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intestinal malabsorption

Takehiro Kato, Katsumi Iizuka, Ken Takao, Yukio Horikawa, Tadahiro Kitamura, Jun Takeda
We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO) showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild-type mice (WT) and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. A thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
Chien-Hua Chen, Cheng-Li Lin, Long-Bin Jeng
PURPOSE: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) can cause fat or bile acid malabsorption due to exocrine insufficiency. Fat or bile acid malabsorption has been reported to increase the risk of urolithiasis through increased intestinal oxalate absorption. However, no studies have reported an association between CP and urolithiasis. METHODS: We identified 15,848 patients (age: ≥20 years) diagnosed as having CP between 2000 and 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the study cohort...
2018: PloS One
Amina Delpeuch, Marc Ruivard, Armand Abergel, Olivier Aumaitre, Stéphane Boisgard, Sandrine Bagel, Valérie Sautou
Background Intravenous (IV) iron preparations bypass the difficulties (malabsorption and side effects) associated with oral iron for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) can be administered as a single infusion over short periods of time but is more expensive than iron sucrose (IS) when the patients are hospitalized. Objectives To evaluate the appropriateness of FCM prescriptions and to establish the economic impact of this management (including disease coding) compared to the use of IV IS...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Tasha Barr, Suhas Sureshchandra, Paul Ruegger, Jingfei Zhang, Wenxiu Ma, James Borneman, Kathleen Grant, Ilhem Messaoudi
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results in increased intestinal permeability, nutrient malabsorption, and increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morbidities remains limited because studies to date have relied almost exclusively on short-term heavy/binge drinking rodent models and colonic biopsies/fecal samples collected from AUD subjects with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consequently, the dose- and site-dependent impact of chronic alcohol consumption in the absence of overt liver disease remains poorly understood...
March 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
Charlotte S Schömig, Marie-Ève Robinson, Julia E von Oettingen
Congenital hypothyroidism requires prompt treatment to prevent adverse health outcomes. Poor intestinal levothyroxine absorption can complicate management. We present a case of a term female newborn with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) requiring subtotal ileum resection. Congenital hypothyroidism was diagnosed by newborn screening. Treatment was complicated by intestinal malabsorption of levothyroxine. Intravenous levothyroxine substitution restored euthyroidism and supraphysiologic PO doses subsequently maintained a euthyroid state...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Gisah Amaral Carvalho, Gilberto Paz-Filho, Cleo Otaviano Mesa Junior, Hans Graf
Hypothyroidism is one of the most common hormone deficiencies in adults. Most of the cases, particularly those of overt hypothyroidism, are easily diagnosed and managed, with excellent outcomes if treated adequately. However, minor alterations of thyroid function determine nonspecific manifestations. Primary hypothyroidism due to chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is largely the most common cause of thyroid hormone deficiency. Central hypothyroidism is a rare and heterogeneous disorder characterized by decreased thyroid hormone secretion by an otherwise normal thyroid gland, due to lack of TSH...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Kornkamon Lertsuwan, Kannikar Wongdee, Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
Osteoporosis and derangement of calcium homeostasis are common complications of thalassemia. Despite being an important process for bone and calcium metabolism, little is known about intestinal calcium transport in thalassemia. Recent reports of decreases in both intestinal calcium transport and bone mineral density in thalassemic patients and animal models suggested that defective calcium absorption might be a cause of thalassemic bone disorder. Herein, the possible mechanisms associated with intestinal calcium malabsorption in thalassemia are discussed...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Thibault Allain, Soraya Chaouch, Myriam Thomas, Marie-Agnès Travers, Isabelle Valle, Philippe Langella, Philippe Grellier, Bruno Polack, Isabelle Florent, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán
Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite responsible for giardiasis, a disease characterized by intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea and abdominal pain in a large number of mammal species. Giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal parasitic diseases in the world and thus a high veterinary, and public health concern. It is well-established that some probiotic bacteria may confer protection against this parasite in vitro and in vivo and we recently documented the implication of bile-salt hydrolase (BSH)-like activities from strain La1 of Lactobacillus johnsonii as mediators of these effects in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lazaros I Sakkas, Theodora Simopoulou, Dimitrios Daoussis, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Spyros Potamianos
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by microvasculopathy, autoantibodies, and extensive fibrosis. Intestinal involvement is frequent in SSc and represents a significant cause of morbidity. The pathogenesis of intestinal involvement includes vascular damage, nerve dysfunction, smooth muscle atrophy, and fibrosis, causing hypomotility, which leads to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), malabsorption, malnutrition, diarrhea, pseudo-obstruction, constipation, pneumatosis intestinalis, and fecal incontinence...
