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intestinal malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140544/a-cryptosporidium-infection-in-a-patient-with-relapsed-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Joanna Schiller, Sebastian Klein, Marianne Engels, Reinhard Büttner, Jan Rybniker, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Christof Scheid, Christian Wybranski, Alexander Quaas, Hans Christian Reinhardt, Ruth Waßermann
Cryptosporidium infection is a rare cause of enterocolitis. In immunocompromised patients, cryptosporidiosis may lead to debilitating and life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption, occasionally with multi organ involvement. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while cellular immunity is usually compromised due to intensive conditioning chemotherapy. Diarrhea in patients who underwent allo-HSCT may be a sign of an infection, but can also be the result of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135972/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-reduces-plasma-cholesterol-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-by-affecting-trans-intestinal-cholesterol-excretion-and-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption
#2
C Blanchard, F Moreau, A Ayer, L Toque, D Garçon, L Arnaud, F Borel, A Aguesse, M Croyal, M Krempf, X Prieur, M Neunlist, B Cariou, C Le May
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery appears as the most efficient therapeutic alternative in morbidly obese patients. In addition to its efficiency to decrease body weight, it also improves metabolic complications associated to morbid obesity, including dyslipidemia. Although the cholesterol-lowering effect varies with the bariatric procedures, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. This study aims to assess the consequence of both restrictive (sleeve gastrectomy; SG) and malabsorptive (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; RYGB) procedures on cholesterol metabolism in mice...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132740/effects-of-using-symbiotics-in-the-clinical-nutritional-evolution-of-patients-with-chronic-pancreatitis-study-prospective-randomized-controlled-double-blind
#3
Patricia Quadros Dos Santos, Jorge C Guedes, Rosangela P de Jesus, Raquel Rocha Dos Santos, Rosemeiri L Fiaconne
Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) present malabsorption and changes in nutritional status. In this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded, intervention study, developed at the Clinic of Pancreas, we aimed to assess whether the use of symbiotics changes the nutritional status, the biochemical data and the intestinal rate of these patients. The intervention consisted of administering 12 g/day of symbiotics composed of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides to the intervention group and 12 g/day of medium absorption complex carbohydrate to the control group...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132529/celiac-disease-and-gluten-sensitivity
#4
REVIEW
Katharine C DeGeorge, Jeanetta W Frye, Kim M Stein, Lisa K Rollins, Daniel F McCarter
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten that affects genetically predisposed individuals, typically causing intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Diagnosis requires stepwise evaluation with anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA and histologic analysis of the small bowel. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is the primary treatment. Patients with symptoms thought to be related to gluten but without evidence of celiac disease are difficult to diagnose and treat. Consider first advising general nutritional improvements...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130223/-metabolic-changes-in-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome-and-the-nutritional-support-therapy
#5
Guohao Wu
Patients with short bowel syndrome suffer from fluid and electrolyte imbalance and malabsorption due to poor nutrient processing capability of the residual intestine. Nutritional support therapy has been considered as one of the important treatments for short bowel syndrome. For patients with short bowel syndrome, a deep understanding of metabolic changes, and then rational application of nutritional support therapy and intestinal rehabilitation program can save many patients' lives, improve quality of life, and even achieve independence from parenteral nutrition, and return to a normal life...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119972/rotavirus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Lennart Svensson, Marie Hagbom, Manuel A Franco, Harry B Greenberg, Miguel O'Ryan, Gagandeep Kang, Ulrich Desselberger, Mary K Estes
Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age. Despite the global introduction of vaccinations for rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system...
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111202/intestinal-fructose-malabsorption-is-associated-with-increased-lactulose-fermentation-in-the-intestinal-lumen-of-patients-with-abdominal-pain
#7
Roberto Koity Fujihara Ozaki, Patrícia da Graça Leite Speridião, Ana Cristina Fontenele Soares, Mauro Batista de Morais
OBJECTIVE: To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. METHODS: The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain)...
