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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914280/trace-isotope-analysis-of-ricinus-communis-seed-core-for-provenance-determination-by-laser-ablation-icp-ms
#1
Christina K Bagas, Rachel L Scadding, Cameron J Scadding, R John Watling, Warren Roberts, Simon P B Ovenden
The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, grows wild throughout many regions of Australia. The seeds of the plant contain the schedule 1 chemical agent ricin, a type II ribosomal inhibiting protein. Currently there are limited analytical techniques that can be applied in analysis of the seeds to establish attribution. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of seeds collected from 68 plants across 38 locations around Australia. Of the 92 elemental isotopes measured, fifteen ((24)Mg, (27)Al, (44)Ca, (53)Cr, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, (75)As, (85)Rb, (88)Sr, (98)Mo, (138)Ba and (202)Hg) yielded data that were relevant to all collection sites...
November 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909732/early-vegf-inhibition-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-ischemic-rat-brains-by-regulating-the-expression-of-mmps
#2
Hai-Tao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yi Gao, Chen-Long Li, Hong-Jun Wang, Ling-Chao Chen, Yan Feng, Rui-Yan Li, Yong-Li Li, Chuan-Lu Jiang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the BBB is the key event associated with morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of VEGF inhibition and the possible mechanism that underlies acute cerebral ischemia in rats was investigated. Following the induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for a 90‑min period, either an anti‑VEGF neutralizing antibody (RB‑222; 5 or 10 µg), or IgG (control), was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 1 h following reperfusion...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903905/human-mlh1-suppresses-the-insertion-of-telomeric-sequences-at-intra-chromosomal-sites-in-telomerase-expressing-cells
#3
Pingping Jia, Megan Chastain, Ying Zou, Chengtao Her, Weihang Chai
Aberrant formation of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) promotes genome instabilities. However, it is unclear how aberrant ITS formation is suppressed in human cells. Here, we report that MLH1, a key protein involved in mismatch repair (MMR), suppresses telomeric sequence insertion (TSI) at intra-chromosomal regions. The frequency of TSI can be elevated by double-strand break (DSB) inducer and abolished by ATM/ATR inhibition. Suppression of TSI requires MLH1 recruitment to DSBs, indicating that MLH1's role in DSB response/repair is important for suppressing TSI...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903806/oschx14-is-involved-in-the-k-homeostasis-in-rice-oryza-sativa-flowers
#4
Yi Chen, Jingkun Ma, Anthony J Miller, Bingbing Luo, Mei Wang, Zhen Zhu, Pieter B F Ouwerkerk
Previously we showed in the osjar1 mutants that the lodicule senescence which controls the closing of rice flowers was delayed. This resulted in florets staying open longer when compared with the wild type. The gene OsJAR1 is silenced in osjar1 mutants and is a key member of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. We found that K concentrations in lodicules and flowers of osjar1-2 were significantly elevated compared with the wild type, indicating that K(+) homeostasis may play a role in regulating the closure of rice flowers...
July 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899256/erlotinib-has-tumor-inhibitory-effect-in-human-retinoblastoma-cells
#5
Yi Shao, Yao Yu, Rongrong Zong, Luowa Quyang, Hui He, Qiong Zhou, Chonggang Pei
AIM: In this study, we explored the effect of erlotinib on the development of retinoblastoma (RB) cells both in vitro and in vivo. METHOD: RB cell lines, Y79 and WERI cells were treated with various concentrations of erlotinib in vitro to assess their cytotoxic profiles. In vitro proliferation, cell-cycle transition and migration were compared between RB cells treated with erlotinib and cells without erlotinib treatment. In in vivo tumorigenicity assay, mice were injected with Y79 cells and orally fed with erlotinib for 28days...
