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Diversification rate

François Vasseur, Moises Exposito-Alonso, Oscar J Ayala-Garay, George Wang, Brian J Enquist, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle, Detlef Weigel
Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology; however, variation and covariation in plant traits may be governed, at least in part, by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can be expressed as mathematical functions of plant size with near-constant allometric scaling exponents across species...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Isaac Winkler, Sonja J Scheffer, Matthew L Lewis, Kristina J Ottens, Andrew P Rasmussen, Géssica A Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A Condon, Andrew A Forbes
BACKGROUND: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Diego Hojsgaard
Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced) and rare (unreduced) gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
John S S Denton
The mesopelagic (midwater) and deep-sea environments together comprise over 90% of the volume of the world ocean [1] and provide services that are only recently becoming recognized [2]. One of the most significant of these services relates to midwater fish biomass, recently estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than the current worldwide fisheries catch [3, 4]. Calls to exploit midwater fish biomass have increased despite warnings about the unknown recovery potential of such organisms [2] and despite existing data suggesting that deep-sea fishes could be classified as endangered [5]...
March 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
David A Prieto-Torres, Andrés M Cuervo, Elisa Bonaccorso
We studied the phylogeography and plumage variation of the Russet-crowned Warbler (Myiothlypis coronata), from Venezuela to Bolivia, with focus on populations from Ecuador and northern Peru. We analyzed sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, geographic distributions, as well as photographs of specimens deposited at museum collections. Phylogenetic analyses identified three major lineages formed by populations from: Venezuela and Colombia (M. c. regulus), Ecuador and northern Peru (M. elata, M. castaneiceps, M...
2018: PloS One
Angel Fernandez I Marti, Christopher A Saski, George A Manganaris, Ksenija Gasic, Carlos H Crisosto
It has recently been described that the Japanese plum "Santa Rosa" bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fabien L Condamine
Mountainous areas contain a substantial part of the world species richness, but the evolutionary origins and diversification of this biodiversity remain elusive. Diversification may result from differences in clade age (longer time to diversify), net diversification rates (faster speciation rate) or carrying capacities (number of niches). The likelihood of these macroevolutionary scenarios was assessed for six clades of Apollo swallowtails ( Parnassius ) that diversified mainly in the Himalayan-Tibetan region...
March 2018: Biology Letters
Mikael Pontarp, Owen L Petchey
Much of life's diversity has arisen through ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations, but the mechanistic underpinning of such diversification is not fully understood. Competition and predation can affect adaptive radiations, but contrasting theoretical and empirical results show that they can both promote and interrupt diversification. A mechanistic understanding of the link between microevolutionary processes and macroevolutionary patterns is thus needed, especially in trophic communities. Here, we use a trait-based eco-evolutionary model to investigate the mechanisms linking competition, predation and adaptive radiations...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Demetrios Moris, Georgia-Sofia Karachaliou, Timothy M Pawlik, Benedict Nwomeh
General surgery is one of the more popular career choices among medical students worldwide. An alarming one in five general surgery residents, however, abandon residency training-a rate that is much higher than most other medical and surgical specialities. We believe that additional measures are needed to decrease attrition and increase "grit" among house staff. Specifically, the diversification of the surgery training experience to include global and rural surgery may help mitigate burnout among surgical house staff...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Yong-Xin Wang, Zhi-Wei Liu, Zhi-Jun Wu, Hui Li, Wen-Li Wang, Xin Cui, Jing Zhuang
GRAS proteins are important transcription factors that play multifarious roles in regulating the growth and development as well as stress responses of plants. Tea plant is an economically important leaf -type beverage crop. Information concerning GRAS family transcription factors in tea plant is insufficient. In this study, 52 CsGRAS genes encoding GRAS proteins were identified from tea plant genome database. Phylogenetic analysis of the identified GRAS proteins from tea plant, Arabidopsis, and rice divided these proteins into at least 13 subgroups...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rebecca L Stubbs, Ryan A Folk, Chun-Lei Xiang, Douglas E Soltis, Nico Cellinese
Disjunct distributions have intrigued biologists for centuries. Investigating these biogeographic patterns provides insight into speciation and biodiversity at multiple spatial and phylogenetic scales. Some disjunctions have been intensively studied, yet others have been largely overlooked and remain poorly understood. Among the lesser-known disjunction patterns is that between the mountain ranges of western North America. Flora and fauna endemic to the mountains of this region provide important systems for investigating causes and results of disjunctions, given the relatively recent geological formation of this area and the intense climatic fluctuations that have occurred since its formation...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Michael Foote, Roger A Cooper, James S Crampton, Peter M Sadler
The extent to which biological diversity affects rates of diversification is central to understanding macroevolutionary dynamics, yet no consensus has emerged on the importance of diversity-dependence of evolutionary rates. Here, we analyse the species-level fossil record of early Palaeozoic graptoloids, documented with high temporal resolution, to test directly whether rates of diversification were influenced by levels of standing diversity within this major clade of marine zooplankton. To circumvent the statistical regression-to-the-mean artefact, whereby higher- and lower-than-average values of diversity tend to be followed by negative and positive diversification rates, we construct a non-parametric, empirically scaled, diversity-independent null model by randomizing the observed diversification rates with respect to time...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jana C Vamosi, Susana Magallón, Itay Mayrose, Sarah P Otto, Hervé Sauquet
Species diversity is remarkably unevenly distributed among flowering plant lineages. Despite a growing toolbox of research methods, the reasons underlying this patchy pattern have continued to perplex plant biologists for the past two decades. In this review, we examine the present understanding of transitions in flowering plant evolution that have been proposed to influence speciation and extinction. In particular, ploidy changes, transitions between tropical and nontropical biomes, and shifts in floral form have received attention and have offered some surprises in terms of which factors influence speciation and extinction rates...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Marisol De-la-Mora, Daniel Piñero, Ken Oyama, Brian Farrell, Susana Magallón, Juan Núñez-Farfán
The family Curculionidae (Coleoptera), the "true" weevils, have diversified tightly linked to the evolution of flowering plants. Here, we aim to assess diversification at a lower taxonomic level. We analyze the evolution of the genus Trichobaris in association with their host plants. Trichobaris comprises eight to thirteen species; their larvae feed inside the fruits of Datura spp. or inside the stem of wild and cultivated species of Solanaceae, such as potato, tobacco and tomato. We ask the following questions: 1) does the rostrum of Trichobaris species evolve according to the plant tissue used to oviposit, i...
