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intestinal malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926829/continuous-subcutaneous-recombinant-parathyroid-hormone-1-34-infusion-in-the-management-of-childhood-hypoparathyroidism-associated-with-malabsorption
#1
Vrinda Saraff, Anya Rothenbuhler, Wolfgang Högler, Agnès Linglart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoparathyroidism associated with malabsorption can be particularly challenging to manage due to limited and erratic intestinal absorption of calcium and vitamin D analogues, resulting in episodes of hypo- or hypercalcaemia. We evaluated the role of continuous subcutaneous recombinant parathyroid hormone (rhPTH 1-34) infusion (CSPI) in children with hypoparathyroidism associated with intestinal malabsorption resistant to conventional therapy. METHOD: Four patients (8-13 years of age), with symptomatic hypocalcaemia resistant to conventional therapy, were started on CSPI (follow-up 3-8 years) in two paediatric endocrinology units in Europe...
September 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917233/high-prevalence-of-vitamin-b-12-insufficiency-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#2
Misora Ao, Hidemi Tsuji, Kenichiro Shide, Yuki Kosaka, Akari Noda, Nobuya Inagaki, Hiroshi Nakase, Kiyoshi Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Crohn's disease (CD), belonging to inflammatory bowel disease, the small intestine is involved in most cases. Most frequently affected is the distal ileum, where vitamin B-12 is specifically absorbed. Therefore, malabsorption of vitamin B-12 is quite likely to occur in patients with CD. In this study, we have studied the vitamin B-12 status in CD patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Forty eight patients with CD were evaluated for their food intake, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B-12, folic acid, and homocysteine (Hcy) as a sensitive marker for the insufficiency of these vitamins and a risk factor of atherosclerosis...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915970/a-new-proposed-mechanism-of-action-for-gastric-bypass-surgery-air-hypothesis
#3
Hasan Celiker
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the most effective treatments for obesity and type II diabetes. RYGB was originally believed to work by mechanically restricting caloric intake or causing macronutrient malabsorption. However, such mechanical effects play no role in the remarkable efficacy of gastric bypass. Instead, mounting evidence shows that altered neuroendocrine signaling is responsible for the weight reducing effects of RYGB. The exact mechanism of this surgical response is still a mystery...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913777/diabetes-and-the-small-intestine
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan Gotfried, Stephen Priest, Ron Schey
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated complications are becoming increasingly prevalent. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with diabetes is known as diabetic enteropathy (DE) and may manifest as either diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting or a combination of symptoms. The long-held belief that vagal autonomic neuropathy is the primary cause of DE has recently been challenged by newer theories of disease development. Specifically, hyperglycemia and the resulting oxidative stress on neural networks, including the nitrergic neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), are now believed to play a central role in the development of DE...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912804/assessment-of-nutritional-status-digestion-and-absorption-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#5
J E Witvliet-van Nierop, C M Lochtenberg-Potjes, N J Wierdsma, H J Scheffer, G Kazemier, K Ottens-Oussoren, M R Meijerink, M A E de van der Schueren
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To provide a comprehensive quantitative assessment of nutritional status, digestion and absorption, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: Sixteen patients with LAPC were prospectively assessed for weight loss (WL), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), handgrip strength (HGS), dietary macronutrient intake, serum vitamin levels, resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, indirect calorimetry), intestinal absorption capacity and fecal losses (bomb calorimetry), exocrine pancreatic function (fecal elastase-1 (FE1)), and gastrointestinal quality of life (GIQLI)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898457/organic-solute-transporter-beta-slc51b-deficiency-in-two-brothers-with-congenital-diarrhea-and-features-of-cholestasis
#6
Mutaz Sultan, Anuradha Rao, Orly Elpeleg, Frédéric M Vaz, Bassam Y Abu Libdeh, Saul J Karpen, Paul A Dawson
Primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM) is associated with congenital diarrhea, steatorrhea, and a block in the intestinal return of bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation. Mutations in the ileal Na(+) -dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) can cause PBAM, but do not appear to account for most familial cases. Another major transporter involved in the intestinal reclamation of bile acids is the heteromeric Organic Solute Transporter alpha-beta (OSTα-OSTβ; SLC51A-SLC51B), which exports bile acid across the basolateral membrane...
