounds...
June 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688628/will-mayaro-virus-be-responsible-for-the-next-outbreak-of-an-arthropod-borne-virus-in-brazil
#7
REVIEW
Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca
Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family and is transmitted mainly by Hemagogus mosquitoes. This virus circulates in high-density tropical forests or rural areas of Central and South America causing a disease characterized by high-grade fever, maculopapular skin rash and marked arthralgia that, in some patients, can persist for long periods after infection and may be misinterpreted as chikungunya. Although only a few outbreaks involving this virus have been reported, in the last years the number of MAYV infections has increased in the central and northern regions of Brazil...
July 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686653/ribbon-scanning-confocal-for-high-speed-high-resolution-volume-imaging-of-brain
#8
Alan M Watson, Annika H Rose, Gregory A Gibson, Christina L Gardner, Chengqun Sun, Douglas S Reed, L K Metthew Lam, Claudette M St Croix, Peter L Strick, William B Klimstra, Simon C Watkins
Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686540/replicon-particle-expressing-the-e2-glycoprotein-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-immunization-and-evaluation-of-antibody-response
#9
Mohammad M Hossain, Raymond R Rowland
The objective of this study was to develop a new antigen delivery system using an alphavirus replicon particle (RP) to induce humoral antibody responses against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) recombinant antigen produced from envelope glycoprotein E2. An alphavirus RP expressing the E2 glycoprotein of BVDV was used for immunization of pigs. A fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) has been applied to detect BVDV E2 antigen-specific antibody isotype in pig immunized with alphavirus RP. Full-length BVDV E2 (aa 1-375) was cleaved into several pieces, eight E2 DNA fragments, including full-length DNA, were cloned into expression vector pHUE, and the recombinant proteins expressed in BL-21 (DE3) Escherichia coli...
July 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673021/emergence-of-west-nile-virus-in-west-bengal-india-a-new-report
#10
Tanuja Khatun, Shyamalendu Chatterjee
Background: The ICMR virus unit in Kolkata functions as an Appex Referral Laboratory for the detection of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) infections in the eastern part of India. In spite of efforts for confirmatory diagnosis, some samples remain undiagnosed every year. West Nile virus (WNV) infection may mimic either dengue (flavivirus) or chikungunya (alphavirus) like illness. WNV is endemic in the tropical region where its principal/potential vectors are Aedes and Culex. Methods: We explored the existence of WNV within undiagnosed samples to identify the emergence of a new public health problem...
April 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668710/accurate-virus-quantitation-using-a-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy-stem-detector-in-a-scanning-electron-microscope
#11
Candace D Blancett, David P Fetterer, Keith A Koistinen, Elaine M Morazzani, Mitchell K Monninger, Ashley E Piper, Kathleen A Kuehl, Brian J Kearney, Sarah L Norris, Cynthia A Rossi, Pamela J Glass, Mei G Sun
A method for accurate quantitation of virus particles has long been sought, but a perfect method still eludes the scientific community. Electron Microscopy (EM) quantitation is a valuable technique because it provides direct morphology information and counts of all viral particles, whether or not they are infectious. In the past, EM negative stain quantitation methods have been cited as inaccurate, non-reproducible, and with detection limits that were too high to be useful. To improve accuracy and reproducibility, we have developed a method termed Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - Virus Quantitation (STEM-VQ), which simplifies sample preparation and uses a high throughput STEM detector in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with commercially available software...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662211/identification-of-interactions-between-sindbis-virus-capsid-protein-and-cytoplasmic-vrna-as-novel-virulence-determinants
#12
Kevin J Sokoloski, Lauren M Nease, Nicholas A May, Natasha N Gebhart, Claire E Jones, Thomas E Morrison, Richard W Hardy
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that represent a significant threat to public health at a global level. While the formation of alphaviral nucleocapsid cores, consisting of cargo nucleic acid and the viral capsid protein, is an essential molecular process of infection, the precise interactions between the two partners are ill-defined. A CLIP-seq approach was used to screen for candidate sites of interaction between the viral Capsid protein and genomic RNA of Sindbis virus (SINV), a model alphavirus...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641531/application-of-alphaviral-vectors-for-immunomodulation-in-cancer-therapy
#13
Anna Zajakina, Karina Spunde, Kenneth Lundstrom
BACKGROUND: The lack of specific and efficient cancer therapies has influenced the development of novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, which from its original application of immunogenic protein delivery has developed into the use of more sophisticated recombinant gene delivery methods to achieve better safety and efficacy profiles. This approach involves viral and non-viral delivery systems. METHODS: Expression vectors have been engineered for alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637387/immunopathology-of-chikungunya-virus-infection-lessons-learned-from-patients-and-animal-models
#14
Lisa F P Ng
