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intestinal malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720960/increased-requirement-of-replacement-doses-of-levothyroxine-caused-by-liver-cirrhosis
#1
Salvatore Benvenga, Giovanni Capodicasa, Sarah Perelli, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli
Background: Since hypothyroidism is a fairly common dysfunction, levothyroxine (L-T4) is one of the most prescribed medications. Approximately 70% of the administered L-T4 dose is absorbed. The absorption process takes place in the small intestine. Some disorders of the digestive system and some medicines, supplements, and drinks cause L-T4 malabsorption, resulting in failure of serum TSH to be normal. Only rarely liver cirrhosis is mentioned as causing L-T4 malabsorption. Case report: In this study, we report increased requirement of daily doses of l-thyroxine in two patients with the atrophic variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and liver cirrhosis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713027/evaluation-of-chronic-diarrhea-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-in-adults-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller
Chronic diarrhea is a common clinical problem, affecting roughly 5% of the population in any given year. Evaluation and management of these patients can be difficult due to the extensive differential diagnosis of this symptom. Many patients with chronic diarrhea have structural problems, such as inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease, that can be readily identified. Others do not, and often are given a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). When based on generally accepted clinical criteria, a diagnosis of IBS-D identifies a group of patients who are unlikely to have disorders producing anatomical changes in the gut...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694795/a-pilot-study-of-the-effect-of-green-kiwifruit-on-human-intestinal-fermentation-measured-by-hydrogen-and-methane-breath-testing
#3
Amanda G Y Chen, Marleen S L Offereins, Christopher J Mulder, Christopher M Frampton, Richard B Gearry
We investigated the impact of the ingestion of two green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) and one Royal Gala apple on breath hydrogen and methane production in humans. Consumption of two green kiwifruit led to no evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption (0/20), whereas consumption of one apple was associated with carbohydrate malabsorption in 6/20 participants (P = .008). There were no significant differences in the area under the curve for hydrogen or methane breath concentrations after consumption of the two fruits...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669261/chrebp-deficiency-leads-to-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Ah-Reum Oh, Seonyong Sohn, Junghoon Lee, Jong-Min Park, Ki Taek Nam, Ki-Baik Hahm, Young-Bum Kim, Ho-Jae Lee, Ji-Young Cha
OBJECTIVE: Fructose malabsorption is a common digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose in the small intestine is impaired. An abnormality of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins has been proposed as a cause for fructose malabsorption. However the underlying molecular mechanism for this remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) plays a role in intestinal fructose absorption through the regulation of genes involved in fructose transport and metabolism and ion transport...
April 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669023/the-relevance-of-vitamin-and-iron-deficiency-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-patients-of-the-swiss-ibd-cohort
#5
Matiar Madanchi, Stefania Fagagnini, Nicolas Fournier, Luc Biedermann, Jonas Zeitz, Edouard Battegay, Lukas Zimmerli, Stephan R Vavricka, Gerhard Rogler, Michael Scharl
Background andAims: Vitamin and iron deficiencies are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as a result of chronic intestinal inflammation, increase in demand, or dietary restrictions. Here, we assessed the frequency of complications in relation to deficiency of iron, folate acid, and vitamin B12 in patients enrolled in the nationwide Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study (SIBDCS). Methods: A total of 2666 patients were included in the study, 1558 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 1108 with ulcerative colitis (UC)...
April 13, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659692/bone-health-following-bariatric-surgery-implications-for-management-strategies-to-attenuate-bone-loss
#6
Tair Ben-Porat, Ram Elazary, Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Ariela Goldenshluger, Ronit Brodie, Yoav Mintz, Ram Weiss
Bariatric surgery (BS) is an effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated comorbidities. Following such a procedure, however, patients are at risk of developing metabolic bone disease owing to the combination of rapid weight loss, severely restricted dietary intake, and reduced intestinal nutrient absorption. Patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures are at a higher risk of postoperative bone health deterioration than those undergoing restrictive procedures; however, studies have demonstrated negative skeletal consequences of restrictive procedures as well...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658186/use-of-an-in-line-digestive-cartridge-with-enteral-nutrition-improves-the-weight-trajectory-of-2-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-complicated-by-another-medical-diagnosis
#7
Catherine Giguere-Rich, Amy Mathew, Elizabeth Reid, Kimberly Autore, Margaret F Guill
This clinical observation describes the enteral nutrition (EN) management of 2 toddlers at high nutrition risk due to cystic fibrosis (CF), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and comorbid medical conditions. The first case report describes a boy with severe malabsorption after intestinal resection. The second case report reviews a boy with CF and neuroblastoma. When pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy with EN was not effective or appropriate, use of an in-line digestive cartridge was initiated. While using the digestive cartridge, both children showed improvements in their anthropometric measures...
