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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652644/alphaviruses-serological-evidence-of-human-infection-in-paraguay-2012-2013
#1
Fátima Cardozo, Brenda Konigheim, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, María Elisa Rivarola, Javier Aguilar, Alejandra Rojas, Agustín Ignacio Quaglia, Malvina Paez, Yvalena Guillén, Adrian Diaz, María Asunción Vallejos, Lilian Herebia, María Lidia Recalde, Marta Silvia Contigiani, Laura Mendoza
INTRODUCTION: Alphaviruses can produce febrile illness and encephalitis in dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Within this genus, the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (VEEV) complex includes pathogenic epizootic subtypes and enzootic subtypes that are not pathogenic in horses (except subtype IE, Mexican strains), although they can cause febrile symptoms in humans. The Rio Negro virus (RNV-VEEV subtype VI) circulates in Argentina, where it was associated with undifferentiated febrile illness...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643398/deciphering-the-dark-proteome-of-chikungunya-virus
#2
Ankur Singh, Ankur Kumar, Rakhi Yadav, Vladimir N Uversky, Rajanish Giri
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus. The outbreak of CHIKV infection has been seen in many tropical and subtropical regions of the biosphere. Current reports evidenced that after outbreaks in 2005-06, the fitness of this virus propagating in Aedes albopictus enhanced due to the epistatic mutational changes in its envelope protein. In our study, we evaluated the prevalence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) in CHIKV proteome. IDPs/IDPRs are known as members of a 'Dark Proteome' that defined as a set of polypeptide segments or whole protein without unique three-dimensional structure within the cellular milieu but with significant biological functions, such as cell cycle regulation, control of signaling pathways, and maintenance of viral proteomes...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624598/high-costs-of-infection-alphavirus-infection-reduces-digestive-function-and-bone-and-feather-growth-in-nestling-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#3
Carol A Fassbinder-Orth, Tess L Killpack, Dylan S Goto, Ellecia L Rainwater, Valerie I Shearn-Bochsler
Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses ("arboviruses") responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615665/unbiased-strain-typing-of-arbovirus-directly-from-mosquitoes-using-nanopore-sequencing-a-field-forward-biosurveillance-protocol
#4
Joseph A Russell, Brittany Campos, Jennifer Stone, Erik M Blosser, Nathan Burkett-Cadena, Jonathan L Jacobs
The future of infectious disease surveillance and outbreak response is trending towards smaller hand-held solutions for point-of-need pathogen detection. Here, samples of Culex cedecei mosquitoes collected in Southern Florida, USA were tested for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV), a previously-weaponized arthropod-borne RNA-virus capable of causing acute and fatal encephalitis in animal and human hosts. A single 20-mosquito pool tested positive for VEEV by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on the Biomeme two3...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593049/mosquito-saliva-re-shapes-alphavirus-infection-and-immunopathogenesis
#5
Siew-Wai Fong, R Manjunatha Kini, Lisa F P Ng
Alphaviruses are transmitted to humans via bites of infected mosquitoes. Although alphaviruses have caused a wide magnitude of outbreaks and crippling disease, licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies remain limited. Mosquito vectors such as Aedes and Culex are the main culprits in the transmission of alphaviruses. This review explores how mosquito saliva may promote alphavirus infection. Identifying the roles of mosquito-derived factors in alphavirus pathogenesis will generate novel tools to circumvent and control mosquito-borne alphavirus infections in humans...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577083/human-antibody-responses-to-emerging-mayaro-virus-and-cocirculating-alphavirus-infections-examined-by-using-structural-proteins-from-nine-new-and-old-world-lineages
#6
Jessica L Smith, Christine L Pugh, Emily D Cisney, Sarah L Keasey, Carolina Guevara, Julia S Ampuero, Guillermo Comach, Doris Gomez, Margarita Ochoa-Diaz, Robert D Hontz, Robert G Ulrich
Mayaro virus (MAYV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are vector-borne alphaviruses that cocirculate in South America. Human infections by these viruses are frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, especially in areas with high dengue virus endemicity. Disease may progress to debilitating arthralgia (MAYV, CHIKV), encephalitis (VEEV), and death. Few standardized serological assays exist for specific human alphavirus infection detection, and antigen cross-reactivity can be problematic...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575672/serological-evidence-of-widespread-exposure-of-grenada-fruit-bats-to-chikungunya-virus
#7
D Stone, A C Lyons, Y-J S Huang, D L Vanlandingham, S Higgs, B J Blitvich, A A Adesiyun, S E Santana, L Leiser-Miller, S Cheetham
Antibody detection against selected potentially zoonotic vector-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses was conducted on sera from bats from all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies. Sera were tested for (i) antibodies to flaviviruses West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Ilhéus virus, Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Rio Bravo virus and all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT); (ii) antibodies to alphaviruses western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus by epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and (iii) antibodies to the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) by PRNT...
