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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529152/coevolution-of-patch-type-dependent-emigration-and-patch-type-dependent-immigration
#1
Helene C Weigang
The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528744/locked-in-the-icehouse-evolution-of-an-endemic-epimeria-amphipoda-crustacea-species-flock-on-the-antarctic-shelf
#2
Marie L Verheye, Thierry Backeljau, Cédric d'Udekem d'Acoz
The Antarctic shelf's marine biodiversity has been greatly influenced by the climatic and glacial history of the region. Extreme temperature changes led to the extinction of some lineages, while others adapted and flourished. The amphipod genus Epimeria is an example of the latter, being particularly diverse in the Antarctic region. By reconstructing a time-calibrated phylogeny based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S and H3) markers and including Epimeria species from all oceans, this study provides a temporal and geographical framework for the evolution of Antarctic Epimeria...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526725/phylogeography-and-genetic-structure-of-endemic-acmispon-argophyllus-and-a-dendroideus-fabaceae-across-the-california-channel-islands
#3
Lisa E Wallace, Gregory L Wheeler, Mitchell E McGlaughlin, Gerald Bresowar, Kaius Helenurm
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Taxa inhabiting the California Channel Islands exhibit variation in their degree of isolation, but few studies have considered patterns across the entire archipelago. We studied phylogeography of insular Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus to determine whether infraspecific taxa are genetically divergent and to elucidate patterns of diversification across these islands. METHODS: DNA sequences were collected from nuclear (ADH) and plastid genomes (rpL16, ndhA, psbD-trnT) from >450 samples on the Channel Islands and California...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514630/speciation-and-the-latitudinal-diversity-gradient-insights-from-the-global-distribution-of-endemic-fish
#4
Patrick J Hanly, Gary G Mittelbach, Douglas W Schemske
The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for diversification, and (3) speciation and/or extinction rates have recently received the most attention. Because tropical regions are older and were formerly more widespread, these factors are often intertwined, hampering efforts to distinguish their relative contributions to the LDG...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487260/pinpointing-cryptic-borders-fine-scale-phylogeography-and-genetic-landscape-analysis-of-the-hormogaster-elisae-complex-oligochaeta-hormogastridae
#5
Daniel F Marchán, Rosa Fernández, Irene de Sosa, Darío J Díaz Cosín, Marta Novo
Spatial and temporal aspects of the evolution of cryptic species complexes have received less attention than species delimitation within them. The phylogeography of the cryptic complex Hormogaster elisae (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae) lacks knowledge on several aspects, including the small-scale distribution of its lineages or the palaeogeographic context of their diversification. To shed light on these topics, a dense specimen collection was performed in the center of the Iberian Peninsula - resulting in 28 new H...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486928/patterns-of-divergence-in-fish-species-separated-by-the-isthmus-of-panama
#6
Christine E Thacker
BACKGROUND: The Pleistocene closure of Isthmus of Panama, separating the basins of the Eastern Pacific and the Caribbean Sea, created a unique natural experiment that reveals how marine faunas respond to environmental change. To explore how fishes have been affected by this tectonic event, I compare transisthmian patterns in phylogeny and morphology for geminate lineages in two families, Eleotridae (sleepers) and Apogonidae (cardinalfishes). RESULTS: Time-calibrated phylogenies for these families show different diversification patterns...
May 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480139/dynamics-and-genetic-diversification-of-escherichia-coli-during-experimental-adaptation-to-an-anaerobic-environment
#7
Thomas J Finn, Sonal Shewaramani, Sinead C Leahy, Peter H Janssen, Christina D Moon
BACKGROUND: Many bacteria are facultative anaerobes, and can proliferate in both anoxic and oxic environments. Under anaerobic conditions, fermentation is the primary means of energy generation in contrast to respiration. Furthermore, the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutations that arise during anaerobic growth differ to those under aerobic growth. A long-term selection experiment was undertaken to investigate the genetic changes that underpin how the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, adapts to anaerobic environments...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474762/digest-trait-dependent-diversification-and-its-alternatives
#8
Rosana Zenil-Ferguson, Matthew W Pennell
Species selection - variation in diversification rates associated with variation in species traits - was once a fringe idea, at least among population biologists. But following the development of a novel suite of phylogenetic comparative methods (e.g, BiSSE; Maddison et al. 2007), comparative biologists went looking for evidence of species selection and found it, seemingly everywhere. However, recent studies have shown that state-dependent speciation and extinction models (SSE) were prone to detecting associations between diversification rates with phenotypic traits under a variety of situations where the diversification rates were simulated completely independently of the traits (Maddison and FitzJohn 2015, Rabosky and Goldberg 2015)...
