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Amy M Kilbourne, Michelle M Barbaresso, Zongshan Lai, Kristina M Nord, Margretta Bramlet, David E Goodrich, Edward P Post, Daniel Almirall, Mark S Bauer
OBJECTIVE: Persons with chronic mental disorders are disproportionately burdened with physical health conditions. We determined whether Life Goals Collaborative Care compared to usual care improves physical health in patients with mental disorders within 12 months. METHODS: This single-blind randomized controlled effectiveness study of a collaborative care model was conducted at a midwestern Veterans Affairs urban outpatient mental health clinic. Patients (N = 293 out of 474 eligible approached) with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder and at least 1 cardiovascular disease risk factor provided informed consent and were randomized (February 24, 2010, to April 29, 2015) to Life Goals (n = 146) or usual care (n = 147)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Ching-Wen Pan, Meng-Hsien Chen, Lien-Siang Chou, Hsing-Juh Lin
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs...
2016: PloS One
Rein M G J Houben, Peter J Dodd
BACKGROUND: The existing estimate of the global burden of latent TB infection (LTBI) as "one-third" of the world population is nearly 20 y old. Given the importance of controlling LTBI as part of the End TB Strategy for eliminating TB by 2050, changes in demography and scientific understanding, and progress in TB control, it is important to re-assess the global burden of LTBI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We constructed trends in annual risk in infection (ARI) for countries between 1934 and 2014 using a combination of direct estimates of ARI from LTBI surveys (131 surveys from 1950 to 2011) and indirect estimates of ARI calculated from World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates of smear positive TB prevalence from 1990 to 2014...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Purnima Menon, Phuong Hong Nguyen, Kuntal Kumar Saha, Adiba Khaled, Andrew Kennedy, Lan Mai Tran, Tina Sanghvi, Nemat Hajeebhoy, Jean Baker, Silvia Alayon, Kaosar Afsana, Raisul Haque, Edward A Frongillo, Marie T Ruel, Rahul Rawat
BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations supporting optimal breastfeeding, the number of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low, and few interventions have demonstrated implementation and impact at scale. Alive & Thrive was implemented over a period of 6 y (2009-2014) and aimed to improve breastfeeding practices through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) intervention components delivered at scale in the context of policy advocacy (PA) in Bangladesh and Viet Nam...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Sónia Puga, Patrícia Pereira, Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Erin Mann, Marisa Barata, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, João Canário, Armando Almeida, Mário Pacheco
The current study aims to shed light on the neurotoxicity of MeHg in fish (white seabream - Diplodus sargus) by the combined assessment of: (i) MeHg toxicokinetics in the brain, (ii) brain morphometry (volume and number of neurons plus glial cells in specific brain regions) and (iii) fish swimming behavior (endpoints associated with the motor performance and the fear/anxiety-like status). Fish were surveyed for all the components after 7 (E7) and 14 (E14) days of dietary exposure to MeHg (8.7μgg(-1)), as well as after a post-exposure period of 28days (PE28)...
October 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Alicia Dixon-Ibarra, Simon Driver, Haley VanVolkenburg, Kathleen Humphries
Physical inactivity and high rates of chronic conditions is a public health concern for adults with intellectual disability. Few health promotion programs target the group home setting which is the pre-dominant form of residential accommodation for persons with intellectual disability. A process evaluation of a physical activity health promotion program, Menu-Choice, was conducted with five group home sites for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Menu-Choice assists group home staff in including physical activity goals within resident schedules...
October 5, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Loes A M Leenen, Ben F M Wijnen, Reina J A de Kinderen, Caroline M van Heugten, Silvia M A A Evers, Marian H J M Majoie
INTRODUCTION: Self-management for people with epilepsy (PWE) should lead to shared decision-making and thus to adherence to the treatment plan. eHealth is an important way of supporting PWE in their self-management. METHOD: In this survey, we used a mixed method to explore the following: 1) which factors were monitored by PWE and how (using pen and paper or eHealth-tools), 2) how many PWE own a computer or smartphone, and 3) how do they perceive the use of eHealth...