September 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894048/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bowel-diseases
#7
Magdalena Panek-Jeziorna, Agata Mulak
Bile acids not only play a cardinal role in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, but also significantly affect gastrointestinal motor, sensory and secretory functions, intestinal barrier permeability and the regulation of the inflammatory response. The results of recent studies have revealed complex interactions between bile acids and the gut microbiota. In addition, bile acids also play a role of signaling molecules regulating the activity of lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, as well as a role of ligands for transcription factors...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884726/-polyneuropathies-in-intestinal-diseases
#8
I V Damulin, D A Degterev
Different aspects of polyneuropathies (PN) developed due to the deficit of group B vitamins in intestinal diseases are considered. Neurological disturbances related to intestinal diseases are caused by malabsorption that leads to the deficit of some compounds extremely important for normal cell metabolism, pathological changes of mucous coat of the stomach and intestine and higher sensitivity to the plant protein gluten. Vitamin B12 deficit can lead to a number of neurological disturbances; patients with pernicious anemia most often develop myelopathy and PN...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872123/ileectomy-induced-bile-overaccumulation-in-mouse-intestine
#9
Rongli Zhang, Jonathan W Ray, Mukesh K Jain, Shuxin Han
Intestinal resection is a common therapeutic approach for human diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer that often results in severe short bowel syndrome-like adverse effects including bile acid diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and nutrient malabsorption. Here we introduce a murine ileal resection model, termed ileectomy, to evaluate tissue communication and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. After ileal resection, circulating blood is permanently devoid of the ileum-specific endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which releases its endocrinal inhibition of bile acid synthesis in the liver...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871813/unspecified-intestinal-malabsorption-in-patients-treated-with-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-or-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-a-retrospective-analysis-in-primary-care-settings
#10
Nicola de Bortoli, Claudio Ripellino, Nazarena Cataldo, Santino Marchi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible relationship between the use of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) or Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE-i) and unspecified intestinal malabsorption (IM) within the Italian and German real-life context. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: a retrospective cohort of patients with a new unspecified IM diagnosis during the period 1 January 2010 - 31 December 2013 was extracted from Italian IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database and German IMS Disease Analyzer...
September 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868886/gastrointestinal-absorption-and-metabolic-dynamics-of-jujuboside-a-a-saponin-derived-from-the-seed-of-ziziphus-jujuba
#11
Panpan Song, Yan Zhang, Guijie Ma, Yanqing Zhang, Aimin Zhou, Junbo Xie
Jujuboside A (JuA), an active saponin, is responsible for the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Zizyphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS). In this study, the gastrointestinal absorption and metabolic dynamics of JuA were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the bioavailability was 1.32% in rats, indicating only a trace amount of JuA was able to be absorbed. Further investigation revealed that its poor bioavailability was not caused by malabsorption but by the metabolic process. JuA was hydrolyzed largely in the stomach before being absorbed into the different parts of the intestine (especially duodenum and colon), and the gastric environment played a vital role in this process...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866981/carpal-spasm-in-a-girl-as-initial-presentation-of-celiac-disease-a-case-report
#12
Atifete Ramosaj-Morina, A Keka-Sylaj, V Hasbahta, A Baloku-Zejnullahu, M Azemi, R Zunec
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder elicited by ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. This disorder is characterized by specific histological changes of the small intestine mucosa resulting in malabsorption. This case was written up as it was an unusual and dramatic presentation of celiac disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 3-year-old Albanian girl who presented at our clinic with carpal spasms and hand paresthesia...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851712/down-regulation-of-insulin-sensitivity-after-oral-glucose-administration-evidence-for-the-anti-incretin-effect
#13
Serenella Salinari, Geltrude Mingrone, Alessandro Bertuzzi, Elena Previti, Esmeralda Capristo, Francesco Rubino
Intestinal nutrients stimulate insulin-secretion more potently than intravenous glucose administration under similar plasma glucose levels ("incretin effect"). According to the "anti-incretin theory", intestinal nutrients should also cause reduction of insulin sensitivity and/or secretion ("anti-incretin effect") to defend against hyperinsulinemia-hypoglycemia. An exaggerated anti-incretin effect could contribute to insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes while reduction of anti-incretin signals might explain diabetes improvement after bariatric surgery...
