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intestinal malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344585/hereditary-folate-malabsorption-due-to-a-mutation-in-the-external-gate-of-the-proton-coupled-folate-transporter-slc46a1
#1
Srinivas Aluri, Rongbao Zhao, Charlotte Lubout, Susanna M I Goorden, Andras Fiser, I David Goldman
Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired intestinal folate absorption and impaired folate transport across the choroid plexus due to loss of function of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1). We report a novel mutation, causing HFM, affecting a residue located in the 11th transmembrane helix within the external gate. The mutant N411K-PCFT was stable, trafficked to the cell membrane, and had sufficient residual activity to characterize the transport defect and the structural requirements at this site for gate function...
January 9, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326807/heavy-chain-diseases-and-myeloma-associated-fanconi-syndrome-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Ria, Franco Dammacco, Angelo Vacca
The heavy chain diseases (HCDs) are rare B-cell malignancies characterized by the production of a monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain without an associated light chain. There are three types of HCD, defined by the class of immunoglobulin heavy chain produced: IgA (α-HCD), IgG (γ-HCD), and IgM (μ-HCD). Alpha-HCD is the most common and usually occurs as intestinal malabsorption in a young adult from a country of the Mediterranean area. Gamma- and μ-HCDs are rarer and associated with a B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that produces an abnormal Ig heavy chain...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281659/immunogenicity-of-rotavirus-vaccine-rotarixtm-in-infants-with-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#3
Innocent Mwape, Samuel Bosomprah, John Mwaba, Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya, Natasha Makabilo Laban, Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga, Gibson Sijumbila, Michelo Simuyandi, Roma Chilengi
INTRODUCTION: Deployment of rotavirus vaccines has contributed to significant declines in diarrheal morbidity and mortality globally. Unfortunately, vaccine performance in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is generally lower than in developed countries. The cause for this has been associated with several host and maternal factors including poor water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) status, which are predominant in LMICs. More recently, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) has specifically been hypothesized to contribute to poor vaccine uptake and response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280097/current-treatment-paradigms-in-pediatric-short-bowel-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Raghav Chandra, Anil Kesavan
Pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition which occurs in children with congenital or acquired reduction in length of the small intestine. SBS results in excessive fluid loss, nutrient malabsorption, electrolyte abnormalities, increased susceptibility to infections, parenteral nutrition associated complications and affects weight gain and growth. In children, SBS is debilitating and uniformly fatal without treatment. The primary goal of treatment is to restore enteral autonomy and reduce long-term dependence on parenteral support by increasing the absorptive potential of the remnant intestine...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273366/effects-of-semielemental-diet-containing-whey-peptides-on-peyer-s-patch-lymphocyte-number-immunoglobulin-a-levels-and-intestinal-morphology-in-mice
#5
Tomoyuki Moriya, Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Midori Noguchi, Makoto Nishikawa, Hiromi Miyazaki, Daizoh Saitoh, Hideki Ueno, Junji Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) is the gold standard of nutritional therapy for critically ill or severely injured patients, because EN promotes gut and hepatic immunity, thereby preventing infectious complications as compared with parenteral nutrition. However, there are many EN formulas with different protein and fat contents. Their effects on gut-associated lymphoid tissue remain unclear. Recently, semielemental diets (SEDs) containing whey peptides as a nitrogen source have been found to be beneficial in patients with malabsorption or pancreatitis...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260483/prophylactic-potential-of-synbiotic-lactobacillus-casei-and-inulin-in-malnourished-murine-giardiasis-an-immunological-and-ultrastructural-study
#6
Geeta Shukla, Anuj Sharma, Ruchika Bhatia, Mridul Sharma
Giardiasis is a re-emerging infectious disease with outbreaks reported globally specially in children and malnourished individuals leading to malabsorption, growth retardation, and severe diarrhea. Thus, in the present study, prophylactic administration of synbiotic as the functional food was used to assess its antigiardial potential in malnourished murine giardiasis. Interestingly, prior administration of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) even to malnourished-Giardia-infected mice led to increased body mass, small intestine mass, lactobacilli counts, and reduced severity of giardiasis as evident by decreased cyst and trophozoite counts...