October 22, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Natalie M Kintz, Lawrence A Palinkas
INTRODUCTION: Long-duration space explorations will involve significant communication delays that will likely impact individual and team outcomes. However, the extent of these impacts and the appropriate countermeasures for their mitigation remain largely unknown. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a research platform to assess the impacts of communication delays on individual and team behavior and performance. METHODS: For this study, 3 ISS crewmembers and 18 mission support personnel performed 10 tasks identified by subject matter experts as meeting study criteria, 6 tasks without a delay in communication and 4 tasks with a 50-s one-way delay...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Allison P Anderson, Abigail M Fellows, Kim A Binsted, Mark T Hegel, Jay C Buckey
INTRODUCTION: Living in an isolated, confined environment (ICE) can induce conflict, stress, and depression. Computer-based behavioral health countermeasures are appealing for training and treatment in ICEs because they provide confidentiality and do not require communication with the outside environment. We evaluated the Virtual Space Station (VSS), a suite of interactive computer-delivered psychological training and treatment programs, at the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) III expedition...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Sarah B Maness, Lorraine R Reitzel, Kellie L Watkins, Lorna H McNeill
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this exploratory study was to improve understanding of the sociodemographic correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness, knowledge, and vaccination attitudes in a convenience sample of church-going, African-American women and how knowledge about HPV-related cancers relates to vaccination attitudes for girls and boys. METHODS: Participants (N = 308) answered survey questions about HPV awareness, knowledge, and vaccination attitudes...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Armen A Torchyan, Abdulaziz A BinSaeed, Yazeed S Aleid, Ahmed A Nagshbandi, Fahad Almousa, Satenik L Papikyan, Ibrahim M Gosadi
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the potential relationships among happiness, physical activity, and smoking initiation among undergraduate medical students in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of randomly selected first- to fifth-year undergraduate medical students. Smoking initiation was defined as "ever trying smoking a cigarette, waterpipe, cigar/cigarillo, or other type of tobacco, even one or 2 puffs." The short scale Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to assess each student's happiness...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Marcia J Cooper, Leanne Mezzabotta, Joseph Murphy
PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to examine food and culinary skills and knowledge of dietetic students. METHODS: An online bilingual survey was created using Survey Monkey(TM) to explore the skills, knowledge, and perceptions of undergraduate dietetic students regarding food and cooking. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to compare skills and knowledge of food and culinary concepts. RESULTS: The final sample included second- (n = 22) and third-year (n = 22) students within the Baccalauréat specialisé en sciences de la nutrition program at the University of Ottawa...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
David T Huang, Derek C Angus, Marc Moss, B Taylor Thompson, Niall D Ferguson, Adit Ginde, Michelle Ng Gong, Stephanie Gundel, Douglas L Hayden, R Duncan Hite, Peter C Hou, Catherine L Hough, Theodore J Iwashyna, Kathleen D Liu, Daniel S Talmor, Donald M Yealy
The Reevaluation Of Systemic Early neuromuscular blockade trial (ROSE) is a multicenter randomized trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of early neuromuscular blockade in patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. This document provides background for interpretation of the trial results, and highlights unique design approaches that may inform future trials of acute illness. We describe the process by which ROSE was chosen as the inaugural trial of the multidisciplinary Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury (PETAL) Network, provide the trial methodology using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) framework, and discuss key design challenges and their resolution...
October 25, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ewa Staszewska-Jakubik, Mirosław P Czarkowski, Barbara Kondej
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the epidemiological situation of scarlet fever in Poland in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was performed by reviewing surveillance data published in the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” as well as in previous bulletins, and unpublished data collected under Statistical survey program of official statistics. These data relate to cases of scarlet fever registered by health sanitary inspection on the basis of statutory notification of scarlet fever reported by physicians...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Cheryl Tatano Beck, Jamie Rivera, Robert K Gable
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate vicarious posttraumatic growth in certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) who have struggled after attending traumatic births. Vicarious posttraumatic growth involves positive changes in a clinician's life due to caring for patients who are traumatized. METHODS: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) sent out e-mails to all CNM members with a link to the electronic survey...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Yenupini Joyce Adams, Manfred Stommel, Adejoke Ayoola, Mildred Horodynski, Address Malata, Barbara Smith
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine women's evaluation of postpartum care services (postpartum clinical assessments, health education, and midwife kindness) received from midwives prior to discharge in rural health facilities, and to examine husband-and-wife-farmer dyads' reasons for their decisions to return or not return for 1-week postpartum care visits in rural central Malawi. DESIGN: Cross-sectional matched-pairs survey design. METHODS: Participants included a convenience sample of 70 husband-and-wife-farmer dyads living in rural communities who had a live birth in the past year at one of four health facilities in Ntcheu district, central Malawi...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Maxwell S Barnish, Nara Tagiyeva, Graham Devereux, Lorna Aucott, Steve Turner
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a common condition whose prevalence is changing. We hypothesised that the relationship between asthma and associated risk factors has changed over a 50-year period. METHODS: An ecological study design was used. Children aged 8-13 attending schools in Aberdeen city were surveyed on seven occasions between 1964 and 2014. The following were determined: history of asthma, history of eczema, parental smoking, parental asthma, sex and socioeconomic status...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Carolyn Talbott, Lynn Watson, Joseph Tariman, Matthew Sorenson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability and usability of a standardized communication tool for nurses. BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE: Communication is key in healthcare. On a daily, if not hourly, basis, nursing staff is inundated with new information regarding tools and resources, practice changes and the work environment. However, there is currently no standardized messaging or delivery method to effectively communicate new information...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Michele Tinazzi, Christian Geroin, Marialuisa Gandolfi, Nicola Smania, Stefano Tamburin, Francesca Morgante, Alfonso Fasano
Pisa syndrome was first described in 1972 in patients treated with neuroleptics. Since 2003, when it was first reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), Pisa syndrome has progressively drawn the attention of clinicians and researchers. Although emerging evidence has partially clarified its prevalence and pathophysiology, the current debate revolves around diagnostic criteria and assessment and the effectiveness of pharmacological, surgical, and rehabilitative approaches. Contrary to initial thought, Pisa syndrome is common among PD patients, with an estimated prevalence of 8...
October 25, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Nicoline Callesen Do, Anna Lilja Secher, Per Cramon, Lene Ringholm, Torquil Watt, Peter Damm, Elisabeth Reinhardt Mathiesen
INTRODUCTION: To explore changes in health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational cohort study including 137 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes (110 with type 1 and 27 with type 2). To evaluate changes from early to late pregnancy, the internationally validated questionnaires 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), were completed at 8 and 33 gestational weeks...
October 25, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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