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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443908/mosquitoes-as-suitable-vectors-for-alphaviruses
#1
REVIEW
Elisa X Y Lim, Wai Suet Lee, Eugene T Madzokere, Lara J Herrero
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquito's subsequent bloodfeed...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438402/haiku-new-paradigm-for-the-reverse-genetics-of-emerging-rna-viruses
#2
Thérèse Atieh, Miriam Diala El Ayoubi, Fabien Aubry, Stéphane Priet, Xavier de Lamballerie, Antoine Nougairède
Reverse genetics is key technology for producing wild-type and genetically modified viruses. The ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) method is a recent versatile and user-friendly reverse genetics method to rescue RNA viruses. The main constraint of its canonic protocol was the requirement to produce (e.g., by DNA synthesis or fusion PCR) 5' and 3' modified genomic fragments encompassing the human cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) and the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme/simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (HDR/SV40pA), respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434399/anti-viral-activities-of-oroxylum-indicum-extracts-on-chikungunya-virus-infection
#3
Syuhadaratul Aini Mohamat, Rafidah Hanim Shueb, Nor Fazila Che Mat
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that poses a threat to human worldwide. Driven by the lack of approved medication and vaccination, research on anti-Chikungunya agents has received great attention. In an effort to determine potential inhibitor of CHIKV, this study aimed at investigating the potential anti-viral activity of Oroxylum indicum extracts towards CHIKV-infected Vero cells. The virucidal, pre- and post-treatment effects of O. indicum were evaluated, using the maximum non-toxic dose of O...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425115/nonstructural-proteins-of-alphavirus-potential-targets-for-drug-development
#4
REVIEW
Farhana Abu Bakar, Lisa F P Ng
Alphaviruses are enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA viruses, typically transmitted by arthropods. They often cause arthralgia or encephalitic diseases in infected humans and there is currently no targeted antiviral treatment available. The re-emergence of alphaviruses in Asia, Europe, and the Americas over the last decade, including chikungunya and o'nyong'nyong viruses, have intensified the search for selective inhibitors. In this review, we highlight key molecular determinants within the alphavirus replication complex that have been identified as viral targets, focusing on their structure and functionality in viral dissemination...
February 9, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419763/the-regulation-of-translation-in-alphavirus-infected-cells
#5
REVIEW
Luis Carrasco, Miguel Angel Sanz, Esther González-Almela
Sindbis virus (SINV) contains an RNA genome of positive polarity with two open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF is translated from the genomic RNA (gRNA), rendering the viral non-structural proteins, whereas the second ORF is translated from a subgenomic mRNA (sgRNA), which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. SINV infection strongly inhibits host cell translation through a variety of different mechanisms, including the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2α and the redistribution of cellular proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm...
February 8, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415133/translation-initiation-of-alphavirus-mrna-reveals-new-insights-into-the-topology-of-the-48s-initiation-complex
#6
René Toribio, Irene Díaz-López, Jasminka Boskovic, Iván Ventoso
The topology and dynamics of the scanning ribosomal 43S pre-initiation complex (PIC) bound to mRNA and initiation factors (eIFs) are probably the least understood aspects of translation initiation in eukaryotes. Recently, we described a trapping mechanism in alphavirus that stalls the PIC during scanning of viral mRNA. Using this model, we were able to snapshot for the first time the eIF4A helicase bound to mRNA in a 48S initiation complex assembled in vitro. This interaction was only detected in the presence of the natural stem loop structure (DLP) located downstream from the AUG in viral mRNA that promoted stalling of the PIC, suggesting that DLP stability was enough to jam the helicase activity of eIF4A in a fraction of assembled 48S complexes...
February 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414708/why-enveloped-viruses-need-cores-the-contribution-of-a-nucleocapsid-core-to-viral-budding
#7
Guillermo R Lázaro, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay, Michael F Hagan
During the lifecycle of many enveloped viruses, a nucleocapsid core buds through the cell membrane to acquire an outer envelope of lipid membrane and viral glycoproteins. However, the presence of a nucleocapsid core is not required for assembly of infectious particles. To determine the role of the nucleocapsid core, we develop a coarse-grained computational model with which we investigate budding dynamics as a function of glycoprotein and nucleocapsid interactions, as well as budding in the absence of a nucleocapsid...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410416/broad-and-long-lasting-immune-protection-against-various-chikungunya-genotypes-demonstrated-by-participants-in-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-cambodian-rural-community
#8
Heidi Auerswald, Camille Boussioux, Saraden In, Sokthearom Mao, Sivuth Ong, Rekol Huy, Rithea Leang, Malen Chan, Veasna Duong, Sowath Ly, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Dussart
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus circulating worldwide. Its presence in Asia has been reported since the 1950s, constituting the Asian genotype. Since 2005, strains from the Eastern, Central, and Southern African (ECSA) genotype have caused several outbreaks across Asia. Viruses from the ECSA genotype were also detected in Cambodia in late 2011 and led to an outbreak in a rural community in 2012. A former investigation from 2012 found a higher risk of infection in people younger than 40 years, suggesting a pre-existing herd immunity in the older Cambodian population due to infection with an Asian genotype...