November 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889452/an-rb-ezh2-complex-mediates-silencing-of-repetitive-dna-sequences
#6
Charles A Ishak, Aren E Marshall, Daniel T Passos, Carlee R White, Seung J Kim, Matthew J Cecchini, Sara Ferwati, William A MacDonald, Christopher J Howlett, Ian D Welch, Seth M Rubin, Mellissa R W Mann, Frederick A Dick
Repetitive genomic regions include tandem sequence repeats and interspersed repeats, such as endogenous retroviruses and LINE-1 elements. Repressive heterochromatin domains silence expression of these sequences through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) utilizes a cell-cycle-independent interaction with E2F1 to recruit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) to diverse repeat sequences. These include simple repeats, satellites, LINEs, and endogenous retroviruses as well as transposon fragments...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879515/atypical-spindle-cell-lipomatous-tumor-clinicopathologic-characterization-of-232-cases-demonstrating-a-morphologic-spectrum
#7
Adrian Mariño-Enriquez, Alessandra F Nascimento, Azra H Ligon, Cherwei Liang, Christopher D M Fletcher
The classification of atypical adipocytic neoplasms with spindle cell features remains challenging. To better define this category of low-grade lipomatous neoplasms, we present herein the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of a large series of 232 atypical spindle cell lipomatous tumors. The lesions affected 140 males and 92 females, at an average age of 54 years (range, 6 to 87 y), clinically presenting as a persistent or enlarging mass with a median size of 5 cm. The anatomic distribution of the tumors was wide, predominating in the limbs and limb girdles (147 cases, 63%), mainly in the hands and feet (17% and 11%, respectively), with equal distribution between subcutaneous and deeper locations...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864281/lipoprotein-lipase-and-phospholipid-transfer-protein-overexpression-in-human-glioma-cells-and-their-effect-on-cell-growth-apoptosis-and-migration
#8
Weijiang Dong, Huilin Gong, Guanjun Zhang, Simona Vuletic, John Albers, Jiaojiao Zhang, Hua Liang, Yanxia Sui, Jin Zheng
Glioma is one of the common tumors in brain. The expression level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) or phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may influence glioma progression and its relationship with clinical and pathological parameters. The clinical significance of LPL or PLTP expression in glioma has not been established. In the present study, the LPL and PLTP levels in glioma tumors were investigated and the relationship between the LPL and PLTP level and the grade of malignant glioma was analyzed, with the aim to provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas in clinical and basic research settings...
November 17, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859428/low-p16-ink4a-expression-in-early-passage-human-prostate-basal-epithelial-cells-enables-immortalization-by-telomerase-expression-alone
#9
Mindy Kim Graham, Lorenzo Principessa, Lizamma Antony, Alan K Meeker, John T Isaacs
BACKGROUND: There are two principal senescence barriers that must be overcome to successfully immortalize primary human epithelial cells in culture, stress-induced senescence, and replicative senescence. The p16(INK4a) /retinoblastoma protein (p16/Rb) pathway mediates stress-induced senescence, and is generally upregulated by primary epithelial cells in response to the artificial conditions from tissue culture. Replicative senescence is associated with telomere loss. Following each round of cell division, telomeres progressively shorten...
November 8, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854545/mir-29b-targets-lpl-and-tdg-genes-and-regulates-apoptosis-and-triglyceride-production-in-mecs
#10
Yuwei Yang, Qiqi Pan, Boxing Sun, Runjun Yang, Xibi Fang, Xin Liu, Xianzhong Yu, Zhihui Zhao
microRNAs are involved in various biological processes by regulating the degradation or repressing the translation of target genes. In this study, the target genes of miR-29b were analyzed and predicted by bioinformatics. And lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) were selected for further validation by dual luciferase reporter assay. In addition, we investigated the effects of miR-29b on triglyceride synthesis and mammary epithelial cell (MEC) apoptosis. The result showed that luciferase activity was significantly lower in cells that miR-29b cotransfected with LPL and TDG gene reporter vectors (pmiR-RB-REPORT-LPL-WT, pmiR-RB-REPORT-TDG-WT) than in cells of miR-29b cotransfected with gene reporter vectors (pmiR-RB-REPORT-LPL-mut and pmiR-RB-REPORT-LPL-si; pmiR-RB-REPORT-TDG-mut and pmiR-RB-REPORT-TDG-si) (p < 0...
