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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032785/two-glutathione-transferase-isoforms-isolated-from-juvenile-cysts-of-taenia-crassiceps-identification-purification-and-characterization
#1
G Maldonado, G Nava, A Plancarte
We identified and characterized the first two glutathione transferases (GSTs) isolated from juvenile cysts of Taenia crassiceps (EC 2.5.1.18). The two glutathione transferases (TcGST1 and TcGST2) were purified in a single-step protocol using glutathione (GSH)-sepharose chromatography in combination with a GSH gradient. The specific activities of TcGST1 and TcGST2 were 26 U mg-1 and 19 U mg-1, respectively, both at 25°C and pH 6.5 with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and GSH as substrates. The K m(CDNB) and K cat(CDNB) values for TcGST1 and TcGST2 (0...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028833/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-recruits-mycl-to-the-ep400-complex-to-promote-oncogenesis
#2
Jingwei Cheng, Donglim Esther Park, Christian Berrios, Elizabeth A White, Reety Arora, Rosa Yoon, Timothy Branigan, Tengfei Xiao, Thomas Westerling, Alexander Federation, Rhamy Zeid, Benjamin Strober, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, James E Bradner, Myles Brown, Peter M Howley, Megha Padi, Michael P Washburn, James A DeCaprio
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) frequently contains integrated copies of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA that express a truncated form of Large T antigen (LT) and an intact Small T antigen (ST). While LT binds RB and inactivates its tumor suppressor function, it is less clear how ST contributes to MCC tumorigenesis. Here we show that ST binds specifically to the MYC homolog MYCL (L-MYC) and recruits it to the 15-component EP400 histone acetyltransferase and chromatin remodeling complex. We performed a large-scale immunoprecipitation for ST and identified co-precipitating proteins by mass spectrometry...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018245/transient-postnatal-overfeeding-causes-liver-stress-induced-premature-senescence-in-adult-mice
#3
Catherine Yzydorczyk, Na Li, Hassib Chehade, Dolores Mosig, Mickael Bidho, Basile Keshavjee, Jean Baptiste Armengaud, Katya Nardou, Benazir Siddeek, Mohamed Benahmed, Catherine Vergely, Umberto Simeoni
Unbalanced nutrition early in life is increasingly recognized as an important factor in the development of chronic, non-communicable diseases at adulthood, including metabolic diseases. We aimed to determine whether transient postnatal overfeeding (OF) leads to liver stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of hepatocytes in association with liver structure and hepatic function alterations. Litters sizes of male C57BL/6 mice were adjusted to 9 pups (normal feeding, NF) or reduced to 3 pups during the lactation period to induce transient postnatal OF...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993910/improved-process-conditions-for-increasing-expression-of-mhc-class-ii-protein-from-a-stable-drosophila-s2-cell-line
#4
Xiao Shen, Danijel Dojcinovic, Lucia Baldi, David L Hacker, Immanuel F Luescher, Florian M Wurm
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of operational process conditions on expression of MHC class II protein from a stable Drosophila S2 cell line. RESULTS: When the Drosophila S2 cells were grown in vented orbitally shaken TubeSpin bioreactor 600 containers, cell growth was improved three-fold and the yield of recombinant major histocompatibility (MHC) class II protein (HLA-DR12xHis) increased four-fold over the levels observed for the same cells cultivated in roller bottles (RB) without vented caps...
October 9, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991226/lsd1-promotes-s-phase-entry-and-tumorigenesis-via-chromatin-co-occupation-with-e2f1-and-selective-h3k9-demethylation
#5
Y He, Y Zhao, L Wang, L R Bohrer, Y Pan, L Wang, H Huang
Histone H3 lysine-9 (H3K9) methylation is essential for retinoblastoma protein (RB)-mediated heterochromatin formation, epigenetic silencing of S-phase genes and permanent cell cycle arrest or cellular senescence. Besides as an H3K4 demethylase, lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) has been shown to promote H3K9 demethylation. However, it is unexplored whether LSD1 has a causal role in regulating cell cycle entry and senescence. Here we demonstrate that genetic depletion or pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 triggers G1 arrest and cellular senescence...
October 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990063/bioinformatics-analysis-of-gene-expression-data-for-the-identification-of-critical-genes-in-breast-invasive-carcinoma
#6
Yi Li, Yongsheng Wang
Gene expression data were analyzed in order to identify critical genes in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA). Data from 1,073 BRCA samples and 99 normal samples were analyzed, which were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays method and a functional enrichment analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Relevant microRNAs (miRNAs), transcription factors (TFs) and associated small molecule drugs were revealed by Fisher's exact test...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987387/mir-17-5p-enhances-pancreatic-cancer-proliferation-by-altering-cell-cycle-profiles-via-disruption-of-rbl2-e2f4-repressing-complexes
#7
Youwei Zhu, Jiangning Gu, Ying Li, Chenghong Peng, Minmin Shi, Xuelong Wang, Gang Wei, Ouyang Ge, Di Wang, Bosen Zhang, Jian Wu, Yiming Zhong, Baiyong Shen, Hao Chen
The members of the miR-17-92 cluster are upregulated in various cancers and function as a cluster of oncogenic miRNA. Our study characterized a new function of miR-17-5p, a member of the miR-17-92 cluster, in regulating cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer. Our results indicated that miR-17-5p was up-regulated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and directly targeted the retinoblastoma-like protein 2 (RBL2), a tumor suppressor belonging to the Rb family. High levels of miR-17-5p and low levels of RBL2 were associated with poor prognosis...
