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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911435/detecting-biomarkers-of-secondhand-marijuana-smoke-in-young-children
#2
Karen M Wilson, Michelle R Torok, Binnian Wei, Lanqing Wang, Michelle Robinson, Connie S Sosnoff, Benjamin C Blount
BACKGROUND: The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow detection of secondhand marijuana smoke in children. METHODS: We studied children ages 1 month to 2 years hospitalized with bronchiolitis in Colorado from 2013-2015. Parents completed a survey, and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine using LC/MS/MS (LOD 0.03 ng/ml) and marijuana metabolites including COOH-THC (LOD 0.015 ng/ml). RESULTS: A total of 43 subjects had urine samples available for analysis...
December 2, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911388/high-throughput-real-time-dual-readout-testing-of-intracellular-antimicrobial-activity-and-eukaryotic-cell-cytotoxicity
#3
Lucius Chiaraviglio, Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911344/patient-perspectives-on-deep-brain-stimulation-clinical-research-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Lauren Heusinkveld, Mallory Hacker, Maxim Turchan, Madelyn Bollig, Christina Tamargo, William Fisher, Lauren McLaughlin, Adria Martig, David Charles
The FDA approved a multicenter, double-blind, Phase III, pivotal trial testing deep brain stimulation in 280 people with very early stage Parkinson's disease (PD; IDE#G050016). In partnership with The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, we conducted a survey to investigate motivating factors, barriers, and gender differences for participation in a trial testing DBS in early PD. The majority of survey respondents (72%) indicated they would consider learning more about participating. Men and women with early PD are likely to consider enrolling in trials of invasive therapies that may slow symptom progression and help future patients...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911335/european-cross-sectional-survey-of%C3%A2-current-care-practices-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-reveals-regional-and%C3%A2-age-dependent-differences
#5
Julia Vry, Kathrin Gramsch, Sunil Rodger, Rachel Thompson, Birgit F Steffensen, Jes Rahbek, Sam Doerken, Adrian Tassoni, María de Los Angeles Beytía, Velina Guergueltcheva, Teodora Chamova, Ivailo Tournev, Anna Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna Kaminska, Anna Lusakowska, Lenka Mrazova, Lenka Pavlovska, Jana Strenkova, Petr Vondráček, Marta Garami, Veronika Karcagi, Ágnes Herczegfalvi, Katherine Bushby, Hanns Lochmüller, Janbernd Kirschner
BACKGROUND: Publication of comprehensive clinical care guidelines for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in 2010 was a milestone for DMD patient management. Our CARE-NMD survey investigates the neuromuscular, medical, and psychosocial care of DMD patients in Europe, and compares it to the guidelines. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1677 patients contacted via the TREAT-NMD patient registries was conducted using self-report questionnaires in seven European countries...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911328/the-clinical-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-the-italian-selfie
#6
Giulia M Sancesario, Sofia Toniolo, Davide Chiasserini, Simona G Di Santo, Josh Zegeer, Gaetano Bernardi, Massimo Musicco, Carlo Caltagirone, Lucilla Parnetti, Sergio Bernardini
Although the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid β1-42 (Aβ42), tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181) gives added diagnostic and prognostic values, the diffusion is still limited in clinical practice and only a restricted number of patients receive an integrated clinico-biological diagnosis. By a survey, we aimed to do a "selfie" of the use and diffusion of CSF biomarkers of dementia in Italy, the standardization of pre-analytical procedures, the harmonization of ranges, and the participation to Quality Control programs...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911236/patient-versus-physician-reported-facial-disability-in-vestibular-schwannoma-an-international-cross-sectional-study
#7
Øystein Vesterli Tveiten, Matthew L Carlson, Frederik Goplen, Erling Myrseth, Colin L W Driscoll, Rupavathana Mahesparan, Michael J Link, Morten Lund-Johansen
OBJECTIVE Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly used in studies of vestibular schwannoma (VS); however, few studies have examined self-evaluated facial nerve function and its relation to physician-reported outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to compare patient self-evaluations of facial disability with physician-evaluated facial nerve status and with self-evaluations of a healthy control group. The second objective was to provide insight into the controversial subject of the optimal initial management of small- and medium-sized VSs; consequently, the authors compared patient-reported facial nerve disability following treatment via observation (OBS), Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), or microsurgery (MS)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911184/clinical-practice-in-portuguese-sexology
#8
Violeta Alarcão, Sofia Ribeiro, Joana Almeida, Alain Giami
