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intestinal malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346473/oral-administration-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-alleviates-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-inducing-mucosal-protective-factors
#1
Tomohiro Kawahara, Yutaka Makizaki, Yosuke Oikawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Ayako Maeda, Masaki Shimakawa, Satoshi Komoto, Kyoko Moriguchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Koki Taniguchi
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323273/hydrogen-and-methane-based-breath-testing-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-north-american-consensus
#2
Ali Rezaie, Michelle Buresi, Anthony Lembo, Henry Lin, Richard McCallum, Satish Rao, Max Schmulson, Miguel Valdovinos, Salam Zakko, Mark Pimentel
OBJECTIVES: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. METHODS: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288854/irinotecan-induced-bile-acid-malabsorption-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-ileal-asbt-slc10a2-in-mice
#3
A-Xi Shi, Yan Zhou, Xiao-Yi Zhang, Yan-Shu Zhao, Hong-Yan Qin, Yan-Ping Wang, Xin-An Wu
Irinotecan, (CPT-11), an antitumor agent primarily used for the treatment of solid tumors, has often compromised clinical application due to the inducement of severe delay-onset diarrhea. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is widely accepted as the common cause of diarrhea. However, whether CPT-11-induced diarrhea has correlation with BAM is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CPT-11 on the bile acid homeostasis in mice. The mice were administrated with CPT-11 intravenously for four consecutive days...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286797/malabsorption-secondary-to-gout-induced-amyloidosis
#4
Ali Azzam, Renuka Balasubramaniam, Shahram Safa, Carolyn McIvor, Peter Mollee
Many chronic inflammatory conditions can lead to systemic amyloidosis. However, secondary amyloidosis has rarely been associated with gout, and the literature reports only a handful of cases, all presenting with renal disease. We report a patient with a history of poorly controlled gout who presented with malabsorption. Endoscopic biopsies confirmed a diagnosis of small intestinal amyloidosis. This was believed to be a consequence of gout. Interestingly, renal involvement was subclinical. Our case raises awareness of this rare association and highlights the importance of considering a diagnosis of amyloidosis in patients who present with the combination of gout and gastrointestinal symptoms...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275682/celiac-disease-role-of-the-epithelial-barrier
#5
REVIEW
Michael Schumann, Britta Siegmund, Jörg D Schulzke, Michael Fromm
In celiac disease (CD) a T-cell-mediated response to gluten is mounted in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in a malabsorptive enteropathy histologically highlighted by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. Recent data point to the epithelial layer as an under-rated hot spot in celiac pathophysiology to date. This overview summarizes current functional and genetic evidence on the role of the epithelial barrier in CD, consisting of the cell membranes and the apical junctional complex comprising sealing as well as ion and water channel-forming tight junction proteins and the adherens junction...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271632/the-role-of-insufficient-copper-in-lipid-synthesis-and-fatty-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
Austin Morrell, Savannah Tallino, Lei Yu, Jason L Burkhead
The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier...