November 17, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843907/targeting-hmga2-in-retinoblastoma-cells-in-vitro-using-the-aptamer-strategy
#11
Venkatesan Nalini, Perinkulam Ravi Deepa, Rajeswari Raguraman, Vikas Khetan, Maddy Ashwin Reddy, Subramanian Krishnakumar
High-mobility group A2 (HMGA2) protein regulates retinoblastoma (RB) cancer cell proliferation. Here, a stable phosphorothioate-modified HMGA2 aptamer was used to block HMGA2 protein function in RB cells. HMGA2-aptamer internalisation in RB cells (Y79, Weri Rb1) and non-neoplastic human retinal cells (MIO-M1) were optimised. Aptamer induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in RB cancer cells (0.25-1.5 µM). Increased expression of TGFβ, SMAD4, CDH1, BAX, CASP 3, PARP mRNA and decreased SNAI1, Bcl2 mRNA levels in aptamer-treated RB cells suggests the activation of TGFβ-SMAD4-mediated apoptotic pathway...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842905/mir-148a-participates-in-the-growth-of-rpmi8226-multiple-myeloma-cells-by-regulating-cdkn1b
#12
Tao Lang, Yuling Nie
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the influence of miR-148a on cell proliferation and cell cycle of multiple myeloma (MM) cell line RPMI8226 and the related molecular mechanism. METHODS: The expression of miR-148a and CDKN1B in MM cells and primary cells of normal bone marrow were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. The cell proliferation and cell cycle of miR-148a knockdown MM cells and normal MM cells were determined by flow cytometry. The protein expression of p-NPAT, p-Rb and p-CDC6 was determined in normal and miR-148a knockdown MM cells...
November 11, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832204/expression-of-the-lncrna-maternally-expressed-gene-3-meg3-contributes-to-the-control-of-lung-cancer-cell-proliferation-by-the-rb-pathway
#13
Traci L Kruer, Susan M Dougherty, Lindsey Reynolds, Elizabeth Long, Tanya de Silva, William W Lockwood, Brian F Clem
Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3, mouse homolog Gtl2) encodes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is expressed in many normal tissues, but is suppressed in various cancer cell lines and tumors, suggesting it plays a functional role as a tumor suppressor. Hypermethylation has been shown to contribute to this loss of expression. We now demonstrate that MEG3 expression is regulated by the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) pathway and correlates with a change in cell proliferation. Microarray analysis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from mice with genetic deletion of all three Rb family members (TKO) revealed a significant silencing of Gtl2/MEG3 expression compared to WT MEFs, and re-expression of Gtl2/MEG3 caused decrease in cell proliferation and increased apoptosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830966/a-deletion-polymorphism-in-the-riz-gene-is-associated-with-increased-progression-of-imatinib-treated-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients
#14
Rashid Mir, Imtiyaz Ah Najar, Sameer Guru, Jamsheed Javaid, Prasant Yadav, Mirza Masroor, Mariyam Zuberi, Shazia Farooq, Musadiq Bhat, Naresh Gupta, Prakash Chander Ray, Alpana Saxena
RIZ1 encodes a retinoblastoma (Rb)-interacting zinc finger protein, is commonly lost or expressed at reduced levels in cancer cells. The RIZ1 gene locus commonly undergoes LOH in many cancers. Here, we analyzed Proline insertion-deletion polymorphism at amino acid position 704 in the RIZ1 gene and its association with CML. The RIZ1 pro-704 LOH genotypes were determined by AS-PCR in 100 CML patients among which 50 were in CP-CML, 25 in AP-CML, and 25 in BC-CML. Pro704 ins/del polymorphism (LOH) was detected in 27% CML patients...