May 5, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472434/lineage-diversity-and-size-disparity-in-musteloidea-testing-patterns-of-adaptive-radiation-using-molecular-and-fossil-based-methods
#9
Chris J Law, Graham J Slater, Rita S Mehta
Adaptive radiation is hypothesized to be a primary mechanism that drives the remarkable species diversity and morphological disparity across the Tree of Life. Tests for adaptive radiation in extant taxa are traditionally estimated from calibrated molecular phylogenies with little input from extinct taxa. With 85 putative species in 33 genera and over 400 described extinct species, the carnivoran superfamily Musteloidea is a prime candidate to investigate patterns of adaptive radiation using both extant- and fossil-based macroevolutionary methods...
May 4, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472046/disentangling-geographical-biotic-and-abiotic-drivers-of-plant-diversity-in-neotropical-ruellia-acanthaceae
#10
Erin A Tripp, Yi-Hsin Erica Tsai
It has long been hypothesized that biotic interactions are important drivers of biodiversity evolution, yet such interactions have been relatively less studied than abiotic factors owing to the inherent complexity in and the number of types of such interactions. Amongst the most prominent of biotic interactions worldwide are those between plants and pollinators. In the Neotropics, the most biodiverse region on Earth, hummingbird and bee pollination have contributed substantially to plant fitness. Using comparative methods, we test the macroevolutionary consequences of bird and bee pollination within a species rich lineage of flowering plants: Ruellia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459834/genome-wide-analysis-of-rice-dehydrin-gene-family-its-evolutionary-conservedness-and-expression-pattern-in-response-to-peg-induced-dehydration-stress
#11
Giti Verma, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Dipali Srivastava, Maria Kidwai, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Sumit Kumar Bag, Mehar Hasan Asif, Debasis Chakrabarty
Abiotic stresses adversely affect cellular homeostasis, impairing overall growth and development of plants. These initial stress signals activate downstream signalling processes, which, subsequently, activate stress-responsive mechanisms to re-establish homeostasis. Dehydrins (DHNs) play an important role in combating dehydration stress. Rice (Oryza sativa L.), which is a paddy crop, is susceptible to drought stress. As drought survival in rice might be viewed as a trait with strong evolutionary selection pressure, we observed DHNs in the light of domestication during the course of evolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458915/the-diversification-of-begomovirus-populations-is-predominantly-driven-by-mutational-dynamics
#12
Alison T M Lima, José C F Silva, Fábio N Silva, Gloria P Castillo-Urquiza, Fabyano F Silva, Yee M Seah, Eduardo S G Mizubuti, Siobain Duffy, F Murilo Zerbini
Begomoviruses (single-stranded DNA plant viruses) are responsible for serious agricultural threats. Begomovirus populations exhibit a high degree of within-host genetic variation and evolve as quickly as RNA viruses. Although the recombination-prone nature of begomoviruses has been extensively demonstrated, the relative contribution of recombination and mutation to the genetic variation of begomovirus populations has not been assessed. We estimated the genetic variability of begomovirus datasets from around the world...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451602/exceeding-pitch-count-recommendations-in-little-league-baseball-increases-the-chance-of-requiring-tommy-john-surgery-as-a-professional-baseball-pitcher
#13
Brandon J Erickson, Peter N Chalmers, Michael J Axe, Anthony A Romeo
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence has suggested a connection between youth pitch counts and subsequent elbow injury. For players within the Little League World Series (LLWS), detailed historical player data are available. Some of these players progress to both professional play and require an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR). PURPOSE: To determine the percentage of LLWS pitchers who proceed to play professional (major or minor league) baseball, the rate of UCLR in former LLWS pitchers who played professional baseball, and the risk to those who exceeded current pitch count recommendations while playing in the LLWS...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449025/reltime-rates-collapses-to-a-strict-clock-when-estimating-the-timeline-of-animal-diversification
#14
Jesus Lozano-Fernandez, Mario Dos Reis, Philip C J Donoghue, Davide Pisani
Establishing an accurate timescale for the history of life is crucial to understand evolutionary processes. To this scope, relaxed molecular clock models implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework are generally used. However, these methods are time consuming. RelTime, a non-Bayesian method implementing a fast, ad hoc, algorithm for relative dating, was developed to overcome the computational inefficiencies of Bayesian software. RelTime was recently used to investigate the origin of animals, and found results consistent with outdated studies from the 1980es and 1990es that recovered metazoans to have a Mesoproterozoic origin (originating approximately 1...