February 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407211/evaluation-of-the-inactivation-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-by-several-common-methods
#9
Edward I Patterson, Kelsey L Warmbrod, Donald H Bouyer, Naomi L Forrester
Working with virological samples requires validated inactivation protocols for safe handling and disposal. Although many techniques exist to inactivate samples containing viruses, not all procedures have been properly validated or are compatible with subsequent assays. To aid in the development of inactivation protocols for Alphaviruses, and specifically Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a variety of methods were evaluated for their ability to completely inactivate a high titer sample of the vaccine strain VEEV TC-83...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406692/inhibition-of-the-replication-of-different-strains-of-chikungunya-virus-by-3-aryl-1-2-3-triazolo-4-5-d-pyrimidin-7-6h-ones
#10
Asier Gómez-SanJuan, Ana-María Gamo, Leen Delang, Alfonso Pérez-Sánchez, Siti Naqiah Amrun, Rana Abdelnabi, Sofie Jacobs, Eva-María Priego, María-José Camarasa, Dirk Jochmans, Pieter Leyssen, Lisa F P Ng, Gilles Querat, Johan Neyts, María-Jesús Pérez-Pérez
The re-emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a serious global health threat. CHIKV is an alphavirus that is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes; therefore, their wide distribution significantly contributes to the globalization of the disease. Unfortunately, no effective antiviral drugs are available. We have identified a series of 3-aryl-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-ones as selective inhibitors of CHIKV replication. New series of compounds have now been synthesized with the aim to improve their physicochemical properties and to potentiate the inhibitory activity against different CHIKV strains...
February 14, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404420/limited-evidence-for-infection-of-urban-and-peri-urban-nonhuman-primates-with-zika-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-brazil
#11
Andres Moreira-Soto, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Carlo Fischer, Marie Feldmann, Beate M Kümmerer, Nama Santos Silva, Uilton Góes Santos, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza, Fernanda de Azevedo Liborio, Mônica Mafra Valença-Montenegro, Plautino de Oliveira Laroque, Fernanda Rosa da Fontoura, Alberto Vinicius Dantas Oliveira, Christian Drosten, Xavier de Lamballerie, Carlos Roberto Franke, Jan Felix Drexler
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas in 2013. Limited antigenic variability of CHIKV and ZIKV may restrict urban transmission cycles due to population protective immunity. In Africa, sylvatic transmission cycles involving nonhuman primates (NHP) are known for CHIKV and ZIKV, causing cyclic reemergence in humans. To evaluate whether sylvatic cycles can be expected in Latin America, we tested 207 NHP collected between 2012 and 2017 in urban and peri-urban settings in Brazil for infection with ZIKV and CHIKV...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391683/cryptic-etiopathological-conditions-of-equine-nervous-system-with-special-emphasis-on-viral-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Rakesh Kumar, Rajendra D Patil
The importance of horse (Equus caballus) to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission...
December 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388217/prevalence-of-piscine-orthoreovirus-and-salmonid-alphavirus-in-sea-caught-returning-adult-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-in-northern-norway
#13
A S Madhun, C H Isachsen, L M Omdal, A C B Einen, S Maehle, V Wennevik, E Niemelä, T Svåsand, E Karlsbakk
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) and pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) are among the most prevalent viral diseases of Atlantic salmon farmed in Norway. There are limited data about the impact of disease in farmed salmon on wild salmon populations. Therefore, the prevalence of PRV and SAV in returning salmon caught in six sea sites was determined using real-time RT-PCR analyses. Of 419 salmon tested, 15.8% tested positive for PRV, while none were positive for SAV...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387794/organelle-luminal-dependence-of-strand-rna-virus-replication-reveals-a-hidden-druggable-target
#14
Masaki Nishikiori, Paul Ahlquist
Positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-bounded cytoplasmic complexes. We show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-linked genomic RNA replication by brome mosaic virus (BMV), a well-studied member of the alphavirus superfamily, depends on the ER luminal thiol oxidase ERO1. We further show that BMV RNA replication protein 1a, a key protein for the formation and function of vesicular BMV RNA replication compartments on ER membranes, permeabilizes these membranes to release oxidizing potential from the ER lumen...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386359/zika-virus-related-neurotropic-flaviviruses-infect-human-placental-explants-and-cause-fetal-demise-in-mice
#15
Derek J Platt, Amber M Smith, Nitin Arora, Michael S Diamond, Carolyn B Coyne, Jonathan J Miner
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnant women can cause placental damage, intrauterine growth restriction, microcephaly, and fetal demise, these disease manifestations only became apparent in the context of a large epidemic in the Americas. We hypothesized that ZIKV is not unique among arboviruses in its ability to cause congenital infection. To evaluate this, we tested the capacity of four emerging arboviruses [West Nile virus (WNV), Powassan virus (POWV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Mayaro virus (MAYV)] from related (flavivirus) and unrelated (alphavirus) genera to infect the placenta and fetus in immunocompetent, wild-type mice...