March 8, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244675/the-clinical-value-of-breath-hydrogen-testing
#7
REVIEW
Chu K Yao, Caroline J Tuck
Breath hydrogen testing for assessing the presence of carbohydrate malabsorption is frequently applied to refine dietary restrictions on a low fermentable carbohydrate (FODMAP) diet. Its application has also been extended for the detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Recently, several caveats of its methodology and interpretation have emerged. A review of the evidence surrounding its application in the management of patients with a functional bowel disorder was performed. Studies were examined to assess limitations of testing methodology, interpretation of results, reproducibility, and how this relates to clinical symptoms...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241431/the-role-of-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-in-intestinal-and-hepatic-fructose-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237320/a-perspective-on-metabolic-surgery-from-a-gastroenterologist
#9
REVIEW
Yu-Fong Syu, Akio Inui, Chih-Yen Chen
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are important public health problems. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is 8.8%. Interventional diabetology and obesitology have been recently advocated as treatment options for T2D and obesity. The roles of metabolic surgery such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, gastric banding, and biliopancreatic diversion are focused. Different types of metabolic surgeries have different glucose-lowering and weight loss effects. Endoscopic treatments include the intra-gastric balloon (to restrict the gastric volume) and duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL, as a malabsorptive procedure)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212351/black-box%C3%A2-gastrointestinal%C3%A2-tract-needs%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-prospects%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-gaining%C3%A2-insights%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fate%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fat-%C3%A2-protein-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-starch%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-exocrine%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-insufficiency%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-fistulated%C3%A2-pigs
#10
REVIEW
Anne Mößeler, Josef Kamphues
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) results in the maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. The digestive processes in humans and other monogastric species like rat and pig are characterized by a predominantly enzymatic digestion within the small intestine and microbial fermentation located in the hindgut. For protein, it is doctrine that only prececally absorbed amino acids can be transferred to the amino acid pool of the host, while postileal absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds occurs mainly in the form of ammonia, being a burden rather than a benefit for the organism...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#11
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176790/architectural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-in-classical-whipple-s-disease
#12
H-J Epple, J Friebel, V Moos, H Troeger, S M Krug, K Allers, K Schinnerling, A Fromm, B Siegmund, M Fromm, J D Schulzke, T Schneider
Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) affects the gastrointestinal tract and rather elicits regulatory than inflammatory immune reactions. Mechanisms of malabsorption, diarrhea, and systemic immune activation are unknown. We here analyzed mucosal architecture, barrier function, and immune activation as potential diarrheal trigger in specimens from 52 CWD patients. Our data demonstrate villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia associated with epithelial apoptosis and reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in the duodenum of CWD patients...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154909/beyond-moulage-sign-and-ttg-levels-the-role-of-cross-sectional-imaging-in-celiac-sprue
#13
Shannon P Sheedy, John M Barlow, Joel G Fletcher, Thomas C Smyrk, Francis J Scholz, Don C Codipilly, Badr F Al Bawardy, Jeff L Fidler
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and destruction in the small intestine of genetically susceptible individuals following ingestion of gluten. Awareness of the disease has increased; however, it remains a challenge to diagnose. This review summarizes the intestinal and extraintestinal cross-sectional imaging findings of celiac disease. Small intestine fold abnormalities are the most specific imaging findings for celiac disease, whereas most other imaging findings reflect a more generalized pattern seen with malabsorptive processes...
February 2, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151692/oral-liquid-levothyroxine-solves-the-problem-of-tablet-levothyroxine-malabsorption-due-to-concomitant-intake-of-multiple-drugs
#14
Roberto Vita, Flavia Di Bari, Salvatore Benvenga
BACKGROUND: Unlike the tablet (TAB) formulation, liquid L-T4 (LIQ) is directly absorbed in the intestine. The aim of this study was to assess whether LIQ was superior to TAB, such that it would overcome the interference induced by co-ingestion of multiple interfering drugs (ID). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we recruited 11 patients with apparent reduced TAB absorption due to ≥ 2 ID, and switched them to LIQ while maintaining the daily dose and the co-ingestion of the ID...