April 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617391/biliopancreatic-diversion-is-associated-with-greater-increases-in-energy-expenditure-than-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#8
Malin Werling, Lars Fändriks, Torsten Olbers, Tom Mala, Jon Kristinsson, Kaj Stenlöf, Ville Wallenius, Neil G Docherty, Carel W le Roux
OBJECTIVE: The greater weight loss achieved following Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPDS) versus Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) has been attributed to the malabsorptive effects of BPDS. Increased weight loss after BPDS could also be underpinned by larger increases in energy expenditure. Hypothetically, the more radical reconfiguration of the small intestine in BPDS could result in an accentuated increase in meal associated thermogenesis (MAT). DESIGN: Female subjects (baseline mean age 40 years, mean BMI-55kg/m2) were assessed four years after randomization to BPDS (n = 6) or RYGB (n = 6)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610180/blue-diaper-syndrome-and-pcsk1-mutations
#9
Felix Distelmaier, Diran Herebian, Claudia Atasever, Stefanie Beck-Woedl, Ertan Mayatepek, Tim M Strom, Tobias B Haack
Blue diaper syndrome (BDS) (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man number 211000) is an extremely rare disorder that was first described in 1964. The characteristic finding is a bluish discoloration of urine spots in the diapers of affected infants. Additional clinical features of the first described patients included diarrhea, inadequate weight gain, hypercalcemia, and nephrocalcinosis. An intestinal defect of tryptophan absorption was postulated as the underlying pathology. However, functional evidence for this theory is lacking...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604290/intestinal-failure-and-aberrant-lipid-metabolism-in-patients-with-dgat1-deficiency
#10
Jorik M van Rijn, Rico Chandra Ardy, Zarife Kuloğlu, Bettina Härter, Désirée Y van Haaften-Visser, Hubert P J van der Doef, Marliek van Hoesel, Aydan Kansu, Anke H M van Vugt, Marini Ng, Freddy T M Kokke, Ana Krolo, Meryem Keçeli Başaran, Neslihan Gurcan Kaya, Aysel Ünlüsoy Aksu, Buket Dalgıç, Figen Ozcay, Zeren Baris, Renate Kain, Edwin C A Stigter, Klaske D Lichtenbelt, Maarten P G Massink, Karen J Duran, Joke B G M Verheij, Dorien Lugtenberg, Peter G J Nikkels, Henricus G F Brouwer, Henkjan J Verkade, Rene Scheenstra, Bart Spee, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Paul J Coffer, Andreas R Janecke, Gijs van Haaften, Roderick H J Houwen, Thomas Müller, Sabine Middendorp, Kaan Boztug
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Congenital diarrheal disorders are rare inherited intestinal disorders characterized by intractable, sometimes life-threatening, diarrhea and nutrient malabsorption; some have been associated with mutations in diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which catalyzes formation of triacylglycerol from diacylglycerol and acyl-CoA. We investigated the mechanisms by which DGAT1 deficiency contributes to intestinal failure using patient-derived organoids. METHODS: We collected blood samples from 10 patients, from 6 unrelated pedigrees, who presented with early-onset severe diarrhea and/or vomiting, hypoalbuminemia, and/or (fatal) protein-losing enteropathy with intestinal failure; we performed next-generation sequence analysis of DNA from 8 patients...