October 4, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985526/distinct-cell-cycle-control-in-two-different-states-of-mouse-pluripotency
#8
Menno Ter Huurne, James Chappell, Stephen Dalton, Hendrik G Stunnenberg
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) cultured in serum are characterized by hyper-phosphorylated RB protein, lack of G1 control, and rapid progression through the cell cycle. Here, we show that ESCs grown in the presence of two small-molecule inhibitors (2i ESCs) have a longer G1-phase with hypo-phosphorylated RB, implying that they have a functional G1 checkpoint. Deletion of RB, P107, and P130 in 2i ESCs results in a G1-phase similar to that of serum ESCs. Inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway in serum ESCs results in the appearance of hypo-phosphorylated RB and the reinstatement of a G1 checkpoint...
October 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979847/rb-independent-e2f3-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-alters-expression-of-genes-involved-in-metabolism-and-inflammation
#9
Yang Liao, Wei Du
E2F transcription factors are key targets of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor. Despite extensive studies, the in vivo consequences of disrupting the interaction between Rb and an individual E2F are not clear. Here, we report an E2F mutation that interfered with binding to Rb family proteins without significantly affecting protein level or transactivation function. Characterization of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with this Rb-independent E2F3(LQ) mutation revealed that disrupting the Rb and E2F3 interaction increased cell proliferation, allowed cells to accumulate to higher density, and significantly altered expression of genes involved in metabolism, inflammation, immunity, and response to stress...
October 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973440/maz-induces-myb-expression-during-the-exit-from-quiescence-via-the-e2f-site-in-the-myb-promoter
#10
Josué Álvaro-Blanco, Katia Urso, Yuri Chiodo, Carla Martín-Cortázar, Omar Kourani, Pablo Gómez-Del Arco, María Rodríguez-Martínez, Esther Calonge, José Alcamí, Juan Miguel Redondo, Teresa Iglesias, Miguel R Campanero
Most E2F-binding sites repress transcription through the recruitment of Retinoblastoma (RB) family members until the end of the G1 cell-cycle phase. Although the MYB promoter contains an E2F-binding site, its transcription is activated shortly after the exit from quiescence, before RB family members inactivation, by unknown mechanisms. We had previously uncovered a nuclear factor distinct from E2F, Myb-sp, whose DNA-binding site overlapped the E2F element and had hypothesized that this factor might overcome the transcriptional repression of MYB by E2F-RB family members...
September 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964969/e2f6-protein-levels-modulate-drug-induced-apoptosis-in-cardiomyocytes
#11
Jennifer L Major, Maysoon Salih, Balwant S Tuana
The E2F/Rb pathway regulates cell growth, differentiation, and death. In particular, E2F1 promotes apoptosis in all cells including those of the heart. E2F6, which represses E2F activity, was found to induce dilated cardiomyopathy in the absence of apoptosis in murine post-natal heart. Here we evaluate the anti-apoptotic potential of E2F6 in neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCM) from E2F6-Tg hearts which showed significantly less caspase-3 cleavage, a lower Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and improved cell viability in response to CoCl2 exposure...
September 28, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963063/biochemical-analysis-of-nss-from-different-tospoviruses
#12
Marcio Hedil, Dryas de Ronde, Richard Kormelink
Tospoviruses suppress antiviral RNA interference by coding for an RNA silencing suppressor (NSs) protein. Previously, using NSs-containing crude plant and insect cell extracts, the affinity of NSs for double-stranded (ds)RNA molecules was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shifts assays (EMSAs). While NSs from tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) were able to bind small and long dsRNA molecules, the one from tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV), a distinct Asian tospovirus, only bound small dsRNA...