February 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149017/malabsorption-orocecal-transit-time-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-connection
#15
S V Rana, Aastha Malik, Sanjay K Bhadada, Naresh Sachdeva, Rajesh Kumar Morya, Gaurav Sharma
Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic patients report significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from oral cavity to large bowel and anorectal region. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and most fluids are absorbed in small intestine. Malabsorption may occurs when proper absorption of nutrients does not take place due to bacterial overgrowth or altered gut motility...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133158/-clinical-experience-with-nutrition-and-anticoagulation-therapy-for-a-patient-with-a-30-cm-residual-jejunum
#16
Arisa Muratsu, Shingo Noura, Tae Matsumura, Masaki Hirota, Yuta Yoshida, Takashi Shuto, Akinobu Yasuyama, Chikato Koga, Masahiro Murakami, Chizu Kameda, Ryohei Kawabata, Junzou Shimizu, Junichi Hasegawa
Patients with short bowel syndrome experience malabsorption and digestive disorders. They are unable to maintain adequate nutrition by the oral or enteral route alone, and their requirements for liquids, electrolytes, nutrients, microelements, vitamins, etc., are not completely met. Managing the nutritional needs of these patients is important. Another concern is these patients' inability to absorb medication, because the small intestine that is shortened in short bowel syndrome is the principal site of drug absorption...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123938/intestinal-invalidation-of-the-glucose-transporter-glut2-delays-tissue-distribution-of-glucose-and-reveals-an-unexpected-role-in-gut-homeostasis
#17
Charlotte C Schmitt, Thomas Aranias, Thomas Viel, Danielle Chateau, Maude Le Gall, Anne-Judith Waligora-Dupriet, Chloé Melchior, Ophélie Rouxel, Nathalie Kapel, Guillaume Gourcerol, Bertrand Tavitian, Agnès Lehuen, Edith Brot-Laroche, Armelle Leturque, Patricia Serradas, Alexandra Grosfeld
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal glucose absorption is orchestrated by specialized glucose transporters such as SGLT1 and GLUT2. However, the role of GLUT2 in the regulation of glucose absorption remains to be fully elucidated. METHODS: We wanted to evaluate the role of GLUT2 on glucose absorption and glucose homeostasis after intestinal-specific deletion of GLUT2 in mice (GLUT2(ΔIEC) mice). RESULTS: As anticipated, intestinal GLUT2 deletion provoked glucose malabsorption as visualized by the delay in the distribution of oral sugar in tissues...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097735/autoimmune-enteropathy-and-hepatitis-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipient
#18
Kimberly Lewis, Ryan Butts, J Antonio Quiros, Michelle Hudspeth, Katherine Twombley, Andrew Savage, Sally Self, Ali Burnette, Shaoli Sun
AIE is a rare disorder in children that presents with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, caused by immune-mediated damage to intestinal mucosa. AIE is often associated with various syndromes of immunodeficiency including IPEX syndrome (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked). Dysfunctional T regulatory cells are the source of pathology in both IPEX syndrome and AIE as they are essential in maintaining tolerance to self-antigens and eliminating autoreactive B cells. This case report describes a 10-year-old cardiac transplant and total thymectomy patient on chronic immunosuppression with tacrolimus that presented with AIE and extraintestinal manifestations of cyclical hepatitis...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089681/steatorrhea-and-hyperoxaluria-in-severely-obese-patients-before-and-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#19
Amber M Moreland, Carol A Santa Ana, John R Asplin, Joseph A Kuhn, Ross P Holmes, Jason A Cole, Elizabeth A Odstrcil, Thomas G Van Dinter, Juan G Martinez, John S Fordtran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hyperoxaluria after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is generally attributed to fat malabsorption. If hyperoxaluria is indeed caused by fat malabsorption, magnitudes of hyperoxaluria and steatorrhea should correlate. Severely obese patients, prior to bypass, ingest excess dietary fat that can produce hyperphagic steatorrhea. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether urine oxalate excretion correlates with elements of fat balance in severely obese patients before and after RYGB...
January 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062276/molecular-pathogenicity-of-novel-sucrase-isomaltase-mutations-found-in-congenital-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency-patients
#20
Birthe Gericke, Mahdi Amiri, C Ronald Scott, Hassan Y Naim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a genetic disorder associated with mutations in the sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene. The diagnosis of congenital diarrheal disorders like CSID is difficult due to unspecific symptoms and usually requires invasive biopsy sampling of the intestine. Sequencing of the SI gene and molecular analysis of the resulting potentially pathogenic SI protein variants may facilitate a diagnosis in the future. This study aimed to categorize SI mutations based on their functional consequences...
January 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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