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intestinal malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424750/celiac-disease-presenting-with-immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#1
Hakan Sarbay, Billur Cosan Sarbay, Mehmet Akın, Halil Kocamaz, Mahya Sultan Tosun
Celiac disease (CD) is an immunological disorder. Clinical manifestations occur as a result of intestinal mucosa damage and malabsorption. CD is also associated with extraintestinal manifestations and autoimmune disorders. The coexistence of CD and autoimmune diseases has been described before. In this article, a patient with CD presenting with thrombocytopenia is discussed.
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397685/-lactose-malabsorption-and-intolerance-who-will-benefit-from-a-lactose-reduced-diet
#2
Mikkel Malham, Anne Bille Olin, Anders Pærregaard
During the last decade, lactose-free diets have become increasingly popular in the general population, either isolated or as a part of a cow's milk-free diet. However, health-related benefits from a lactose-free diet are only documented for individuals with clinical lactose intolerance due to decreased intestinal lactase activity and subsequent lactose malabsorption. In this paper we summarize the current knowledge of lactose intolerance regarding diagnostic procedures and treatment.
February 6, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385289/use-of-a-novel-docosahexaenoic-acid-formulation-vs-control-in-a-neonatal-porcine-model-of-short-bowel-syndrome-leads-to-greater-intestinal-absorption-and-higher-systemic-levels-of-dha
#3
Camilia R Martin, Barbara Stoll, Joanne Cluette-Brown, Adesola C Akinkuotu, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Kathleen M Gura, Pratibha Singh, Munir M Zaman, Michael C Perillo, Mark Puder, Steven D Freedman, Doug Burrin
Infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) are at high risk for malabsorption, malnutrition, and failure to thrive. The objective of this study was to evaluate in a porcine model of SBS, the systemic absorption of a novel enteral Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) formulation that forms micelles independent of bile salts (DHA-ALT®). We hypothesized that enteral delivery of DHA-ALT® would result in higher blood levels of DHA compared to a control DHA preparation due to improved intestinal absorption. SBS was induced in term piglets through a 75% mid-jejunoileal resection and the piglets randomized to either DHA-ALT® or control DHA formulation (N=5 per group) for 4 postoperative days...
March 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378134/pediatric-short-bowel-syndrome-and-subsequent-development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-illustrative-case-and-literature-review
#4
Katherine J Baxter, Jahnavi K Srinivasan, Thomas R Ziegler, Tanvi Dhere, Richard R Ricketts, Megan M Durham
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in neonates is an uncommon but highly morbid condition. As SBS survival increases, physiologic complications become more apparent. Few reports in the literature elucidate outcomes for adults with a pediatric history of SBS. We present a case report of a patient, born with complicated gastroschisis resulting in SBS at birth, who subsequently developed symptoms and pathologic changes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as an adult. The patient lived from age 7, after a Bianchi intestinal lengthening procedure, to age 34 independent of parenteral nutrition (PN), but requiring hydration fluid via G-tube...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377401/cyp8b1-ablation-prevents-western-diet-induced-weight-gain-and-hepatic-steatosis-due-to-impaired-fat-absorption
#5
Enrico Bertaggia, Kristian K Jensen, Jose Castro-Perez, Yimeng Xu, Gilbert Di Paolo, Robin B Chan, Liangsu Wang, Rebecca A Haeusler
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol derivatives that regulate lipid metabolism, through their dual abilities to promote lipid absorption and activate BA receptors. However, different BA species have varying abilities to perform these functions. Eliminating 12α-hydroxy BAs in mice via Cyp8b1 knockout causes low body weight and improved glucose tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine mechanisms of low body weight in Cyp8b1(-/-) mice. We challenged Cyp8b1(-/-) mice with western type diet and assessed body weight and composition...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346473/oral-administration-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-alleviates-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-inducing-mucosal-protective-factors
#6
Tomohiro Kawahara, Yutaka Makizaki, Yosuke Oikawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Ayako Maeda, Masaki Shimakawa, Satoshi Komoto, Kyoko Moriguchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Koki Taniguchi
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323273/hydrogen-and-methane-based-breath-testing-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-north-american-consensus
#7
Ali Rezaie, Michelle Buresi, Anthony Lembo, Henry Lin, Richard McCallum, Satish Rao, Max Schmulson, Miguel Valdovinos, Salam Zakko, Mark Pimentel
OBJECTIVES: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. METHODS: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288854/irinotecan-induced-bile-acid-malabsorption-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-ileal-asbt-slc10a2-in-mice
#8
A-Xi Shi, Yan Zhou, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Yan-Shu Zhao, Hong-Yan Qin, Yan-Ping Wang, Xin-An Wu
Irinotecan, (CPT-11), an antitumor agent primarily used for the treatment of solid tumors, has often compromised clinical application due to the inducement of severe delay-onset diarrhea. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is widely accepted as the common cause of diarrhea. However, whether CPT-11-induced diarrhea has correlation with BAM is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the bile acid homeostasis in mice. The mice were administrated with CPT-11 intravenously for four consecutive days...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286797/malabsorption-secondary-to-gout-induced-amyloidosis
#9
Ali Azzam, Renuka Balasubramaniam, Shahram Safa, Carolyn McIvor, Peter Mollee
Many chronic inflammatory conditions can lead to systemic amyloidosis. However, secondary amyloidosis has rarely been associated with gout, and the literature reports only a handful of cases, all presenting with renal disease. We report a patient with a history of poorly controlled gout who presented with malabsorption. Endoscopic biopsies confirmed a diagnosis of small intestinal amyloidosis. This was believed to be a consequence of gout. Interestingly, renal involvement was subclinical. Our case raises awareness of this rare association and highlights the importance of considering a diagnosis of amyloidosis in patients who present with the combination of gout and gastrointestinal symptoms...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275682/celiac-disease-role-of-the-epithelial-barrier
#10
REVIEW
Michael Schumann, Britta Siegmund, Jörg D Schulzke, Michael Fromm
In celiac disease (CD) a T-cell-mediated response to gluten is mounted in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in a malabsorptive enteropathy histologically highlighted by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. Recent data point to the epithelial layer as an under-rated hot spot in celiac pathophysiology to date. This overview summarizes current functional and genetic evidence on the role of the epithelial barrier in CD, consisting of the cell membranes and the apical junctional complex comprising sealing as well as ion and water channel-forming tight junction proteins and the adherens junction...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271632/the-role-of-insufficient-copper-in-lipid-synthesis-and-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Austin Morrell, Savannah Tallino, Lei Yu, Jason L Burkhead
The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier...