December 19, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249178/biomarkers-of-cardiometabolic-health-and-nutritional-status-in-individuals-with-positive-celiac-disease-serology
#7
Joseph Jamnik, David Ja Jenkins, Ahmed El-Sohemy
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by damage to the intestinal mucosa and nutrient malabsorption in severe cases. However, it remains unclear whether nutrient deficiencies and other adverse health effects are prevalent in individuals with positive CD serology identified through screening studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine whether biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and nutritional status differ between those with positive and negative CD serology identified in a screening study of Canadian adults...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248457/malnutrition-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-pda-dietary-pancreatic-enzymes-improve-short-term-health-but-stimulate-tumor-growth
#8
Yalda Zolghadri, Shreoshi Pal Choudhuri, Ozhan Ocal, Somayeh Layeghi- Ghalehsoukhteh, Feaven Berhe, Michael A Hale, Thomas M Wilkie
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a deadly cancer that resists efforts to identify better chemotherapeutics. PDA is associated with chronic pancreatitis and acinar cell dedifferentiation. This reduces enzyme production by the exocrine pancreas, resulting in digestive insufficiencies. Malabsorption of partially digested food can cause bloating, overfilled intestines, abdominal pain, excessive feces, steatorrhea, and malnutrition. These maladies affect quality of life and restrict treatment options for pancreatitis and PDA...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230485/-importance-of-functional-diagnostics-in-gastroenterology
#9
REVIEW
M Hollenbach, A Hoffmeister, J Rosendahl, J Mössner
In this review article important and frequently used investigation methods for gastrointestinal functional diagnostics are presented. Some other rarely used special investigations are also explained. The hydrogen breath test is simple to carry out, ubiquitously available and enables the detection of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption. Furthermore, by the application of glucose, the test can be carried out when there is a suspicion of abnormal intestinal bacterial colonization and using lactulose for measuring small intestinal transit time...
December 11, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226508/glucose-homeostasis-in-two-degrees-of-sepsis-lethality-induced-by-caecum-ligation-and-puncture-in-mice
#10
Francielle B D Ferreira, Cristiane Dos Santos, Maciel A Bruxel, Everson A Nunes, Fernando Spiller, Alex Rafacho
Sepsis is associated with high mortality. Both critically ill humans and animal models of sepsis exhibit changes in their glucose homeostasis, that is, hypoglycaemia, with the progression of infection. However, the relationship between basal glycaemia, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity is not well understood. Thus, we aimed to evaluate this glucose homeostasis triad at the late stage of sepsis (24 h after surgery) in male Swiss mice subjected to lethal and sublethal sepsis by the caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224172/evaluation-of-clinical-risk-factors-for-osteoporosis-and-applicability-of-the-frax-tool-in-joinville-city-southern-brazil
#11
Dalisbor Marcelo Weber Silva, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski Borba, John A Kanis
Clinical risk factors for fracture in Southern Brazil are similar to those used in Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®). Age-dependent intervention thresholds had higher accuracy than a fixed cut-off point. INTRODUCTION: Access to bone mineral density testing is wanted for a large part of the Brazilian population. The FRAX® has an option to calculate the risk of fracture without this costly evaluation but relies on the clinical risk factors (CRFs) identified in the source cohorts used to generate FRAX...
December 9, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208467/human-proton-coupled-folic-acid-transporter-is-a-monodisperse-oligomer-in-the-lauryl-maltose-neopentyl-glycol-solubilized-state
#12
Nanda G Aduri, Heidi A Ernst, Bala K Prabhala, Shweta Bhatt, Thomas Boesen, Michael Gajhede, Osman Mirza
The human proton coupled folic acid transporter PCFT is the major import route for dietary folates. Mutations in the gene encoding PCFT cause hereditary folic acid malabsorption, which manifests itself by compromised folate absorption from the intestine and also in impaired folate transport in to the central nervous system. Since its recent discovery, PCFT has been the subject of numerous biochemical studies aiming at understanding its structure and mechanism. One major focus has been its oligomeric state, with some reports supporting oligomers and others a monomer...
December 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195256/increased-postprandial-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-production-after-endoscopic-gastrointestinal-bypass-using-the-cousin-lumen-apposing-stent-in-a-porcine-model
#13
Robert Caiazzo, Julien Branche, Mehdi Daoudi, Gilles Solecki, Thomas Hubert, Audrey Quenon, Violeta Raverdy, François Cousin, François Henin, Valery Dalle, Stéphane Noel, Geoffroy Vanbiervliet, Marc Barthet, François Pattou
Background and study aims Endoscopic techniques have demonstrated their effectiveness in metabolic surgery, notably through a gastrointestinal (GI) liner, with a less invasive approach than conventional surgery. Our study evaluates the safety and efficacy of endoscopic GI anastomosis (EGIA) using a lumen-apposing stent to secure the anastomosis. Materials and methods EGIA was performed using the transgastric approach with a two-channel endoscope with a novel stent (Cousin Biotech). First, a safety study with a follow-up of 12 months was performed on five piglets...