September 28, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962169/microrna-320-regulates-autophagy-in-retinoblastoma-by-targeting-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE
#13
Yong Liang, Xi Chen, Zhu Liang
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common malignancy in children. Due to refractory mechanisms of chemoresistance and the toxicity of chemotherapies, novel therapies for RB treatment are urgently required. MicroRNA-320 (miR-320) is believed to be associated with the tumorigenesis of RB, although the mechanism remains unclear. Considering the hypoxic intratumoral region, the roles of miR-320 and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the regulation of autophagy were investigated in 30 human RB samples and WERI-RB1 cells...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961193/fascaplysin-exerts-anti-cancer-effects-through-the-downregulation-of-survivin-and-hif-1%C3%AE-and-inhibition-of-vegfr2-and-trka
#14
Taek-In Oh, Yoon-Mi Lee, Taek-Jin Nam, Young-San Ko, Shinmee Mah, Jinhee Kim, Younghoon Kim, Rallabandi Harikrishna Reddy, Young Jun Kim, Sungwoo Hong, Ji-Hong Lim
Fascaplysin has been reported to exert anti-cancer effects by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4); however, the precise mode of action by which fascaplysin suppresses tumor growth is not clear. Here, we found that fascaplysin has stronger anti-cancer effects than other CDK4 inhibitors, including PD0332991 and LY2835219, on lung cancer cells that are wild-type or null for retinoblastoma (RB), indicating that unknown target molecules might be involved in the inhibition of tumor growth by fascaplysin. Fascaplysin treatment significantly decreased tumor angiogenesis and increased cleaved-caspase-3 in xenografted tumor tissues...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959361/effect-of-etoposide-induced-alteration-of-the-mdm2-rb-signaling-pathway-on-cellular-senescence-in-a549-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#15
Wenjing Dai, Yi Jiang, Kairong Chen, Jing Qiu, Jian Sun, Wei Zhang, Xiafei Zhou, Na Huang, Yunhui Li, Wancheng Li
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of etoposide (VP-16) on the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 (Mdm2)-retinoblastoma (Rb) signaling pathway in the cellular senescence of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. A549 cells were randomly divided into the following four groups: Control group (no treatment), group 1 (1 µmol/l VP-16), group 2 (5 µmol/l VP-16) and group 3 (25 µmol/l VP-16). Each group was cultured for 48 h after treatment prior to observation of the alterations to cellular morphology...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958935/liver-specific-deletion-of-lass2-delayed-regeneration-of-mouse-liver-after-partial-hepatectomy
#16
Haojie Jin, Cun Wang, Dishui Gu, Yurong Zhang, Shaohua Fan, Shunpeng Xing, Hui Wang, Haoyu Ruan, Cheng Yang, Yuanyuan Lv, Hugang Feng, Ming Yao, Wenxin Qin
The capacity of liver regeneration is critical for patients with liver diseases. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration are still incompletely defined. Here, we assessed roles of LASS2 in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PHx) in mice. Our results showed that protein level of LASS2 remarkably increased during liver regeneration after PHx in wildtype (WT) mice. Comparing to WT mice, liver regeneration index after PHx was significantly decreased from day 1 to day 5 in liver-specific LASS2 knockout (LASS2-LKO) mice...
September 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956957/the-potential-of-targeting-sin3b-and-its-associated-complexes-for-cancer-therapy
#17
David J Cantor, Gregory David
Sin3B serves as a scaffold for chromatin-modifying complexes that repress gene transcription to regulate distinct biological processes. Sin3B-containing complexes are critical for cell cycle withdrawal, and abrogation of Sin3B-dependent cell cycle exit impacts tumor progression. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the biochemical characteristics of Sin3B-containing complexes and explore how these complexes regulate gene transcription. We focus on how Sin3B-containing complexes, through the association of the Rb family of proteins, repress the expression of E2F target genes during quiescence, differentiation, and senescence...
September 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946006/phosphorylation-of-transcriptional-regulators-in-the-retinoblastoma-protein-pathway-by-ul97-the-viral-cyclin-dependent-kinase-encoded-by-human-cytomegalovirus
#18
Satoko Iwahori, Robert F Kalejta
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes a viral cyclin-dependent kinase (v-CDK), the UL97 protein. UL97 phosphorylates Rb, p107 and p130, thereby inactivating all three retinoblastoma (Rb) family members. Rb proteins function through regulating the activity of transcription factors to which they bind. Therefore, we examined whether the UL97-mediated regulation of the Rb tumor suppressors also extended to their binding partners. We observed that UL97 phosphorylates LIN52, a component of p107- and p130-assembled transcriptionally repressive DREAM complexes that control transcription during the G0/G1 phases, and the Rb-associated E2F3 protein that activates transcription through G1 and S phases...
September 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943916/blockade-of-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-decreases-viability-and-induces-apoptosis-in-retinoblastoma-cells-the-key-role-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#19
Zhidu Song, Yuanyuan Du, Ying Tao
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common type of malignant intraocular cancer in teenagers. One of the proteins abnormally expressed during oncogenesis of RB is sonic hedgehog (SHH), which possesses the capability to selectively activate transcription factors of different genes. However, the detailed function of SHH in RB remains unknown. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the role of SHH in the development of RB. The human RB WERI-Rb-1 cell line was used as an in vitro model for the knockdown of SHH by a specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928282/dnmt1-dependent-chk1-pathway-suppression-is-protective-against-neuron-division
#20
Mio Oshikawa, Kei Okada, Hidenori Tabata, Koh-Ichi Nagata, Itsuki Ajioka
Neuronal differentiation and cell-cycle exit are tightly coordinated, even in pathological situations. When pathological neurons re-enter the cell cycle and progress through the S phase, they undergo cell death instead of division. However, the mechanisms underlying mitotic resistance are mostly unknown. Here, we have found that acute inactivation of retinoblastoma (Rb) family proteins (Rb, p107 and p130) in mouse postmitotic neurons leads to cell death after S-phase progression. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) pathway activation during the S phase prevented the cell death, and allowed the division of cortical neurons that had undergone acute Rb family inactivation, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or in vivo hypoxia-ischemia...
September 15, 2017: Development
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