October 28, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093615/less-common-etiologies-of-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency
#8
REVIEW
Vikesh K Singh, Mark E Haupt, David E Geller, Jerry A Hall, Pedro M Quintana Diez
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), an important cause of maldigestion and malabsorption, results from primary pancreatic diseases or secondarily impaired exocrine pancreatic function. Besides cystic fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis, the most common etiologies of EPI, other causes of EPI include unresectable pancreatic cancer, metabolic diseases (diabetes); impaired hormonal stimulation of exocrine pancreatic secretion by cholecystokinin (CCK); celiac or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to loss of intestinal brush border proteins; and gastrointestinal surgery (asynchrony between motor and secretory functions, impaired enteropancreatic feedback, and inadequate mixing of pancreatic secretions with food)...
October 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080342/cross-talk-between-bile-acids-and-gastro-intestinal-and-thermogenic-clues-from-bariatric-surgery
#9
Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Helen H Wang, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Obesity is rapidly increasing and has reached epidemic features worldwide. It´s linked to insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation and common pathogenic pathways with a number of comorbidities (including cancer), leading to high mortality rates. Besides change of lifestyles (diet and physical exercise) and pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery is able to rapidly improve several metabolic and morphologic features associated with excessive fat storage, and currently represents an in vivo model to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related complications...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042668/signalling-mechanisms-in-paf-induced-intestinal-failure
#10
Ingmar Lautenschläger, Yuk Lung Wong, Jürgen Sarau, Torsten Goldmann, Karina Zitta, Martin Albrecht, Inéz Frerichs, Norbert Weiler, Stefan Uhlig
Capillary leakage syndrome, vasomotor disturbances and gut atony are common clinical problems in intensive care medicine. Various inflammatory mediators and signalling pathways are involved in these pathophysiological alterations among them platelet-activating factor (PAF). The related signalling mechanisms of the PAF-induced dysfunctions are only poorly understood. Here we used the model of the isolated perfused rat small intestine to analyse the role of calcium (using calcium deprivation, IP-receptor blockade (2-APB)), cAMP (PDE-inhibition plus AC activator), myosin light chain kinase (inhibitor ML-7) and Rho-kinase (inhibitor Y27632) in the following PAF-induced malfunctions: vasoconstriction, capillary and mucosal leakage, oedema formation, malabsorption and atony...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035975/breath-hydrogen-testing-in-east-and-southeast-asia
#11
Chu Kion Yao, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Breath hydrogen tests are popular, noninvasive tests for the assessment of carbohydrate fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD). There is limited information regarding the utility of breath hydrogen and methane tests in IBS and FD patients in East and Southeast Asia. This review aims to summarize current literature about common indications of breath testing in this region, the genesis of functional gastrointestinal symptoms by provocative breath testing and provide suggestions for correct use...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029893/the-prevalence-of-sarcopenia-is-markedly-increased-in-patients-with-intestinal-failure-and-associates-with-several-risk-factors
#12
Anders Skallerup, Louis Nygaard, Søren Schou Olesen, Marianne Køhler, Lars Vinter-Jensen, Henrik Højgaard Rasmussen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure are conditions associated with malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. Consequently, malnutrition and ensuing alterations in body composition are common in this context and patients may have an increased risk of progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (i.e. sarcopenia). We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure and identified associated risk factors...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021363/novel-and-unexpected-functions-of-sglts
#13
REVIEW
Ernest M Wright, Chiara Ghezzi, Donald D F Loo
It has been 30 years since the intestinal sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 was cloned, and, in the intervening years, there have been many advances that have influenced physiology and medicine. Among the first was that SGLT1 is the founding member of the human gene family SLC5, containing 11 diverse transporters and a glucose sensor. Equally surprising was that SGLTs are members of a structural family of cotransporters and exchangers in different gene families. This led to the conclusion that these proteins operate by a mechanism where transport involves the opening and closing of external and internal gates...
November 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016294/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-a-case-definition-for-intervention-trials
#14
Donna M Denno, Phillip I Tarr, James P Nataro
Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (EED) was first described as a malabsorption syndrome with small intestinal villous flattening among healthy adults in Thailand and other low-resource settings.(1-4) A similar entity was described in Peace Corps volunteers in South Asia.(5,6) Several years later, resolution of histopathology and malabsorption after repatriation or immigration to North America was demonstrated.(7,8).