Few studies explore the clinicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality, despite their role in the sexual health socialization process. This study focuses on Portuguese sexologists engaged into clinical practice. It aims to characterize sexologists' sex education and training and their clinical practices, including diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This research followed the methodology of a survey undertaken in France as a part of the Euro-Sexo study. From the 91 obtained questionnaires, 51 (56%) were active in clinical practice...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911135/development-of-a-new-measurement-scale-for-interprofessional-collaborative-competency-the-chiba-interprofessional-competency-scale-cics29
#9
Ikuko Sakai, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshinori Takahashi, Takashi Maeda, Yuuko Kunii, Kana Kurokochi
AVSTRACT The purpose of this study was to refine the items on a scale measuring interprofessional collaborative competency that was developed by the authors in an earlier pilot study. A questionnaire-based study was conducted with a sample of 2133 health professionals using the reformulated questionnaire. Construct validity was tested by comparing the survey results with a covariance structure analysis and the domains of interprofessional collaboration competencies presented in previous studies. A second survey was conducted 2 weeks later with a sample of 571 nursing professionals, using the same survey form to test its reliability...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911091/who-adopts-queer-and-pansexual-sexual-identities
#10
James S Morandini, Alexander Blaszczynski, Ilan Dar-Nimrod
Some nonheterosexual individuals are eschewing lesbian/gay and bisexual identities for queer and pansexual identities. The present study aimed to examine the sexual and demographic characteristics of nonheterosexual individuals who adopt these labels. A convenience sample of 2,220 nonheterosexual (1,459 lesbian/gay, 413 bisexual, 168 queer, 146 pansexual, and 34 other "write-in") individuals were recruited for a cross-sectional online survey. In support of our hypotheses, those adopting pansexual identities were younger than those adopting lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities, and those adopting queer and pansexual identities were more likely to be noncisgender than cisgender, and more likely to be cisgender women than men...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911085/perceived-neighborhood-conditions-and-depression-positive-local-news-as-a-buffering-factor
#11
Masahiro Yamamoto
This study investigates positive local news as a moderator of the effects of perceived neighborhood conditions on depression. Data from an online survey of Chicago residents indicate that the relationship between fear of crime and depression is weaker for respondents who pay more attention to positive local news. Data also reveal that the indirect relationships that perceived neighborhood disorder and crime have with depression through fear of crime are weaker as attention to positive local news increases. Implications are discussed for the role of positive news as a protective factor for mental health...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910929/novel-groups-and-unique-distribution-of-phage-phoh-genes-in-paddy-waters-in-northeast-china
#12
Xinzhen Wang, Junjie Liu, Zhenhua Yu, Jian Jin, Xiaobing Liu, Guanghua Wang
Although bacteriophages are ubiquitous in various environments, their genetic diversity is primarily investigated in pelagic marine environments. Corresponding studies in terrestrial environments are few. In this study, we conducted the first survey of phage diversity in the paddy ecosystem by targeting a new viral biomarker gene, phoH. A total of 424 phoH sequences were obtained from four paddy waters generated from a pot experiment with different soils collected from open paddy fields in northeast China. The majority of phoH sequences in paddy waters were novel, with the highest identity of ≤70% with known phoH sequences...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910910/genome-wide-characterisation-and-expression-profile-of-the-grapevine-atl-ubiquitin-ligase-family-reveal-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-responsive-and-development-related-members
#13
Pietro Ariani, Alice Regaiolo, Arianna Lovato, Alejandro Giorgetti, Andrea Porceddu, Salvatore Camiolo, Darren Wong, Simone Castellarin, Elodie Vandelle, Annalisa Polverari
The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) protein family is a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases with a characteristic RING-H2 Zn-finger structure that mediates diverse physiological processes and stress responses in plants. We carried out a genome-wide survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ATL genes and retrieved 96 sequences containing the canonical ATL RING-H2 domain. We analysed their genomic organisation, gene structure and evolution, protein domains and phylogenetic relationships. Clustering revealed several clades, as already reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), with an expanded subgroup of grapevine-specific genes...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910760/immunomodulation-effect-of-aqueous-extract-of-the-artist-s-conk-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-applanatum-agaricomycetes-on-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#14
Azadeh Manayi, Mahdi Vazirian, Fereshteh Hassan Zade, Akram Tehranifard
