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Ji Yi, Zhen Puyang, Liang Feng, Lian Duan, Peiji Liang, Vadim Backman, Xiaorong Liu, Hao F Zhang
Purpose: Elastic light backscattering spectroscopy (ELBS) has exquisite sensitivity to the ultrastructural properties of tissue and thus has been applied to detect various diseases associated with ultrastructural alterations in their early stages. This study aims to test whether ELBS can detect early damage in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods: We used a mouse model of partial optic nerve crush (pONC) to induce rapid RGC death. We confirmed RGC loss by axon counting and characterized the changes in retinal morphology by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and in retinal function by full-field electroretinogram (ERG), respectively...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Aakash Garg, Deepti Virmani, Sahil Agrawal, Chirag Agarwal, Abhishek Sharma, Giulio Stefanini, John B Kostis
Heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly prevalent and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFpEF has a complex pathophysiology, with recent evidence suggesting that an interaction of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities (e.g. obesity, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and chronic kidney disease) induces an inflammatory state that eventually leads to myocardial structural and functional alterations. Current ACCF/AHA guidelines suggest incorporation of biomarkers along with clinical and imaging tools to establish the diagnosis and disease severity in heart failure (HF)...
October 27, 2016: Cardiology
Helen L MacLaughlin, Iain C Macdougall, Wendy L Hall, Tracy Dew, Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Jude A Oben
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of intragastric balloon (IGB) placement to achieve weight loss in obese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been reported to date. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the IGB as a weight-loss treatment among this patient population. METHODS: A prospective, single-arm, 'first in CKD' interventional study was conducted in patients with a body mass index >35 kg/m2 and CKD stages 3-4, referred for weight loss...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Ehud Chorin, Eyal Ben-Assa, Maayan Konigstein, May-Tal Rofe, Aviram Hochstadt, Naama Galli, Michael Schnapper, Yaron Arbel, Ilan Rabey, Jeremy Ben Shoshan, Amir Halkin, Itzhak Herz, Ariel Finkelstein, Samuel Bazan, Gad Keren, Shmuel Banai
BACKGROUND: Radiologists and cardiologists have a remarkably different approach to the clinical importance and to the need for prophylactic treatment of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of forced diuresis with matched controlled hydration (FMH) in a real-world, high risk population. METHODS: This is an investigator-driven, single-center, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Laura Denise Mendes da Silva, Mariana Gatto, Mariana Miziara de Abreu Teodoro, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Érika Alessandra Pelisson Nunes da Costa, Francilene Capel Tavares Carvalho, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is a serious public health issue. Its evolution involves an acute stage, characterized by no specific symptoms, and the chronic stage during most individuals are asymptomatic, but about 30 to 40% of them become symptomatic presenting the cardiac or digestive disease. Host immune response mechanisms involved in symptomatic or asymptomatic chronic disease are not fully understood. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial in host resistance. However, a fine control of this inflammatory process, by action of anti-inflammatory cytokines, is necessary to avoid tissue injury...
October 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Georgios N Panagopoulos, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Andreas F Mavrogenis
Peripheral nerve injury can have a potentially devastating impact on a patient's quality of life, resulting in severe disability with substantial social and personal cost. Refined microsurgical techniques, advances in peripheral nerve topography, and a better understanding of the pathophysiology and molecular basis of nerve injury have all led to a decisive leap forward in the field of translational neurophysiology. Nerve repair, nerve grafting, and nerve transfers have improved significantly with consistently better functional outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
Aline Sarturi Ponte, Elenir Fedosse
This study correlated the impact of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) on the labor activity of individuals of working age on their quality of life (QOL) and that of their relatives/caregivers. It involved qualitative (content analysis) and quantitative (descriptive) research. Forty-eight individuals with ABI and 27 relatives/caregivers were interviewed. The correlation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF (52...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Wiliam César Alves Machado, Vera Maria da Silva, Rafael André da Silva, Ricardo Luiz Ramos, Nébia Maria Almeida de Figueiredo, Elen Martins da Silva Castelo Branco, Luciana Krauss Rezende, Mônica de Almeida Carreiro
The present qualitative study was conducted in the second semester of 2014 via interviews with 12 doctors and 13 nurses working as managers at a large hospital that serves as a reference center for urgent and emergent care in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sought to identify the criteria that doctors and nurses use to discharge individuals with disabling neurological injury with instructions related to accessing physical rehabilitation programs. Thematic content analysis was used to examine data...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Douglas Bastos Neves, Marcela Balbo Rusi, Luiz Gustavo Guedes Diaz, Paolo Salvalaggio
Primary graft dysfunction is a multifactorial syndrome with great impact on liver transplantation outcomes. This review article was based on studies published between January 1980 and June 2015 and retrieved from PubMed database using the following search terms: "primary graft dysfunction", "early allograft dysfunction", "primary non-function" and "liver transplantation". Graft dysfunction describes different grades of graft ischemia-reperfusion injury and can manifest as early allograft dysfunction or primary graft non-function, its most severe form...
