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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734512/the-burden-of-enteropathy-and-subclinical-infections
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Rogawski, Richard L Guerrant
Environmental enteropathy is a chronic condition of the small intestine associated with increased intestinal permeability, mucosal inflammation, malabsorption, and systemic inflammation. It is commonly accompanied by enteric infections and is misleadingly considered a subclinical disease. Potential effects of enteric infections and enteropathy on vaccine responses, child growth, cognitive development, and even later life obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are increasingly being recognized. Herein, we review the evolving challenges to defining environmental enteropathy and enteric infections, current evidence for the magnitude and determinants of its burden, new assessment tools, and relevant interventions...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727078/flaxseed-meal-and-oat-hulls-supplementation-modulates-growth-performance-blood-lipids-intestinal-fermentation-bile-acids-and-neutral-sterols-in-growing-pigs-fed-corn-soybean-meal-based-diets
#2
S P Ndou, E Kiarie, S J Thandapilly, M C Walsh, N Ames, C M Nyachoti
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire-Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets-a basal corn-soybean meal-containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls-containing diet (OH)-in a completely randomized design...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726665/-about-the-role-of-digestive-tract-decompression-in-patients-with-acute-bowel-obstruction-mistakes-complications-and-their-prevention
#3
V Benedykt
The purpose of the work is improvement in treatment of patients with acute small bowel obstruction by justification for gastrointestinal decompression and different methods of small intestine intubation for effective evacuation of itscontents. We conducted morphological and morphometric study of the small intestine in 53 white rats. It was established that acute small bowel obstruction causes expansion of all parts of small bowel microvasculature with significant lesions of venous structures. We revealed thinning of intestinal muscular layer 2...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724572/a-new-case-of-congenital-malabsorptive-diarrhea-and-diabetes-secondary-to-mutant-neurogenin-3
#4
Marta Germán-Díaz, Yolanda Rodriguez-Gil, Jaime Cruz-Rojo, Fabienne Charbit-Henrion, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Javier Manzanares-López Manzanares, José Manuel Moreno-Villares
Congenital diarrheal disorders are a group of rare enteropathies that often present with life-threatening diarrhea in the first weeks of life. Enteric anendocrinosis, characterized by a lack of intestinal enteroendocrine cells due to recessively inherited mutations in the Neurogenin-3 (NEUROG3) gene, has been described as a cause of congenital malabsorptive diarrhea. Diabetes mellitus also is typically associated with NEUROG3 mutations, be it early onset or a later presentation. Here we report a case of a 16-year-old male patient with severe malabsorptive diarrhea from birth, who was parenteral nutrition dependent and who developed diabetes mellitus at 11 years old...
July 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712180/causes-of-chronic-non-infectious-diarrhoea-in-infants-less-than-6-months-of-age-rarely-recognized-entities
#5
Iqra Mushtaq, Huma Ashraf Cheema, Hassan Suleman Malik, Nadia Waheed, Muhammad Almas Hashmi, Hassan Suleman Malik
BACKGROUND: Non-infectious causes of chronic diarrhoea are important and easily missed. The study was done with the objectives to identify different causes of chronic non-infectious diarrhoea in infants less than 6 months of age. METHODS: All patients less than 6 months of age presenting for the first time to a Paediatric Gastroenterology tertiary care centre with a history of chronic diarrhoea and negative stool cultures were enrolled over a period of 8 months...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710145/a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-polyols-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Adrienne Lenhart, William D Chey
Polyols are sugar alcohols found in certain fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free sweeteners. They make up a component of the diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which is gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of polyols on the gastrointestinal tract in healthy men and women and in patients with IBS. Utilizing PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases, we conducted a search on individual polyols and each of these terms: fermentation, absorption, motility, permeability, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672432/pros-and-cons-while-looking-through-an-asian-window-on-the-rome-iv-criteria-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-pros
#7
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal
A decade after Rome III, in 2016, Rome IV criteria were published. There are major differences between Rome IV and the earlier iteration, some of which are in line with Asian viewpoints. The clinical applicability of the Rome IV criteria of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Asian perspective is reviewed here. Instead of considering functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) to be largely psychogenic, Rome IV suggested the importance of the gut over brain ("disorders of gut-brain interaction" not "brain-gut interaction")...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657829/cd55-deficiency-early-onset-protein-losing-enteropathy-and-thrombosis
#8
Ahmet Ozen, William A Comrie, Rico C Ardy, Cecilia Domínguez Conde, Buket Dalgic, Ömer F Beser, Aaron R Morawski, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Engin Tutar, Safa Baris, Figen Ozcay, Nina K Serwas, Yu Zhang, Helen F Matthews, Stefania Pittaluga, Les R Folio, Aysel Unlusoy Aksu, Joshua J McElwee, Ana Krolo, Ayca Kiykim, Zeren Baris, Meltem Gulsan, Ismail Ogulur, Scott B Snapper, Roderick H J Houwen, Helen L Leavis, Deniz Ertem, Renate Kain, Sinan Sari, Tülay Erkan, Helen C Su, Kaan Boztug, Michael J Lenardo
BACKGROUND: Studies of monogenic gastrointestinal diseases have revealed molecular pathways critical to gut homeostasis and enabled the development of targeted therapies. METHODS: We studied 11 patients with abdominal pain and diarrhea caused by early-onset protein-losing enteropathy with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, edema due to hypoproteinemia, malabsorption, and less frequently, bowel inflammation, recurrent infections, and angiopathic thromboembolic disease; the disorder followed an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance...
