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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530191/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-bovine-skin-gelatin-and-its-antibacterial-effect-on-clinical-bacterial-isolates
#1
Hosam I Salaheldin, Meshal H K Almalki, Gamal E H Osman
Nanoparticles are being increasingly used in day-to-day life. Therefore, concerns have been raised regarding their interactions with the surrounding environment. This study focused on a simple green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in an autoclave at 15 psi (103 kPa) and 121°C. An aqueous solution of AgNO3 as a precursor of Ag-NPs and gelatin (type B) reducing and/or stabilizing (capping) agent were used. The effect of various AgNO3 concentrations of certain gelatin concentration and various gelatin concentrations at constant AgNO3 concentration, and autoclaving time, was studied...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527594/whole-globe-biomechanics-using-high-field-mri
#2
Andrew P Voorhees, Leon C Ho, Ning-Jiun Jan, Huong Tran, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin Chan, Ian A Sigal
The eye is a complex structure composed of several interconnected tissues acting together, across the whole globe, to resist deformation due to intraocular pressure (IOP). However, most work in the ocular biomechanics field only examines the response to IOP over smaller regions of the eye. We used high-field MRI to measure IOP induced ocular displacements and deformations over the whole globe. Seven sheep eyes were obtained from a local abattoir and imaged within 48 h using MRI at multiple levels of IOP. IOP was controlled with a gravity perfusion system and a cannula inserted into the anterior chamber...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527378/life-cycle-assessment-of-superheated-steam-drying-technology-as-a-novel-cow-manure-management-method
#3
Mohammadmatin Hanifzadeh, Zahra Nabati, Pairote Longka, Pomthong Malakul, Defne Apul, Dong-Shik Kim
Common methods of managing dairy manure are directly applying it to the farm field as a fertilizer. For direct application without any type of treatment, the majority of nutrients in the manure run off to the local river and lake during precipitation periods. The algae bloom is one of the environmental outcomes due to eutrophication of the lakes, which may jeopardize the quality of drinking water. In this study, superheated steam drying (SSD) technology is investigated as an alternative manure management method...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527312/low-energy-electron-potentiometry
#4
Johannes Jobst, Jaap Kautz, Maria Mytiliniou, Rudolf M Tromp, Sense Jan van der Molen
In a lot of systems, charge transport is governed by local features rather than being a global property as suggested by extracting a single resistance value. Consequently, techniques that resolve local structure in the electronic potential are crucial for a detailed understanding of electronic transport in realistic devices. Recently, we have introduced a new potentiometry method based on low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) that utilizes characteristic features in the reflectivity spectra of layered materials [1]...
May 13, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#5
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524727/e-cadherin-%C3%AE-catenin-complex-a-target-for-anticancer-and-antimetastasis-plants-plant-derived-compounds
#6
Majid Tafrihi, Roohollah Nakhaei Sistani
Plants reputed to have cancer-inhibiting potential and putative active components derived from those plants have emerged as an exciting new field in cancer study. Some of these compounds have cancer-inhibiting potential in different clinical staging levels, especially metastasis. A few of them which stabilize cell-cell adhesions are controversial topics. This review article introduces some effective herbal compounds that target E-cadherin/β-catenin protein complex. In this article, at first, we briefly review the structure and function of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, Wnt signaling pathway, and its target genes...
May 19, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523911/cup-shaped-nanoantenna-arrays-for-zeptoliter-volume-biochemistry-and-plasmonic-sensing-in-the-visible-wavelengths-range
#7
Rokas Drevinskas, Tomas Rakickas, Algirdas Selskis, Lorenzo Rosa, Ramunas Valiokas
Although three-dimensional shaping of metallic nanostructures is an important strategy for control and manipulation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), its implementation in high-throughput, on-chip fabrication of plasmonic devices remains to be challenging. Here we demonstrate nanocontact-based large area fabrication of a novel, LSPR-active Au architecture consisting of periodic arrays of reduced symmetry nanoantennas having sub-50 nm, out-of-plane features. Namely, by combining nanosphere and molecular self-assembly processes we have patterned evaporated polycrystalline Au films for chemical etching of nanocups with controlled aspect ratios (an outer diameter d=100 nm, void volumes of 18 or 39 zeptoliters)...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523580/chemical-characterization-of-surface-snow-in-istanbul-nw-turkey-and-their-association-with-atmospheric-circulations
#8
Asli Baysal, Hakki Baltaci, Nil Ozbek, Orhan Destanoglu, Gul Sirin Ustabasi, Gulcin Gumus
The understanding of the impurities in natural snow is important in realizing its atmospheric quality, soil characteristics, and the pollution caused to the environment. Knowledge of the occurrence of major ions and trace metals in the snow in the megacity of Istanbul is very limited. This manuscript attempts to understand the origin of major soluble ions (fluoride, acetate, formate, chlorite, chloride, nitrite, chlorate, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and perchlorate) and some trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu) in winter surface snow, collected in Istanbul, Turkey...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522878/the-photodissociation-of-hcn-and-hnc-effects-on-the-hnc-hcn-abundance-ratio-in-the-interstellar-medium
#9
Alfredo Aguado, Octavio Roncero, Alexandre Zanchet, Marcelino Agúndez, José Cernicharo
The impact of the photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers is analyzed in different astrophysical environments. For this purpose, the individual photodissociation cross section of HCN and HNC isomers have been calculated in the 7-13.6 eV photon energy range for a temperature of 10 K. These calculations are based on the ab initio calculation of three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 21 lower electronic states. The cross sections are then obtained using a quantum wave packet calculation of the rotational transitions needed to simulate a rotational temperature of 10 K...