March 25, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558394/alphavirus-nucleocapsid-packaging-and-assembly
#8
REVIEW
Adriano Mendes, Richard J Kuhn
Alphavirus nucleocapsids are assembled in the cytoplasm of infected cells from 240 copies of the capsid protein and the approximately 11 kb positive strand genomic RNA. However, the challenge of how the capsid specifically selects its RNA package and assembles around it has remained an elusive one to solve. In this review, we will summarize what is known about the alphavirus capsid protein, the packaging signal, and their roles in the mechanism of packaging and assembly. We will review the discovery of the packaging signal and how there is as much evidence for, as well as against, its requirement to specify packaging of the genomic RNA...
March 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557336/eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-in-the-united-states-2003-2016
#9
Nicole P Lindsey, J Erin Staples, Marc Fischer
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus found in the eastern United States. Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease in humans is rare but can result in severe, often fatal, illness. This report summarizes the national EEEV surveillance data for 2003 through 2016, including human disease cases and nonhuman infections. Over the 14-year period, 633 counties from 33 states reported EEEV activity; 88% of those counties reported EEEV activity only in nonhuman species. A total of 121 human cases of EEEV disease were reported, with a median of eight cases reported annually...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555467/evagreen-based-real-time-pcr-assay-for-sensitive-detection-of-salmonid-alphavirus
#10
Wen Shi, Yuting Wang, Xuanyu Ren, Shuai Gao, Xiaojing Hua, Mengting Guo, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Tong Ren, Yijing Li, Min Liu
Salmonid alphaviruses (SAVs), which include the etiological agents of salmon pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD), are significant viral pathogens of European salmonid aquaculture, resulting in substantial economic losses to the salmonid-farming industry. Even though many countries including China have not reported the presence of SAV infections, these countries may be seriously threatened by these diseases as the salmon fish import trade increases. Thus, it is indeed necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the diagnosis and prevention of SAV infection...
March 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540599/development-of-a-broadly-accessible-vee-replicon-particle-vaccine-platform
#11
Sudhakar Agnihothram, Vineet D Menachery, Boyd L Yount, Lisa C Lindesmith, Trevor Scobey, Alan Whitmore, Alexandra Schäfer, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Zoonotic viruses circulate as swarms in animal reservoirs and can emerge into human populations causing epidemics that adversely affect public health. Portable, safe, and effective vaccine platforms are needed in the context of these outbreak and emergence situations. In this manuscript, we report the generation and characterization of an alphavirus replicon vaccine platform based on a non-select agent, attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus vaccine strain 3526 (VRP 3526). Using both noroviruses and coronaviruses as model systems, we demonstrate utility of the VRP 3526 platform in generation of recombinant proteins, production of virus like particles, and in vivo efficacy as a vaccine against emergent viruses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533749/chikungunya-virus-a-rheumatologist-s-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Marta Runowska, Dominik Majewski, Karolina Niklas, Mariusz Puszczewicz
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. It is responsible for a febrile illness, typically accompanied by maculopapular rash and severe, incapacitating arthralgia. The disease, although generally self-limiting, frequently evolves into a long-lasting, debilitating rheumatic disorder, which shares many clinical features with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The underlying mechanism by which CHIKV induces persistent arthritis remains under investigation, however, currently, attention is drawn to the fact, that chronic chikungunya (CHIK) and RA have many common cellular and cytokine pathways involved in their pathogenesis...
March 2, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517814/the-challenges-posed-by-equine-arboviruses
#13
REVIEW
G E Chapman, M Baylis, D Archer, J M Daly
Equine populations worldwide are at increasing risk of infection by viruses transmitted by biting arthropods including mosquitoes, biting midges (Culicoides), sandflies and ticks. These include the flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis), alphaviruses (eastern, western and Venezuelan encephalitis) and the orbiviruses (African horse sickness and equine encephalosis). This review provides an overview of the challenges faced in the surveillance, prevention and control of the major equine arboviruses, particularly in the context of these viruses emerging in new regions of the world...
March 8, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512949/-viral-arthritis
#14
Camille Zambaz, Diana Dan
Arthritis and arthralgia during a viral infection are often polyarticular and symmetric and can mimic rheumatoid arthritis. Depending on germs, others signs and symptoms as fever, cutaneous rash (Parvovirus B19) or jaundice (hepatitis) can be present. Worldwide most common germs are Parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and alphavirus. There are significant differences throughout the world and epidemiology continues to evolve with a progression of vector-borne infections. Diagnosis of viral arthritis is often difficult and is based on epidemiological, clinical and serological data...