July 6, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633646/role-of-serotonin-on-the-intestinal-mucosal-immune-response-to-stress-induced-diarrhea-in-weaning-mice
#9
Yulan Dong, Yanan Han, Zixu Wang, Zhuoming Qin, Chenyu Yang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: During weaning, babies and young animal often experience diarrhea from food intolerance and/or decreasing levels of maternal antibodies, and diarrhea tends to be particularly severe during the early-weaned period, which often exhibits an underdeveloped immune system, a disturbed gut environment and results in nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. It was deduced that neuroendocrine might have close relation with diarrhea, especially 5-HT. METHODS: To explore the role of serotonin (5-HT) in weaning mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea, 21-day-old weaned mice were divided into the following groups: control group, stress-induced diarrhea group (restrained by binding the hind limbs and intragastric administration of folium sennae with 0...
June 21, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611949/pseudomalabsorption-of-levothyroxine-a-challenge-for-the-endocrinologist-in-the-treatment-of-hypothyroidism
#10
Nancy Van Wilder, Bert Bravenboer, Sarah Herremans, Nathalie Vanderbruggen, Brigitte Velkeniers
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism due to non-compliance with levothyroxine therapy (pseudomalabsorption) is rare. The diagnosis is considered in patients with persistent severe hypothyroidism despite treatment with large doses of levothyroxine. Intestinal malabsorption, drug and dietary interference with levothyroxine absorption and nephrotic syndrome should be excluded. The diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption can be demonstrated by using "an oral 1,000 µg of levothyroxine test" showing a rapid decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and increase in thyroxine...
February 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604513/severe-sarcopenia-and-increased-fat-stores-in-pediatric-patients-with-liver-kidney-or-intestine-failure
#11
Richard S Mangus, Weston J Bush, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Christina Miller
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. METHODS: Children younger than age 19 with end stage liver, kidney or intestine failure and with pre-transplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602793/the-single-anastomosis-duodenal-switch-modifications-a-review-of-the-current-literature-on-outcomes
#12
Philippe Topart, Guillaume Becouarn
BACKGROUND: The single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) was designed in 2007 to reduce the side effects of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) by replacing the Roux-en-Y construction with a single duodeno-ileal anastomosis and combining the common channel with the alimentary limb. Several variants using different channel lengths were published. The objective of this study was to identify the published cases of SADI-S and variants and assess the results regarding potential benefits on side effects and revisions...
April 27, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590166/teduglutide-induced-stem-cell-function-in-intestinal-repair
#13
Ferenc Sipos, Györgyi Műzes
Malabsorption is a major and common clinical characteristics of short bowel syndrome (SBS) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Traditional treatment opportunities have focused on decreasing malabsorptive losses via dietary modifications and antisecretory/antidiarrheal agents. However, novel therapeutic modalities aim to enhance the absorptive capacity of the residual bowel by the administration of different intestinal growth factors including teduglutide. In a current study the existence of two distinct functional putative epithelial stem cell subpopulations (i...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589631/systematic-review-exercise-induced-gastrointestinal-syndrome-implications-for-health-and-intestinal-disease
#14
REVIEW
R J S Costa, R M J Snipe, C M Kitic, P R Gibson
BACKGROUND: "Exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome" refers to disturbances of gastrointestinal integrity and function that are common features of strenuous exercise. AIM: To systematically review the literature to establish the impact of acute exercise on markers of gastrointestinal integrity and function in healthy populations and those with chronic gastrointestinal conditions. METHODS: Search literature using five databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, SPORTSdiscus, and Ovid Medline) to review publications that focused on the impact of acute exercise on markers of gastrointestinal injury, permeability, endotoxaemia, motility and malabsorption in healthy populations and populations with gastrointestinal diseases/disorders...