February 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Peter Malfertheiner, Claudio Ripellino, Nazarena Cataldo
PURPOSE: The angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan has been recently associated with sprue-like enteropathy (SLE), a gastrointestinal condition characterized by intestinal malabsorption (IM) and severe diarrhea. Whether the increased risk of SLE is substance-specific or a class effect involving all ARBs is uncertain. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of enteropathy associated with ARBs and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i) by using data from large administrative and claim databases...
February 19, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Joana Torres, Carolina Palmela, Pedro Gomes de Sena, Maria Pia Costa Santos, Catarina Gouveia, Maria Helena Oliveira, Ana Raquel Henriques, Cecília Rodrigues, Marília Cravo, Paula Borralho
Introduction: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unclear etiology. Bile acid (BA) malabsorption has been described in MC patients. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is the main BA receptor; FXR-mediated mechanisms prevent the noxious effects of BA accumulation, preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and preventing intestinal inflammation. Aim: Our aim was to describe the expression of FXR in patients with MC. Methods: Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from the terminal ileum, right and left colon were obtained from patients with MC and matched controls...
January 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
Rachele Ciccocioppo, Giorgio A Croci, Federico Biagi, Alessandro Vanoli, Costanza Alvisi, Giorgio Cavenaghi, Roberta Riboni, Mariarosa Arra, Paolo G Gobbi, Marco Paulli, Gino R Corazza
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is regarded as a dismal, late complication of coeliac disease, though a single case of T-cell lymphoma with such features arising in the setting of autoimmune enteropathy of the adult has been reported to date. We aim to describe the case of a 41-year-old woman complaining of severe malabsorption syndrome, who was diagnosed with autoimmune enteropathy based on the presence of flat intestinal mucosa unresponsive to any dietary restriction and positivity for enterocyte autoantibodies...
February 14, 2018: Hematological Oncology
Kee Wook Jung, Myeognsook Seo, Young Hwan Cho, Young-Ok Park, So-Yoon Yoon, Jungbok Lee, Dong-Hoon Yang, In Ja Yoon, So Young Seo, Hyo Jeong Lee, Sang Hyoung Park, Kyung Jo Kim, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Hwoon-Yong Jung, Suk-Kyun Yang, Jin-Ho Kim, Seung-Jae Myung
Background/Aims: Fructose malabsorption (FM) mimics symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its prevalence has increased. Diagnosing FM in IBS is challenging because of its overlap with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We assessed the prevalence of FM by comparing patients with IBS with asymptomatic control individuals after excluding SIBO using the glucose hydrogen breath test (HBT). Methods: Patients diagnosed with IBS and asymptomatic control individuals were prospectively enrolled in the study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Jane N Eriksen, August P Prahm, Mads Krüger Falk, Eva Arrigoni, Palle B Jeppesen, Michael Larsen, Lars O Dragsted
Reduced absorption capacity in patients with intestinal resections (IR) could result in malabsorption of fat-soluble components like carotenoids, which are of clinical interest in relation to visual health. In this case cohort, we investigated the association between IR and serum lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and macular pigment optical density, when compared with healthy controls. Ten patients with IR and twelve healthy controls were included in the study. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups, except for higher serum TAG (P < 0·05) and shorter bowel length (P < 0·0001) in the group with IR...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Abimbola Adike, John K DiBaise