August 29, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830428/the-effect-of-oligofructose-enriched-inulin-supplementation-on-gut-microbiota-nutritional-status-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-paediatric-coeliac-disease-patients-on-a-gluten-free-diet-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Natalia Drabińska, Elżbieta Jarocka-Cyrta
BACKGROUND: A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is regarded as the only proven and accepted therapy for coeliac disease (CD). However, even patients who strictly follow a GFD often suffer from intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Selective modulation of intestinal microbiota with prebiotics could remedy various symptoms associated with CD. The use of prebiotics in the treatment of intestinal diseases remains insufficiently investigated. To our knowledge, this study makes the first attempt to evaluate the effect of prebiotic supplementation on gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional status of children with CD...
August 22, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828984/the-efficacy-and-potential-mechanisms-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
Zijuan Bi, Yu Zheng, Jianye Yuan, Zhaoxiang Bian
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional bowel disorders (FBD), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal bloating/distention associated with defecation or changed bowel habits. Currently, there is no evidence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on the routine diagnostic examinations. There are multiple pathological factors involved in IBS responsible for its heterogeneous nature, although the exact etiology and pathology of IBS are not well known and it is disappointed to develop biomarkers for this disorder...
August 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795875/animal-models-for-studying-epithelial-barriers-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer
#16
Tiaosi Xing, Rolando Camacho Salazar, Yan-Hua Chen
The intestinal epithelial cells line the luminal surface of the entire gastrointestinal tract which is crucial for the absorption of nutrients and prevention of pathogens entering from the external environment. The epithelial barrier plays an important role in organ development, disease pathogenesis, and aging. The major component of an epithelial barrier is the single columnar epithelium and tight junctions. Tight junctions are located at the most apical region of the junctional complex and contain many integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, the claudin family, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771242/pancreatic-and-intestinal-function-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-for-obesity
#17
Stephen J D O'Keefe, Tina Rakitt, Junhai Ou, Ihab I El Hajj, Elizabeth Blaney, Kishore Vipperla, Jens-Jules Holst, Jens Rehlfeld
OBJECTIVES: Despite the fact that the most effective treatment for morbid obesity today is gastric bypass surgery, some patients develop life-threatening nutritional complications associated with their weight loss. METHODS: Here we examine the influence of the altered anatomy and digestive physiology on pancreatic secretion and fat absorption. Thirteen post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients who had lost >100 lbs in the first year following surgery and who gave variable histories of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, were selected for study...
August 3, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770185/intensive-nutrition-management-in-a-patient-with-short-bowel-syndrome-who-underwent-bariatric-surgery
#18
MeeRa Kweon, Dal Lae Ju, Misun Park, JiHyeong Choe, Yun-Suhk Suh, Eun-Mi Seol, Hyuk-Joon Lee
Many individuals with short bowel syndrome (SBS) require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) to maintain adequate nutritional status. Herein, we report a successful intestinal adaptation of a patient with SBS through 13 times intensive nutritional support team (NST) managements. A thirty-five-year-old woman who could not eat due to intestinal discontinuity visited Seoul National University Hospital for reconstruction of the bowel. She received laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) due to morbid obesity in Jan 2013 at a certain hospital and successfully reduced her weight from 110 kg to 68 kg...
July 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768655/the-use-of-metabolic-balance-studies-in-the-objective-discrimination-between-intestinal-insufficiency-and-intestinal-failure
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
August P Prahm, Christopher F Brandt, Carsten Askov-Hansen, Per B Mortensen, Palle B Jeppesen
Background: In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption <84% of calculated basal metabolic rate (BMR), wet weight (WW) absorption <23 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1), or both. Objective: This study aimed to explore and validate these borderlines in the clinical setting.Design: Intestinal absorption was measured from April 2003 to March 2015 in 175 consecutive patients with intestinal insufficiency (INS) in 96-h MBSs...
September 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766554/campylobacter-jejuni-impairs-sodium-transport-and-epithelial-barrier-function-via-cytokine-release-in-human-colon
#20
R Bücker, S M Krug, V Moos, C Bojarski, M R Schweiger, M Kerick, A Fromm, S Janßen, M Fromm, N A Hering, B Siegmund, T Schneider, C Barmeyer, J D Schulzke
Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of foodborne bacterial enteritis worldwide. Patients present with diarrhea and immune responses lead to complications like arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome. Although studies exist in animal and cell models, we aimed at a functional and structural characterization of intestinal dysfunction and the involved regulatory mechanisms in human colon. First, in patients' colonic biopsies, sodium malabsorption was identified as an important diarrheal mechanism resulting from hampered epithelial ion transport via impaired epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β- and γ-subunit...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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