October 24, 2016: Einstein
Thaís Flôr da Rocha, Juliana Gibbon Neves, Karin Viegas
Objective: to identify the severity of patients admitted to an emergency trauma. Method: A cross-sectional and retrospective study with 115 trauma patients classified as orange (Manchester System), from June 2013 to July 2014. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation, in addition to the Pearson Chi-square test, One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: from the sample, 81.7% were male with mean age of 39.46±19.71 years. Higher incidence of major trauma (48...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Kshipra Singh, Nicole T Al-Greene, Thomas G Verriere, Lori A Coburn, Mohammad Asim, Daniel P Barry, Margaret M Allaman, Dana M Hardbower, Alberto G Delgado, M Blanca Piazuelo, Bruce A Vallance, Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Solute carrier family 7 member 2 (SLC7A2) is an inducible transporter of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine (L-Arg), which has been implicated in immune responses to pathogens. We assessed the role of SLC7A2 in murine infection with Citrobacter rodentium, an attaching and effacing enteric pathogen that causes colitis. Induction of SLC7A2 was upregulated in colitis tissues, and localized predominantly to colonic epithelial cells. Compared to wild-type mice, Slc7a2-/-mice infected with C. rodentium had improved survival and decreased weight loss, colon weight, and histologic injury; this was associated with decreased colonic macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and Th1 and Th17 cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Monika Frenger, Werner Pitsch, Eike Emrich
In cooperation with the Sports Association of the Palatinate (SBP), a survey was conducted on substance use by recreational and amateur athletes. Distribution of the online questionnaire took place by means of chain-referral sampling, and questions on substance use were presented using the randomized response technique (RRT) to protect the anonymity of respondents and prevent socially desirable answers. The estimated lowest limit for the population share for use of prohibited substances during the last season (4%) and for lifetime use (3...
2016: PloS One
Jan Marro, Catherine Pfefferli, Anne-Sophie de Preux Charles, Thomas Bise, Anna Jaźwińska
Zebrafish heart regeneration depends on cardiac cell proliferation, epicardium activation and transient reparative tissue deposition. The contribution and the regulation of specific collagen types during the regenerative process, however, remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified that the non-fibrillar type XII collagen, which serves as a matrix-bridging component, is expressed in the epicardium of the zebrafish heart, and is boosted after cryoinjury-induced ventricular damage. During heart regeneration, an intense deposition of Collagen XII covers the outer epicardial cap and the interstitial reparative tissue...
2016: PloS One
Chung-Sheng Shi, Tzu-Hsiung Huang, Chin-Kuo Lin, Jhy-Ming Li, Mei-Hsin Chen, Mei-Ling Tsai, Chih-Ching Chang
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure for patients with acute respiratory failure, although it may cause pulmonary vascular inflammation and leakage, leading to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Ly6C+high monocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of VILI. In this study, we investigated whether pulmonary infiltrated Ly6C+high monocytes produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and contribute to VILI. METHODS: A clinically relevant two-hit mouse model of VILI, with intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20 ng/mouse) immediately before high tidal volume (HTV, 20 mL/kg) ventilation (LPS+HTV), was established...
2016: PloS One
Andrew P Lerch, Jesse A Pfammatter, Barbara J Bentz, Kenneth F Raffa
Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time...
2016: PloS One
Carmela Rinaldi, Fabrizio Leigheb, Angelo Di Dio, Kris Vanhaecht, Chiara Donnarumma, Massimiliano Panella
A second victim has been defined as "a healthcare worker involved in an unanticipated adverse patient event, medical error and/or a patient related-injury who becomes victimized in the sense that the worker is traumatized by the event". The aim of the present research study was to assess the "second victim" phenomenon in Italy. Fifty interviews were conducted with different health care professionals previously involved in medical errors. All study participants clearly remembered the event. Support obtained by second victims was poor and inefficient...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Susanne Falkner, Sofia Grade, Leda Dimou, Karl-Klaus Conzelmann, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Magdalena Götz, Mark Hübener
The ability of the adult mammalian brain to compensate for neuronal loss caused by injury or disease is very limited. Transplantation aims to replace lost neurons, but the extent to which new neurons can integrate into existing circuits is unknown. Here, using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging, we show that embryonic neurons transplanted into the visual cortex of adult mice mature into bona fide pyramidal cells with selective pruning of basal dendrites, achieving adult-like densities of dendritic spines and axonal boutons within 4-8 weeks...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Colby Hansen, Dan Cushman, Nicholas Anderson, Wei Chen, Christine Cheng, Shirley D Hon, Man Hung
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric head injuries occur commonly and are being reported in increasing numbers. Balance testing is a key component in the evaluation of suspected concussion, and the balance error scoring system (BESS) is likely the most well-known and widely used measure. To date, normative BESS scores for adults have been reported but not for children. DESIGN: Normative data for BESS scores and modified BESS scores were created in a cohort of healthy children. Potential variables were analyzed as predictors of BESS performance...
November 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Junhui Zhang, Dongxia Zhang, Tiantian Yan, Xupin Jiang, Can Zhang, Liping Zhao, Lingfei Li, Di Tang, Qiong Zhang, Jiezhi Jia, Jiaping Zhang, Yuesheng Huang
The migration of keratinocytes from wound margins plays a critical role in the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Hypoxia occurs immediately after injury and acts as an early stimulus to initiate the healing processes. Although our previous studies have revealed that hypoxia promotes keratinocyte migration, the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we found that BNIP3 expression was up-regulated in hypoxic keratinocytes, and BNIP3 silencing suppressed hypoxia-induced cell migration. Additionally, hypoxia activated the FAK pathway through up-regulation of BNIP3, while FAK inhibition attenuated hypoxic keratinocyte migration...
October 26, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Keryn Walshe, Brian Brophy, Brian Cornish, Roger W Byard
The skeletal remains of eight Australian Aboriginals with healed depressed skull fractures were examined. Male:female ratio 5:3; age range 20-60 yrs. Burial dates by (14) C dating in three cases were 500 years BP (n = 2) and 1300 BP. There were 13 healed depressed skull fractures manifested by shallow indentations of cortical bone and thinning of diploe, with no significant disturbance of the inner skull tables. Nine (69%) were located within 35 mm of the sagittal suture/midline. These lesions represent another acquired feature that might be helpful in suggesting that a skull is from a tribal Aboriginal individual and may be particularly useful if the remains are represented by only fragments of calvarium...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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