March 7, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495654/the-enigmatic-alphavirus-non-structural-protein-3-nsp3-revealing-its-secrets-at-last
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin Götte, Lifeng Liu, Gerald M McInerney
Alphaviruses encode 4 non-structural proteins (nsPs), most of which have well-understood functions in capping and membrane association (nsP1), polyprotein processing and RNA helicase activity (nsP2) and as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4). The function of nsP3 has been more difficult to pin down and it has long been referred to as the more enigmatic of the nsPs. The protein comprises three domains, an N-terminal macro domain, a central zinc-binding domain and a C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD). In this article, we review old and new literature about the functions of the three domains...
February 28, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478125/detection-of-the-antiviral-activity-of-epicatechin-isolated-from-salacia-crassifolia-celastraceae-against-mayaro-virus-based-on-protein-c-homology-modelling-and-virtual-screening
#16
P G Ferreira, A C Ferraz, J E Figueiredo, C F Lima, V G Rodrigues, A G Taranto, J M S Ferreira, G C Brandão, S A Vieira-Filho, L P Duarte, C L de Brito Magalhães, J C de Magalhães
Mayaro fever, caused by Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a sub-lethal disease with symptoms that are easily confused with those of dengue fever, except for polyarthralgia, which may culminate in physical incapacitation. Recently, outbreaks of MAYV have been documented in metropolitan areas, and to date, there is no therapy or vaccine available. Moreover, there is no information regarding the three-dimensional structure of the viral proteins of MAYV, which is important in the search for antivirals. In this work, we constructed a three-dimensional model of protein C of MAYV by homology modelling, and this was employed in a manner similar to that of receptors in virtual screening studies to evaluate 590 molecules as prospective antiviral agents...
February 24, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470397/the-alphavirus-exit-pathway-what-we-know-and-what-we-wish-we-knew
#17
REVIEW
Rebecca S Brown, Judy J Wan, Margaret Kielian
Alphaviruses are enveloped positive sense RNA viruses and include serious human pathogens, such as the encephalitic alphaviruses and Chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses are transmitted to humans primarily by mosquito vectors and include species that are classified as emerging pathogens. Alphaviruses assemble highly organized, spherical particles that bud from the plasma membrane. In this review, we discuss what is known about the alphavirus exit pathway during a cellular infection. We describe the viral protein interactions that are critical for virus assembly/budding and the host factors that are involved, and we highlight the recent discovery of cell-to-cell transmission of alphavirus particles via intercellular extensions...
February 22, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463033/spindle-e-acts-antivirally-against-alphaviruses-in-mosquito-cells
#18
Margus Varjak, Isabelle Dietrich, Vattipally B Sreenu, Bethan Eluned Till, Andres Merits, Alain Kohl, Esther Schnettler
Mosquitoes transmit several human- and animal-pathogenic alphaviruses ( Togaviridae family). In alphavirus-infected mosquito cells two different types of virus-specific small RNAs are produced as part of the RNA interference response: short-interfering (si)RNAs and PIWI-interacting (pi)RNAs. The siRNA pathway is generally thought to be the main antiviral pathway. Although an antiviral activity has been suggested for the piRNA pathway its role in host defences is not clear. Knock down of key proteins of the piRNA pathway (Ago3 and Piwi5) in Aedes aegypti -derived cells reduced the production of alphavirus chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific piRNAs but had no effect on virus replication...
February 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462879/chondrocytes-contribute-to-alphaviral-disease-pathogenesis-as-a-source-of-virus-replication-and-soluble-factor-production
#19
Elisa X Y Lim, Aroon Supramaniam, Hayman Lui, Peta Coles, Wai Suet Lee, Xiang Liu, Penny A Rudd, Lara J Herrero
Arthritogenic alphavirus infections often result in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders that affect the joints, muscle, and bone. In order to evaluate the infection profile of primary human skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells to Ross River virus (RRV) in vitro, cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 over a period of two days. Viral titers were determined by plaque assay and cytokine expression by Bio-Plex® assays using the supernatants harvested. Gene expression studies were conducted using total RNA isolated from cells...
February 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458665/death-and-gastrointestinal-bleeding-complicate-encephalomyelitis-in-mice-with-delayed-appearance-of-cns-igm-after-intranasal-alphavirus-infection
#20
Victoria K Baxter, Elizabeth M Troisi, Nathan M Pate, Julia N Zhao, Diane E Griffin
Central nervous system (CNS) infection of C57BL/6 mice with the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) provides a valuable animal model for studying the pathogenesis of alphavirus encephalomyelitis. While SINV TE inoculated intracranially causes little mortality, 20-30 % of mice inoculated intranasally (IN) died 8 to 11 days after infection, the period during which immune cells typically infiltrate the brain and clear infectious virus. To examine the mechanism behind the mortality, mice infected IN with SINV TE were monitored for evidence of neurological disease, and those with signs of severe disease (moribund) were sacrificed and tissues collected...
February 1, 2018: Journal of General Virology
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