April 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244675/the-clinical-value-of-breath-hydrogen-testing
#12
REVIEW
Chu K Yao, Caroline J Tuck
Breath hydrogen testing for assessing the presence of carbohydrate malabsorption is frequently applied to refine dietary restrictions on a low fermentable carbohydrate (FODMAP) diet. Its application has also been extended for the detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Recently, several caveats of its methodology and interpretation have emerged. A review of the evidence surrounding its application in the management of patients with a functional bowel disorder was performed. Studies were examined to assess limitations of testing methodology, interpretation of results, reproducibility, and how this relates to clinical symptoms...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241431/the-role-of-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-in-intestinal-and-hepatic-fructose-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237320/a-perspective-on-metabolic-surgery-from-a-gastroenterologist
#14
REVIEW
Yu-Fong Syu, Akio Inui, Chih-Yen Chen
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are important public health problems. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is 8.8%. Interventional diabetology and obesitology have been recently advocated as treatment options for T2D and obesity. The roles of metabolic surgery such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, and biliopancreatic diversion are focused. Different types of metabolic surgeries have different glucose-lowering and weight loss effects. Endoscopic treatments include the intra-gastric balloon (to restrict the gastric volume) and duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL, as a malabsorptive procedure)...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212351/black-box%C3%A2-gastrointestinal%C3%A2-tract-needs%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-prospects%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-gaining%C3%A2-insights%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fate%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fat-%C3%A2-protein-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-starch%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-exocrine%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-insufficiency%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-fistulated%C3%A2-pigs
#15
REVIEW
Anne Mößeler, Josef Kamphues
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) results in the maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. The digestive processes in humans and other monogastric species like rat and pig are characterized by a predominantly enzymatic digestion within the small intestine and microbial fermentation located in the hindgut. For protein, it is doctrine that only prececally absorbed amino acids can be transferred to the amino acid pool of the host, while postileal absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds occurs mainly in the form of ammonia, being a burden rather than a benefit for the organism...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#16
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176790/architectural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-in-classical-whipple-s-disease
#17
H-J Epple, J Friebel, V Moos, H Troeger, S M Krug, K Allers, K Schinnerling, A Fromm, B Siegmund, M Fromm, J D Schulzke, T Schneider
Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) affects the gastrointestinal tract and rather elicits regulatory than inflammatory immune reactions. Mechanisms of malabsorption, diarrhea, and systemic immune activation are unknown. We here analyzed mucosal architecture, barrier function, and immune activation as potential diarrheal trigger in specimens from 52 CWD patients. Our data demonstrate villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia associated with epithelial apoptosis and reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in the duodenum of CWD patients...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154909/beyond-moulage-sign-and-ttg-levels-the-role-of-cross-sectional-imaging-in-celiac-sprue
#18
Shannon P Sheedy, John M Barlow, Joel G Fletcher, Thomas C Smyrk, Francis J Scholz, Don C Codipilly, Badr F Al Bawardy, Jeff L Fidler
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and destruction in the small intestine of genetically susceptible individuals following ingestion of gluten. Awareness of the disease has increased; however, it remains a challenge to diagnose. This review summarizes the intestinal and extraintestinal cross-sectional imaging findings of celiac disease. Small intestine fold abnormalities are the most specific imaging findings for celiac disease, whereas most other imaging findings reflect a more generalized pattern seen with malabsorptive processes...
February 2, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151692/oral-liquid-levothyroxine-solves-the-problem-of-tablet-levothyroxine-malabsorption-due-to-concomitant-intake-of-multiple-drugs
#19
Roberto Vita, Flavia Di Bari, Salvatore Benvenga
BACKGROUND: Unlike the tablet (TAB) formulation, liquid L-T4 (LIQ) is directly absorbed in the intestine. The aim of this study was to assess whether LIQ was superior to TAB, such that it would overcome the interference induced by co-ingestion of multiple interfering drugs (ID). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we recruited 11 patients with apparent reduced TAB absorption due to ≥ 2 ID, and switched them to LIQ while maintaining the daily dose and the co-ingestion of the ID...
February 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149017/malabsorption-orocecal-transit-time-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-connection
#20
S V Rana, Aastha Malik, Sanjay K Bhadada, Naresh Sachdeva, Rajesh Kumar Morya, Gaurav Sharma
Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic patients report significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from oral cavity to large bowel and anorectal region. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and most fluids are absorbed in small intestine. Malabsorption may occurs when proper absorption of nutrients does not take place due to bacterial overgrowth or altered gut motility...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
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