June 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589304/prevalence-of-abnormal-lactose-breath-hydrogen-tests-in-children-with-functional-abdominal-pain
#15
Neha Garg, Srikanta Basu, Preeti Singh, Ruchika Kumar, Lokesh Sharma, Praveen Kumar
OBJECTIVES: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. METHODS: Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h...
June 7, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578495/timeline-of-intestinal-adaptation-after-malabsortive-surgery-effect-of-luminal-nutrients-biliopancreatic-secretion-and-glutamine-supplementation
#16
José Manuel Martínez Moreno, Alexander Reyes-Ortiz, José María Lage Sánchez, Pilar Sánchez-Gallegos, Manuel Garcia-Caballero
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to study the process of intestinal adaptation in the three limbs of the small intestine after malabsorptive bariatric surgery: the biliopancreatic limb, the alimentary limb, and the common channel. These limbs are exposed to different stimuli, namely, gastrointestinal transit and nutrients in the alimentary limb, biliopancreatic secretions in the biliopancreatic limb, and a mix of both in the common channel. We also wished to investigate the effect of glutamine supplementation on the adaptation process...
June 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576637/the-diagnosis-of-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Kris De Boeck, Francois Vermeulen, Lieven Dupont
Establishing the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is straight forward in the majority of patients: they present with a clear clinical picture (most frequently chronic respiratory symptoms plus malabsorption), the sweat chloride value is>60mmol/L and two known disease causing CFTR mutations are identified. In less than 5% of subjects, mainly those with a milder or limited phenotype, the diagnostic process is more complex, because initial diagnostic test results are inconclusive: sweat chloride concentration in the intermediate range, less than 2 CF causing mutations identified or both...
May 30, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572752/chronic-alcohol-overconsumption-may-alter-gut-microbial-metabolism-a-retrospective-study-of-719-13-c-d-xylose-breath-test-results
#18
Steinar Traae Bjørkhaug, Viggo Skar, Asle W Medhus, Anita Tollisen, Jørgen G Bramness, Jørgen Valeur
Objective: Alterations of gut microbiota composition or function may participate in the pathophysiology of several diseases. We aimed to explore the effect of chronic alcohol overconsumption on gut microbial metabolism, as assessed by evaluating (13)C-D-xylose breath test results. Materials and methods: We investigated all (13)C-D-xylose breath tests performed at Lovisenberg Diaconal Hospital during the years 2005 to 2011, using patient files for diagnosing the patients into one of three patient categories: alcohol overconsumption, coeliac disease and functional bowel disorder...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560290/farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-treatment-alters-bile-acid-metabolism-but%C3%A2-exacerbates-liver-damage-in-a-piglet-model-of-short-bowel%C3%A2-syndrome
#19
Prue M Pereira-Fantini, Susan Lapthorne, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce, Jenny Charles, Peter J Fuller, Julie E Bines
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Options for the prevention of short-bowel syndrome-associated liver disease (SBS-ALDs) are limited and often ineffective. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a newly emerging pharmaceutical target and FXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate cholestasis and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of obeticholic acid (OCA) treatment in preventing SBS-ALDs. METHODS: Piglets underwent 75% small-bowel resection (SBS) or sham surgery (sham) and were assigned to either a daily dose of OCA (2...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550437/hyperoxaluria-in-a-model-of-mini-gastric-bypass-surgery-in-rats
#20
Milene S Ormanji, Fernando Korkes, Renata Meca, Crysthiane S R A Ishiy, Gustavo H C Finotti, Renato R N Ferraz, Ita P Heilberg
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is associated with hyperoxaluria hence predisposing to nephrolithiasis. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms contributing to increased urinary oxalate in a mini-gastric bypass (MGB) surgery model in rats under different dietary conditions. The expression of intestinal oxalate transporters was also evaluated. METHODS: Male rats underwent MGB (n = 21) or Sham procedure (n = 21) and after recovery were fed a standard or high-fat diet with or without oxalate for 8 weeks...
May 26, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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