February 24, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Frederic Legendre, Fabien L Condamine
Eusociality, Darwin's special difficulty, has been widely investigated but remains a topic of great debate in organismal biology. Eusocial species challenge existing theories, and the impact of highly integrated societies on diversification dynamics is controversial with opposing assertions and hypotheses in the literature. Here, using phylogenetic approaches in termites - the first group that has evolved eusociality - we assessed the fundamental prediction that eusocial lineages have higher diversification rates than non-eusocial clades...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Biology
Eric Duchaud, Tatiana Rochat, Christophe Habib, Paul Barbier, Valentin Loux, Cyprien Guérin, Inger Dalsgaard, Lone Madsen, Hanne Nilsen, Krister Sundell, Tom Wiklund, Nicole Strepparava, Thomas Wahli, Greta Caburlotto, Amedeo Manfrin, Gregory D Wiens, Erina Fujiwara-Nagata, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera, Jean-François Bernardet, Pierre Nicolas
Flavobacterium psychrophilum , the etiological agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome and bacterial cold-water disease in salmonid fish, is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide. In this study, the genomic diversity of the F. psychrophilum species is analyzed using a set of 41 genomes, including 30 newly sequenced isolates. These were selected on the basis of available MLST data with the two-fold objective of maximizing the coverage of the species diversity and of allowing a focus on the main clonal complex (CC-ST10) infecting farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) worldwide...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fernando Omar Zuloaga, Diego Leonel Salariato, Amalia Scataglini
Panicum sensu stricto is a genus of grasses (Poaceae) with nearly, according to this study, 163 species distributed worldwide. This genus is included in the subtribe Panicinae together with Louisiella, the latter with 2 species. Panicum and subtribe Panicinae are characterized by including annual or perennial taxa with open and lax panicles, and spikelets with the lower glume reduced; all taxa also share a basic chromosome number of x = 9 and a Kranz leaf blade anatomy typical of the NAD-me subtype photosynthetic pathway...
2018: PloS One
Ignacio Quintero, Walter Jetz
Mountain ranges harbour exceptionally high biodiversity, which is now under threat from rapid environmental change. However, despite decades of effort, the limited availability of data and analytical tools has prevented a robust and truly global characterization of elevational biodiversity gradients and their evolutionary origins. This has hampered a general understanding of the processes involved in the assembly and maintenance of montane communities. Here we show that a worldwide mid-elevation peak in bird richness is driven by wide-ranging species and disappears when we use a subsampling procedure that ensures even species representation in space and facilitates evolutionary interpretation...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Tingting Duan, Xiaofang Deng, Shi Chen, Zhonglai Luo, Zhongtao Zhao, TieYao Tu, Nguyen Sinh Khang, Sylvain G Razafimandimbison, Dianxiang Zhang
Dioecy is a rare sexual system that is thought to represent an "evolutionary dead end". While many studies have addressed the evolution of dioecy and/or its relationship with the evolution of the woody habit, few have explored the relationship between dioecy and climbing habit, and their effects on diversification rates. Here, we study the evolution of sexual systems and growth habit in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) using a robust phylogeny of the genus based on eight plastid regions and a broad sampling of taxa (92 of the 132 species were sampled)...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Marcelo Mendes Haro, Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira, Andrew Wilby
Arthropod community composition in agricultural landscapes is dependent on habitat characteristics, such as plant composition, landscape homogeneity and the presence of key resources, which are usually absent in monocultures. Manipulating agroecosystems through the insertion of in-field floral resources is a useful technique to reduce the deleterious effects of habitat simplification. Food web analysis can clarify how the community reacts to the presence of floral resources which favour ecosystem services such as biological control of pest species...
2018: PloS One
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