November 10, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824155/cucurbitacin-d-exhibits-potent-anti-cancer-activity-in-cervical-cancer
#15
Mohammed Sikander, Bilal Bin Hafeez, Shabnam Malik, Abdulrhman Alsayari, Fathi T Halaweish, Murali M Yallapu, Subhash C Chauhan, Meena Jaggi
In this study, we for the first time, investigated the potential anti-cancer effects of a novel analogue of cucurbitacin (Cucurbitacin D) against cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cucurbitacin D inhibited viability and growth of cervical cancer cells (CaSki and SiHa) in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 of Cucurbitacin D was recorded at 400 nM and 250 nM in CaSki and SiHa cells, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was observed in Cucurbitacin D treated cervical cancer cells as measured by enhanced Annexin V staining and cleavage in PARP protein...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822872/constitutive-expression-of-inducible-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-early-repressor-icer-in-cycling-quiescent-hematopoietic-cells-implications-for-aging-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#16
Steven J Greco, Ghassan Yehia, Julius A Potian, Carlos A Molina, Pranela Rameshwar
Despite extensive insights on the interaction between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the supporting bone marrow (BM) stroma in hematopoietic homeostasis there remains unanswered questions on HSC regulation. We report on the mechanism by which HSCs attain cycling quiescence by addressing a role for inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER). ICER negatively transcriptional regulators of cAMP activators such as CREM and CREB. These activators can be induced by hematopoietic stimulators such as cytokines...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822437/identification-of-mutations-gene-expression-changes-and-fusion-transcripts-by-whole-transcriptome-rnaseq-in-docetaxel-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#17
Yuanjun Ma, Yali Miao, Zhuochun Peng, Johanna Sandgren, Teresita Díaz De Ståhl, Mikael Huss, Lena Lennartsson, Yanling Liu, Monica Nistér, Sten Nilsson, Chunde Li
Docetaxel has been the standard first-line therapy in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. The survival benefit is, however, limited by either primary or acquired resistance. In this study, Du145 prostate cancer cells were converted to docetaxel-resistant cells Du145-R and Du145-RB by in vitro culturing. Next generation RNAseq was employed to analyze these cell lines. Forty-two genes were identified to have acquired mutations after the resistance development, of which thirty-four were found to have mutations in published sequencing studies using prostate cancer samples from patients...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818336/vegetable-oil-induced-inflammatory-response-by-altering-tlr-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-macrophages-infiltration-and-polarization-in-adipose-tissue-of-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#18
Peng Tan, Xiaojing Dong, Kangsen Mai, Wei Xu, Qinghui Ai
High level of vegetable oil (VO) in diets could induce strong inflammatory response, and thus decrease nonspecific immunity and disease resistance in most marine fish species. The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary VO could exert these anti-immunological effects by altering TLR-NF-κB signalling, macrophages infiltration and polarization in adipose tissue of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipid diets with 0% (FO, fish oil, the control), 50% (FV, fish oil and vegetable oil mixed) and 100% (VO, vegetable oil) vegetable oil were fed to fish with three replicates for ten weeks...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791271/sirt3-and-p53-deacetylation-in-aging-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Jijun Chen, Aiqin Wang, Qingqi Chen
The mammalian Sirtuins are a family of highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +)-dependent histone deacetylase. The mammalian Sirtuins family has identified seven different types of sirtuin. Sirtuins 3(SirT3) is localized to mitochondria, and is a multiple functional protein deacylase through deacetylating a variety of substrates. Cellular senescence represents a permanent withdraw from cell cycle in response to diverse stress; it is controlled by the p53 and retinoblastoma protein (RB) tumor suppressors, and constitutes a potent anticancer mechanisms...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789274/h19-noncoding-rna-an-independent-prognostic-factor-regulates-essential-rb-e2f-and-cdk8-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Masahisa Ohtsuka, Hui Ling, Cristina Ivan, Martin Pichler, Daisuke Matsushita, Matthew Goblirsch, Verena Stiegelbauer, Kunitoshi Shigeyasu, Xinna Zhang, Meng Chen, Fnu Vidhu, Geoffrey A Bartholomeusz, Yuji Toiyama, Masato Kusunoki, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Shumei Song, Jillian R Gunther, Sunil Krishnan, Ondrej Slaby, Ajay Goel, Jaffer A Ajani, Milan Radovich, George A Calin
The clinical significance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unexplored. Here, we analyzed a large panel of lncRNA candidates with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) CRC dataset, and identified H19 as the most significant lncRNA associated with CRC patient survival. We further validated such association in two independent CRC cohorts. H19 silencing blocked G1-S transition, reduced cell proliferation, and inhibited cell migration. We profiled gene expression changes to gain mechanism insight of H19 function...
October 19, 2016: EBioMedicine
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