It is well known that innate immunity in fish can be activated by many synthetic and natural immunos-timulants; several natural substances induced immunity in fish in previous surveys. This study discussed data regarding the effect of Ganoderma applanatum aqueous extract on the defense mechanisms of rainbow trout in feeding trials. Fish were fed 250, 500, and 1000 mg extract/kg diet 4 times daily. Growth, humoral parameters, lysozyme activity, and serum protein concentrations were assessed after a period of 45 days...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910581/spectral-survey-of-helium-lines-in-a-linear-plasma-device-for-use-in-helios-imaging
#15
H B Ray, T M Biewer, D T Fehling, R C Isler, E A Unterberg
Fast visible cameras and a filterscope are used to examine the visible light emission from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Proto-MPEX. The filterscope has been configured to perform helium line ratio measurements using emission lines at 667.9, 728.1, and 706.5 nm. The measured lines should be mathematically inverted and the ratios compared to a collisional radiative model (CRM) to determine Te and ne. Increasing the number of measurement chords through the plasma improves the inversion calculation and subsequent Te and ne localization...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910554/a-libs-method-for-simultaneous-monitoring-of-the-impurities-and-the-hydrogenic-composition-present-in-the-wall-of-the-tj-ii-stellarator
#16
B López-Miranda, B Zurro, A Baciero, M Martínez
The study of plasma-wall interactions and impurity transport in the plasma fusion devices is critical for the development of future fusion reactors. An experiment to perform laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, using minor modifications of our existing laser blow-off impurity injection system, has been set up thus making both experiments compatible. The radiation produced by the laser pulse focused at the TJ-II wall evaporates a surface layer of deposited impurities and the subsequent radiation produced by the laser-produced plasma is collected by two separate lens and fiber combinations into two spectrometers...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910267/the-impact-of-patient-characteristics-on-nurse-practitioners-assessment-and-management-of-adolescent-concussion
#17
Janessa M Graves, Tracy A Klein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of patient sex and type of activity on concussion assessment and management recommendations. METHODS: We administered a web-based survey to all nurse practitioners (NPs) actively licensed in Washington and Oregon. Participants were randomized to view one of four standardized patient scenario videos of an adolescent seeking care for a concussion, portraying the same symptomology but differing by sex and activity (soccer/hiking)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910193/use-of-organs-from-donors-with-bloodstream-infection-pneumonia-and-influenza-results-of-a-survey-of-infectious-diseases-practitioners
#18
Sanjay R Mehta, Cathy Logan, Camille N Kotton, Deepali Kumar, Saima Aslam
BACKGROUND: Potential organ donors may be admitted with an infection to an intensive care unit, or contract a nosocomial infection during their stay, increasing the risk of potential transmission to the recipient. Because of a lack of practice guidelines and large-scale data on this topic, we undertook a survey to assess the willingness of transplant infectious diseases (ID) physicians to accept such organs. METHODS: We performed a 10-question survey of ID providers from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Disease Community of Practice to determine the scope of practice regarding acceptance of organs from donors with bloodstream infection, pneumonia, and influenza prior to organ procurement, as well as management of such infections following transplantation...
December 2, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910189/a-qualitative-investigation-into-the-hiv-disclosure-process-within-an-intimate-partnership-the-moment-i-realized-that-our-relationship-was-developing-into-something-serious-i-just-had-to-tell-him
#19
Charlotte Smith, Rachel Cook, Poul Rohleder
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to elucidate the process through which people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United Kingdom disclose their status to an intimate partner (IP). DESIGN: A qualitative cross-sectional survey design was used. METHOD: A total of 95 PLWH took part. They were presented with a series of open-ended questions enquiring into their last experience of disclosing to an IP. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Disclosure became a salient issue when the discloser acknowledged their relationship as meaningful...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910181/trends-and-risk-factors-of-stillbirths-and-neonatal-deaths-in-eastern-uganda-1982-2011-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#20
Sanni Kujala, Peter Waiswa, Daniel Kadobera, Joseph Akuze, George Pariyo, Claudia Hanson
OBJECTIVES: To identify mortality trends and risk factors associated with stillbirths and neonatal deaths 1982-2011. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study based on reported pregnancy history in Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in Uganda. A pregnancy history survey was conducted among women aged 15-49 years living in the HDSS during May-July 2011 (n = 10 540). Time trends were analysed with cubic splines and linear regression...
November 5, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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