January 31, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377936/alphavirus-induced-hyperactivation-of-pi3k-akt-directs-pro-viral-metabolic-changes
#16
Michela Mazzon, Cecilia Castro, Bastian Thaa, Lifeng Liu, Margit Mutso, Xiang Liu, Suresh Mahalingam, Julian L Griffin, Mark Marsh, Gerald M McInerney
Virus reprogramming of cellular metabolism is recognised as a critical determinant for viral growth. While most viruses appear to activate central energy metabolism, different viruses have been shown to rely on alternative mechanisms of metabolic activation. Whether related viruses exploit conserved mechanisms and induce similar metabolic changes is currently unclear. In this work we investigate how two alphaviruses, Semliki Forest virus and Ross River virus, reprogram host metabolism and define the molecular mechanisms responsible...
January 29, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367248/purification-of-highly-active-alphavirus-replication-complexes-demonstrates-altered-fractionation-of-multiple-cellular-membranes
#17
Maija K Pietilä, Martijn J van Hemert, Tero Ahola
Positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-associated structures; alphaviruses and many other groups induce membrane invaginations called spherules. Here, we established a protocol to purify these membranous replication complexes (RCs) from cells infected with Semliki Forest virus (SFV). We isolated SFV spherules located on the plasma membrane and further purified them using two consecutive density gradients. This revealed that SFV infection strongly modifies cellular membranes. We removed soluble proteins, the Golgi and most of the mitochondria, but plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and late endosome markers enriched in the membrane fraction that contained viral RNA synthesizing activity, replicase proteins and minus- and plus-strand RNA...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361131/structural-divergence-creates-new-functional-features-in-alphavirus-genomes
#18
Katrina M Kutchko, Emily A Madden, Clayton Morrison, Kenneth S Plante, Wes Sanders, Heather A Vincent, Marta C Cruz Cisneros, Kristin M Long, Nathaniel J Moorman, Mark T Heise, Alain Laederach
Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne pathogens that cause human diseases ranging from debilitating arthritis to lethal encephalitis. Studies with Sindbis virus (SINV), which causes fever, rash, and arthralgia in humans, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), which causes encephalitis, have identified RNA structural elements that play key roles in replication and pathogenesis. However, a complete genomic structural profile has not been established for these viruses. We used the structural probing technique SHAPE-MaP to identify structured elements within the SINV and VEEV genomes...
January 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354659/chikungunya-outbreak-in-kedougou-southeastern-senegal-in-2009-2010
#19
Abdourahmane Sow, Oumar Faye, Mawlouth Diallo, Diawo Diallo, Rubing Chen, Ousmane Faye, Cheikh T Diagne, Mathilde Guerbois, Manfred Weidmann, Youssoupha Ndiaye, Cheikh Sadibou Senghor, Abdourahmane Faye, Ousmane M Diop, Bakary Sadio, Oumar Ndiaye, Douglas Watts, Kathryn A Hanley, Anta T Dia, Denis Malvy, Scott C Weaver, Amadou Alpha Sall
Background: In Senegal, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, circulates in a sylvatic and urban/domestic cycle and has caused sporadic human cases and epidemics since 1960s. However, the real impact of the CHIKV sylvatic cycle in humans and mechanisms underlying its emergence still remains unknown. Methodology: One thousand four hundred nine suspect cases of CHIKV infection, recruited from 5 health facilities located in Kedougou region, south-eastern Senegal, between May 2009 to March 2010, together with 866 serum samples collected from schoolchildren from 4 elementary schools in May and November 2009 from Kedougou were screened for anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies and, when appropriate, for viral nucleic acid by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rPCR) and virus isolation...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353080/atlantic-salmon-adapted-to-seawater-for-9-weeks-develop-a-robust-immune-response-to-salmonid-alphavirus-upon-bath-challenge
#20
L J Moore, J Jarungsriapisit, T O Nilsen, S Stefansson, G L Taranger, C J Secombes, H C Morton, S Patel
Pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the most serious viral disease in Norwegian aquaculture. Study of the immune response to SAV will aid preventative measures including vaccine development. The innate immune response was studied in Atlantic salmon infected by either bath immersion (BI) or by intra-muscular (i.m.) injection (IM) with SAV subtype 3, two and nine weeks after seawater transfer (Phases A and B respectively). Phase A results have been previously published (Moore et al., 2017) and Phase B results are presented here together with a comparison of results achieved in Phase A...
January 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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