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947679/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-ppar%C3%AE-regulates-lactase-expression-and-activity-in-the-gut
#15
Mathurin Fumery, Silvia Speca, Audrey Langlois, Anne-Marie Davila, Caroline Dubuquoy, Marta Grauso, Anthony Martin Mena, Martin Figeac, Daniel Metzger, Christel Rousseaux, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Laurent Dubuquoy, Pierre Desreumaux, Benjamin Bertin
Lactase (LCT) deficiency affects approximately 75% of the world's adult population and may lead to lactose malabsorption and intolerance. Currently, the regulation of LCT gene expression remains poorly known. Peroxisome proliferator activator receptorγ (PPARγ) is a key player in carbohydrate metabolism. While the intestine is essential for carbohydrate digestion and absorption, the role of PPARγ in enterocyte metabolic functions has been poorly investigated. This study aims at characterizing PPARγ target genes involved in intestinal metabolic functions...
November 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940958/a-novel-neurog3-mutation-in-neonatal-diabetes-associated-with-a-neuro-intestinal-syndrome
#16
Suna Hancili, Amélie Bonnefond, Julien Philippe, Emmanuel Vaillant, Franck De Graeve, Olivier Sand, Kanetee Busiah, Jean-Jacques Robert, Michel Polak, Philippe Froguel, Ayla Güven, Martine Vaxillaire
Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of non-autoimmune diabetes usually diagnosed in the first 6 months of life. Various genetic defects have been shown to cause NDM with diverse clinical presentations and variable severity. Among transcriptional factor genes associated with isolated or syndromic NDM, a few cases of homozygous mutations in the NEUROG3 gene have been reported, all mutated patients presenting with congenital malabsorptive diarrhea with or without diabetes at a variable age of onset from early life to childhood...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926829/continuous-subcutaneous-recombinant-parathyroid-hormone-1-34-infusion-in-the-management-of-childhood-hypoparathyroidism-associated-with-malabsorption
#17
Vrinda Saraff, Anya Rothenbuhler, Wolfgang Högler, Agnès Linglart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoparathyroidism associated with malabsorption can be particularly challenging to manage due to limited and erratic intestinal absorption of calcium and vitamin D analogues, resulting in episodes of hypo- or hypercalcaemia. We evaluated the role of continuous subcutaneous recombinant parathyroid hormone (rhPTH 1-34) infusion (CSPI) in children with hypoparathyroidism associated with intestinal malabsorption resistant to conventional therapy. METHOD: Four patients (8-13 years of age), with symptomatic hypocalcaemia resistant to conventional therapy, were started on CSPI (follow-up 3-8 years) in two paediatric endocrinology units in Europe...
September 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917233/high-prevalence-of-vitamin-b-12-insufficiency-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#18
Misora Ao, Hidemi Tsuji, Kenichiro Shide, Yuki Kosaka, Akari Noda, Nobuya Inagaki, Hiroshi Nakase, Kiyoshi Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Crohn's disease (CD), belonging to inflammatory bowel disease, the small intestine is involved in most cases. Most frequently affected is the distal ileum, where vitamin B-12 is specifically absorbed. Therefore, malabsorption of vitamin B-12 is quite likely to occur in patients with CD. In this study, we have studied the vitamin B-12 status in CD patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Forty eight patients with CD were evaluated for their food intake, and circulating concentrations of vitamin B-12, folic acid, and homocysteine (Hcy) as a sensitive marker for the insufficiency of these vitamins and a risk factor of atherosclerosis...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915970/a-new-proposed-mechanism-of-action-for-gastric-bypass-surgery-air-hypothesis
#19
Hasan Celiker
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is one of the most effective treatments for obesity and type II diabetes. RYGB was originally believed to work by mechanically restricting caloric intake or causing macronutrient malabsorption. However, such mechanical effects play no role in the remarkable efficacy of gastric bypass. Instead, mounting evidence shows that altered neuroendocrine signaling is responsible for the weight reducing effects of RYGB. The exact mechanism of this surgical response is still a mystery...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913777/diabetes-and-the-small-intestine
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan Gotfried, Stephen Priest, Ron Schey
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated complications are becoming increasingly prevalent. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with diabetes is known as diabetic enteropathy (DE) and may manifest as either diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting or a combination of symptoms. The long-held belief that vagal autonomic neuropathy is the primary cause of DE has recently been challenged by newer theories of disease development. Specifically, hyperglycemia and the resulting oxidative stress on neural networks, including the nitrergic neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), are now believed to play a central role in the development of DE...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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