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes acute and chronic arthritis. The virus reemerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is responsible for outbreaks in the Caribbean islands and the Americas since late 2013. Despite the wealth of research over the past 10 years, there are no commercially available antiviral drugs or vaccines. Treatment usually involves analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Most studies have been focused on understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection through clinical observation and with animal models...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627853/determinants-of-outbreaks-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-the-case-of-chikungunya-in-indian-ocean-2004-2007
#15
Antoine Flahault
Emerging outbreaks of arboviroses are most often tied to the convergence of a set of factors which have physical and environmental, genetic and biological, ecological, social, political and economic origins. Thirteen out of these factors are known as main determinants of emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This paper assesses the role of these factors from exploring the Chikungunya outbreak which occurred in Indian Ocean in 2004-2007, as case study. Chikungunya is an alphavirus borne and transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619679/antiviral-activity-of-1-2-3-triazolo-4-5-d-pyrimidin-7-6h-ones-against-chikungunya-virus-targeting-the-viral-capping-nsp1
#16
Alba Gigante, Asier Gómez-SanJuan, Leen Delang, Changqing Li, Oskía Bueno, Ana-María Gamo, Eva-María Priego, María-José Camarasa, Dirk Jochmans, Pieter Leyssen, Etienne Decroly, Bruno Coutard, Gilles Querat, Johan Neyts, María-Jesús Pérez-Pérez
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Since 2005, CHIKV has been spreading worldwide resulting in epidemics in Africa, the Indian Ocean islands, Asia and more recently in the Americas. CHIKV is thus considered as a global health concern. There is no specific vaccine or drug available for the treatment of this incapacitating viral infection. We previously identified 3-aryl-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones as selective inhibitors of CHIKV replication and proposed the viral capping enzyme nsP1 as a target...
June 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616473/ten-years-of-the-tiger-aedes-albopictus-presence-in-australia-since-its-discovery-in-the-torres-strait-in-2005
#17
REVIEW
Andrew F van den Hurk, Jay Nicholson, Nigel W Beebe, Joe Davis, Odwell M Muzari, Richard C Russell, Gregor J Devine, Scott A Ritchie
The "Asian tiger mosquito", Aedes albopictus, is highly invasive, an aggressive biter and a major arbovirus vector. It is not currently present on mainland Australia despite being intercepted on numerous occasions at international ports and infesting the Torres Strait of Australia since at least 2004. In the current paper, we describe the invasion and current status of Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait, as well as research conducted to assess the threat of this species becoming established in arbovirus transmission cycles on the Australian mainland...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609439/interventions-for-treating-patients-with-chikungunya-virus-infection-related-rheumatic-and-musculoskeletal-disorders-a-systematic-review
#18
Arturo Martí-Carvajal, Pilar Ramon-Pardo, Emilie Javelle, Fabrice Simon, Sylvain Aldighieri, Hacsi Horvath, Julia Rodriguez-Abreu, Ludovic Reveiz
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus infection (CHIKV) is caused by a mosquito-borne alphavirus. CHIKV causes high fever and painful rheumatic disorders that may persist for years. Because little is known about interventions for treating CHIKV-related illness, we conducted a systematic review. METHODS: We used Cochrane methods. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS and other sources from the earliest records to March 2016. We had no language restrictions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606643/diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-rapid-e1-antigen-test-for-chikungunya-virus-infection-in-a-reference-setting
#19
Ralph Huits, Tamaki Okabayashi, Lieselotte Cnops, Barbara Barbé, Riemsdijk Van Den Berg, Koen Bartholomeeusen, Kevin K Ariën, Jan Jacobs, Emmanuel Bottieau, Emi E Nakayama, Tatsuo Shioda, Marjan Van Esbroeck
OBJECTIVES: Rapid diagnostic tests targeting virus-specific antigen could significantly enhance the diagnostic capacity for chikungunya virus infections. We evaluated the accuracy of an immunochromatographic antigen test for the diagnosis of chikungunya in a reference laboratory for arboviruses. METHODS: an immunochromatographic rapid test that uses mouse monoclonal antibodies as a tracer against the E1-envelope protein of chikungunya (ARKRAY, Inc. Kyoto, Japan) was evaluated...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577289/immunoglobulin-responsive-chikungunya-encephalitis-two-case-reports
#20
Stephanie Suzanne de O Scott, Pedro Braga-Neto, Lícia Pacheco Pereira, Paulo Ribeiro Nóbrega, Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, Claudia Carvalho Mendes Schiavon
Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus transmitted by the mosquito Aedes, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, that can cause acute illness, mostly self-limited, characterized by fever, maculopapular rash, and disabling polyarthritis/arthralgia, with an incubation period of 1 to 12 days. Chikungunya was largely regarded as a non-fatal and self-limited disease, but recently, serious cases have been reported including some with severe involvement of the nervous system, such as meningoencephalitis, myelitis, polyradiculitis, and polyradiculoneuropathy...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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