March 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589108/chronic-diarrhoea-following-surgery-for-colon-cancer-frequency-causes-and-treatment-options
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan Yde, Helene M Larsen, Søren Laurberg, Klaus Krogh, Hanne B Moeller
PURPOSE: The growing population of survivors after colon cancer warrants increased attention to the long-term outcome of surgical treatment. The change in bowel anatomy after resection disrupts normal gastrointestinal function and may cause symptoms. Thus, many patients surviving colon cancer have to cope with bowel dysfunction for the rest of their lives. We here aim to provide an overview of the literature on this topic. METHODS: We review long-term functional outcomes of surgical treatment for colon cancer, the underlying pathology, and treatment options...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572946/prospective-long-term-evaluation-of-parenteral-hydroxocobalamin-supplementation-in-juvenile-beagles-with-selective-intestinal-cobalamin-malabsorption-imerslund-gr%C3%A3-sbeck-syndrome
#12
Peter Hendrik Kook, C E Reusch, M Hersberger
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies on maintenance treatment for Beagles with hereditary selective cobalamin (Cbl) malabsorption (Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome, IGS) are lacking. In our experience, measurement of methylmalonic acid (MMA), a Cbl-dependent metabolite, seems more helpful to monitor Cbl status as compared with serum Cbl concentrations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a standardized Cbl supplementation scheme in Beagles with IGS. We hypothesized that a single parenteral dose of 1 mg hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) would maintain clinical and metabolic remission for up to 2 months...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570495/the-impact-of-malnutrition-on-childhood-infections
#13
Judd L Walson, James A Berkley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Almost half of all childhood deaths worldwide occur in children with malnutrition, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which malnutrition and serious infections interact with each other and with children's environments. RECENT FINDINGS: It has become clear that whilst malnutrition results in increased incidence, severity and case fatality of common infections, risks continue beyond acute episodes resulting in significant postdischarge mortality...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534502/chrebp-knockout-mice-show-sucrose-intolerance-and-fructose-malabsorption
#14
Takehiro Kato, Katsumi Iizuka, Ken Takao, Yukio Horikawa, Tadahiro Kitamura, Jun Takeda
We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO) showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild-type mice (WT) and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. A thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522553/association-between-chronic-pancreatitis-and-urolithiasis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Chien-Hua Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Long-Bin Jeng
PURPOSE: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) can cause fat or bile acid malabsorption due to exocrine insufficiency. Fat or bile acid malabsorption has been reported to increase the risk of urolithiasis through increased intestinal oxalate absorption. However, no studies have reported an association between CP and urolithiasis. METHODS: We identified 15,848 patients (age: ≥20 years) diagnosed as having CP between 2000 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the study cohort...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520555/financial-impact-of-intravenous-iron-treatments-on-the-management-of-anaemia-inpatients-a-1-year-observational-study
#16
Amina Delpeuch, Marc Ruivard, Armand Abergel, Olivier Aumaitre, Stéphane Boisgard, Sandrine Bagel, Valérie Sautou
Background Intravenous (IV) iron preparations bypass the difficulties (malabsorption and side effects) associated with oral iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) can be administered as a single infusion over short periods of time but is more expensive than iron sucrose (IS) when the patients are hospitalized. Objectives To evaluate the appropriateness of FCM prescriptions and to establish the economic impact of this management (including disease coding) compared to the use of IV IS...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517944/concurrent-gut-transcriptome-and-microbiota-profiling-following-chronic-ethanol-consumption-in-nonhuman-primates
#17
Tasha Barr, Suhas Sureshchandra, Paul Ruegger, Jingfei Zhang, Wenxiu Ma, James Borneman, Kathleen Grant, Ilhem Messaoudi
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results in increased intestinal permeability, nutrient malabsorption, and increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morbidities remains limited because studies to date have relied almost exclusively on short-term heavy/binge drinking rodent models and colonic biopsies/fecal samples collected from AUD subjects with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consequently, the dose- and site-dependent impact of chronic alcohol consumption in the absence of overt liver disease remains poorly understood...
March 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497539/treatment-of-congenital-hypothyroidism-in-a-newborn-with-malabsorption-after-subtotal-ileum-resection
#18
Charlotte S Schömig, Marie-Ève Robinson, Julia E von Oettingen
Congenital hypothyroidism requires prompt treatment to prevent adverse health outcomes. Poor intestinal levothyroxine absorption can complicate management. We present a case of a term female newborn with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) requiring subtotal ileum resection. Congenital hypothyroidism was diagnosed by newborn screening. Treatment was complicated by intestinal malabsorption of levothyroxine. Intravenous levothyroxine substitution restored euthyroidism and supraphysiologic PO doses subsequently maintained a euthyroid state...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490937/management-of-endocrine-disease-pitfalls-on-the-replacement-therapy-for-primary-and-central-hypothyroidism-in-adults
#19
REVIEW
Gisah Amaral de Carvalho, Gilberto Paz-Filho, Cleo Mesa Junior, Hans Graf
Hypothyroidism is one of the most common hormone deficiencies in adults. Most of the cases, particularly those of overt hypothyroidism, are easily diagnosed and managed, with excellent outcomes if treated adequately. However, minor alterations of thyroid function determine nonspecific manifestations. Primary hypothyroidism due to chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is largely the most common cause of thyroid hormone deficiency. Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by decreased thyroid hormone secretion by an otherwise normal thyroid gland, due to lack of TSH...
June 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484538/intestinal-calcium-transport-and-its-regulation-in-thalassemia-interaction-between-calcium-and-iron-metabolism
#20
REVIEW
Kornkamon Lertsuwan, Kannikar Wongdee, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Osteoporosis and derangement of calcium homeostasis are common complications of thalassemia. Despite being an important process for bone and calcium metabolism, little is known about intestinal calcium transport in thalassemia. Recent reports of decreases in both intestinal calcium transport and bone mineral density in thalassemic patients and animal models suggested that defective calcium absorption might be a cause of thalassemic bone disorder. Herein, the possible mechanisms associated with intestinal calcium malabsorption in thalassemia are discussed...
May 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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