December 1, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181545/non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity-people-without-celiac-disease-avoiding-gluten-is-it-due-to-histamine-intolerance
#14
REVIEW
Wolfgang J Schnedl, Sonja Lackner, Dietmar Enko, Michael Schenk, Harald Mangge, Sandra J Holasek
INTRODUCTION: Food intolerance/malabsorption is caused by food ingredients, carbohydrates (mainly lactose and fructose), proteins (gluten), and biogenic amines (histamine) which cause nonspecific gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Here we focus on possible etiologic factors of intolerance/malabsorption especially in people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or the so-called people without celiac disease avoiding gluten (PWCDAG) and histamine intolerance. METHODS: Recognizing the recently described symptoms of NCGS (PWCDAG) we review correlations and parallels to histamine intolerance (HIT)...
November 27, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172402/olmesartan-is-not-associated-with-the-risk-of-enteropathy-a-korean-nationwide-observational-cohort-study
#15
Seng Chan You, Hojun Park, Dukyong Yoon, Sooyoung Park, Boyoung Joung, Rae Woong Park
Background/Aims: Olmesartan, a widely used angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), has been linked to sprue-like enteropathy. No cases of olmesartan-associated enteropathy have been reported in Northeast Asia. We investigated the associations between olmesartan and other ARBs and the incidence of enteropathy in Korea. Methods: Our retrospective cohort study used data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to identify 108,559 patients (58,186 females) who were initiated on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis), olmesartan, or other ARBs between January 2005 and December 2012...
November 27, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169780/-massive-jejunal-diverticulosis-rare-cause-of-intestinal-malabsorption
#16
A Martín-Lagos Maldonado, J Guilarte López-Mañas, E Borrego García, M D Vinuesa Guerrero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169447/metabolic-and-nutritional-consequences-of-urinary-diversion-using-intestinal-segments-to-reconstruct-the-urinary-tract
#17
REVIEW
Joshua D Roth, Michael O Koch
Intestinal segments in various forms have been used to reconstruct the urinary tract since the mid-1800s. Currently, many different forms of continent and incontinent diversion options exist. Incorporating bowel mucosa within the urinary tract leads to predictable metabolic and nutritional consequences. The use of ileum or colon can cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, vitamin B12 deficiency, osteoporosis, fat malabsorption, urinary calculi, and ammoniagenic encephalopathy. Due to metabolic and nutritional consequences associated with the use of jejunum and gastric segments, the use of these bowel segments is not recommended...
February 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158778/helicobacter-pylori-and-gut-microbiota-in-multiple-sclerosis-versus-alzheimer-s-disease-10-pitfalls-of-microbiome-studies
#18
Ah-Mee Park, Seiichi Omura, Mitsugu Fujita, Fumitaka Sato, Ikuo Tsunoda
Alteration of microbiota has been associated with intestinal, inflammatory, and neurological diseases. Abundance of "good bacteria" such as Bifidobacterium, or their products have been generally believed to be beneficial for any diseases, while "bad bacteria" such as pathogenic Helicobacter pylori are assumed to be always detrimental for hosts. However, this is not the case when we compare and contrast the association of the gut microbiota with two neurological diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
August 2017: Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140544/a-cryptosporidium-infection-in-a-patient-with-relapsed-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Joanna Schiller, Sebastian Klein, Marianne Engels, Reinhard Büttner, Jan Rybniker, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Christof Scheid, Christian Wybranski, Alexander Quaas, Hans Christian Reinhardt, Ruth Waßermann
Cryptosporidium infection is a rare cause of enterocolitis. In immunocompromised patients, cryptosporidiosis may lead to debilitating and life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption, occasionally with multi organ involvement. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while cellular immunity is usually compromised due to intensive conditioning chemotherapy. Diarrhea in patients who underwent allo-HSCT may be a sign of an infection, but can also be the result of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135972/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-reduces-plasma-cholesterol-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-by-affecting-trans-intestinal-cholesterol-excretion-and-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption
#20
C Blanchard, F Moreau, A Ayer, L Toque, D Garçon, L Arnaud, F Borel, A Aguesse, M Croyal, M Krempf, X Prieur, M Neunlist, B Cariou, C Le May
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery appears as the most efficient therapeutic alternative in morbidly obese patients. In addition to its efficiency to decrease body weight, it also improves metabolic complications associated to morbid obesity, including dyslipidemia. Although the cholesterol-lowering effect varies with the bariatric procedures, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. This study aims to assess the consequence of both restrictive (sleeve gastrectomy; SG) and malabsorptive (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; RYGB) procedures on cholesterol metabolism in mice...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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