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), characterized by the presence of excessive bacteria in the small intestine, is typically described as a malabsorptive syndrome occurring in the context of gut stasis syndromes. SIBO is now considered to be a disorder associated with diverse clinical conditions without classic risk factors for SIBO and a cause of several nonspecific gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal symptoms. Because there is currently no gold standard for diagnosing SIBO, its prevalence and role in the pathogenesis of other diseases remain uncertain; as does optimal treatment of patients with relapsing symptoms...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Tomohiro Udagawa, Yutaka Harita, Kenichiro Miura, Jun Mitsui, Koji L Ode, Shinichi Morishita, Seiya Urae, Shoichiro Kanda, Yuko Kajiho, Haruko Tsurumi, Hiroki R Ueda, Shoji Tsuji, Akihiko Saito, Akira Oka
Mutations in either cubilin (CUBN) or amnionless (AMN) genes cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS), a hereditary disease characterised by anaemia attributed to selective intestinal malabsorption of cobalamin and low-molecular weight proteinuria. Although cubilin protein does not have a transmembrane segment, it functions as a multi-ligand receptor by binding to the transmembrane protein, amnionless. We established a system to quantitatively analyse membrane targeting of the protein complex in cultured renal and intestinal cells and analysed the pathogenic mechanisms of mutations found in IGS patients...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianmin Tan, Xiujuan Li, Yi Guo, Lingling Xie, Juan Wang, Jiannan Ma, Li Jiang
RATIONALE: Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) is characterized by folate deficiency with impaired intestinal folate absorption and impaired folate transport into the central nervous system. Its manifestations mainly include macrocytic anemia, recurrent infections, and neurological deficits. The neurological manifestations include progressive psychomotor retardation, behavioral disorders, and early-onset seizures. PATIENT CONCERNS: From early infancy, a Chinese boy had experienced macrocytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, recurrent pneumonia, diarrhea, and mouth ulcers...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Oana Belei, Andreea Dobrescu, Rodica Heredea, Emil Radu Iacob, Vlad David, Otilia Marginean
Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is defined by gluten-induced immune-mediated enteropathy, affecting approximately 1% of the genetically predisposed population. The immunologic response to gluten causes characteristic intestinal alterations with gradual development. Histologic recovery of intestinal architecture was reported to occur within 6-12 months after starting a gluten-free diet, simultaneously with clinical remission. The aim of this study was to assess the rate and timing of histologic recovery among children with CD on a gluten-free diet, diagnosed and followed in an academic referral pediatric center during a 10-year period...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Susana Matamouros, Hillary S Hayden, Kyle R Hager, Mitchell J Brittnacher, Kristina Lachance, Eli J Weiss, Christopher E Pope, Anne-Flore Imhaus, Colin P McNally, Elhanan Borenstein, Lucas R Hoffman, Samuel I Miller
The mature human gut microbiota is established during the first years of life, and altered intestinal microbiomes have been associated with several human health disorders. Escherichia coli usually represents less than 1% of the human intestinal microbiome, whereas in cystic fibrosis (CF), greater than 50% relative abundance is common and correlates with intestinal inflammation and fecal fat malabsorption. Despite the proliferation of E. coli and other Proteobacteria in conditions involving chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation, little is known about adaptation of specific characteristics associated with microbiota clonal expansion...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nuria Vilarrasa, Alexandra Fabregat, Silvia Toro, Amador García Gordejuela, Anna Casajoana, Mónica Montserrat, Pilar Garrido, Rafael López-Urdiales, Núria Virgili, Alejandra Planas-Vilaseca, Andreu Simó-Servat, Jordi Pujol
Endobarrier® is a minimally invasive, reversible endoscopic treatment for obesity. It provokes malabsorption along 60 cm of the small intestine, which can contribute to the development of vitamin deficiencies and to changes in bone mineral density (BMD). To determine the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies, changes in body composition and BMD during the first year after Endobarrier® placement. Twenty-one patients with type 2 diabetes met inclusion criteria. Levels of vitamins, micro and macronutrients were assessed prior and at 1, 3 and 12 months post-operatively...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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