April 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446833/the-effects-of-invasive-pests-and-pathogens-on-strategies-for-forest-diversification
#15
Morag F Macpherson, Adam Kleczkowski, John R Healey, Christopher P Quine, Nick Hanley
Diversification of the tree species composition of production forests is a frequently advocated strategy to increase resilience to pests and pathogens; however, there is a lack of a general framework to analyse the impact of economic and biological conditions on the optimal planting strategy in the presence of tree disease. To meet this need we use a novel bioeconomic model to quantitatively assess the effect of tree disease on the optimal planting proportion of two tree species. We find that diversifying the species composition can reduce the economic loss from disease even when the benefit from the resistant species is small...
April 24, 2017: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444897/aging-asexual-lineages-and-the-evolutionary-maintenance-of-sex
#16
Eddie K H Ho, Aneil F Agrawal
Finite populations of asexual and highly selfing species suffer from a reduced efficacy of selection. Such populations are thought to decline in fitness over time due to accumulating slightly deleterious mutations or failing to adapt to changing conditions. These within-population processes that lead nonrecombining species to extinction may help maintain sex and outcrossing through species level selection. Although inefficient selection is proposed to elevate extinction rates over time, previous models of species selection for sex assumed constant diversification rates...
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439466/arrival-and-diversification-of-mabuyine-skinks-squamata-scincidae-in-the-neotropics-based-on-a-fossil-calibrated-timetree
#17
Anieli Guirro Pereira, Carlos G Schrago
BACKGROUND: The evolution of South American Mabuyinae skinks holds significant biogeographic interest because its sister lineage is distributed across the African continent and adjacent islands. Moreover, at least one insular species, Trachylepis atlantica, has independently reached the New World through transoceanic dispersal. To clarify the evolutionary history of both Neotropical lineages, this study aimed to infer an updated timescale using the largest species and gene sampling dataset ever assembled for this group...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437487/crop-and-varietal-diversification-of-rainfed-rice-based-cropping-systems-for-higher-productivity-and-profitability-in-eastern-india
#18
B Lal, Priyanka Gautam, B B Panda, R Raja, Teekam Singh, R Tripathi, M Shahid, A K Nayak
Rice-rice system and rice fallows are no longer productive in Southeast Asia. Crop and varietal diversification of the rice based cropping systems may improve the productivity and profitability of the systems. Diversification is also a viable option to mitigate the risk of climate change. In Eastern India, farmers cultivate rice during rainy season (June-September) and land leftovers fallow after rice harvest in the post-rainy season (November-May) due to lack of sufficient rainfall or irrigation amenities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431159/likelihood-of-tree-topologies-with-fossils-and-diversification-rate-estimation
#19
Gilles Didier, Marine Fau, Michel Laurin
Since the diversification process cannot be directly observed at the human scale, it has to be studied from the information available, namely the extant taxa and the fossil record. In this sense, phylogenetic trees including both extant taxa and fossils are the most complete representations of the diversification process that one can get. Such phylogenetic trees can be reconstructed from molecular and morphological data, to some extent. Among the temporal information of such phylogenetic trees, fossil ages are by far the most precisely known (divergence times are inferences calibrated mostly with fossils)...
April 18, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430886/intrinsic-protein-disorder-reduces-small-scale-gene-duplicability
#20
Sanghita Banerjee, Felix Feyertag, David Alvarez-Ponce
Whereas the rate of gene duplication is relatively high, only certain duplications survive the filter of natural selection and can contribute to genome evolution. However, the reasons why certain genes can be retained after duplication whereas others cannot remain largely unknown. Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), whose structures fluctuate between alternative conformational states. Due to their high flexibility, IDRs often enable protein-protein interactions and are the target of post-translational modifications...
April 19, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
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