March 20, 2017: Astrophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522277/-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy
#10
S Bockel, D Antoni, É Deutsch, F Mornex
Radiotherapy, primarily known for its cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells, via the induction of DNA damages, has the ability to induce a systemic antitumoral response. By an immunologic cell death, tumor cells exposed to radiation release a large amount of neoantigenes and pro-inflammatory mediators, acting as an in situ vaccine, resulting in an tumor regression within the primary irradiated site, but also in the distant "out of field" secondary tumors. However, this phenomenon is extremly rare with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that the radiation-induced antitumor immunity is not sufficient for overcoming the tumor's and its microenvironnement immunosuppressing effect...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521569/exploring-the-biochemistry-of-the-prenylome-and-its-role-in-disease-through-proteomics-progress-and-potential
#11
Maura Brioschi, Alma Martinez Fernandez, Cristina Banfi
Protein prenylation is a ubiquitous covalent post-translational modification characterized by the addition of farnesyl or geranylgeranyl isoprenoid groups to a cysteine residue located near the carboxyl terminal of a protein. It is essential for the proper localization and cellular activity of numerous proteins, including Ras family GTPases and G-proteins. In addition to its roles in cellular physiology, the prenylation process has important implications in human diseases and in the recent years, it has become attractive target of inhibitors with therapeutic potential...
May 18, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517033/high-throughput-sequencing-of-transposable-element-insertions-suggests-adaptive-evolution-of-the-invasive-asian-tiger-mosquito-towards-temperate-environments
#12
Clément Goubert, Hélène Henri, Guillaume Minard, Claire Valiente Moro, Patrick Mavingui, Cristina Vieira, Matthieu Boulesteix
Invasive species represent unique opportunities to evaluate the role of local adaptation during colonization of new environments. Among these species, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a threatening vector of several human viral diseases, including dengue and chikungunya, and raises concerns about the Zika fever. Its broad presence in both temperate and tropical environments has been considered the reflection of great "ecological plasticity". However, no study has been conducted to assess the role of adaptive evolution in the ecological success of Ae...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516985/gate-controlled-heat-generation-in-zno-nanowire-fets
#13
Andrea Pescaglini, Subhajit Biswas, Davide Cammi, Carsten Ronning, Justin D Holmes, Daniela Iacopino
Nanoscale heating production using nanowires has been shown to be particularly attractive for a number of applications including nanostructure growth, localized doping, transparent heating and sensing. However, all proof-of-concept devices proposed so far relied on the use of highly conductive nanomaterials, typically metals or highly doped semiconductors. In this article, we demonstrate a novel nanoheater architecture based on a single semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistor (NW-FET). Nominally undoped ZnO nanowires were incorporated into three-terminal devices whereby control of the nanowire temperature at a given source-drain bias was achieved by additional charge carriers capacitatively induced via the third gate electrode...
May 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516895/effect-of-magnetic-field-on-electronic-transport-in-a-bilayer-graphene-nanomesh
#14
Yanping Liu, Xiang Liu, Yanjing Zhang, Qinglin Xia, Jun He
We report on the observation of an unexpected sudden increase of resistance in bilayer graphene nanomesh (GNM) in the temperature range 270 ∼ 300 K that is strongly dependent on the magnetic field strength. We conjecture that the sharp increase in resistance originates from ripple scattering as induced by substrate roughness. The observed result is evidence of extrinsic corrugation in bilayer GNM as an additional scattering source that contributes to significant resistance. The observed weak localization in the GNM indicates intervalley scattering induced by lattice defects acts as resonant scatterers attribute to the high D peak...
June 9, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513470/phase-diagram-of-the-shastry-sutherland-kondo-lattice-model-with-classical-localized-spins-a-variational-calculation-study
#15
Munir Shahzad, Pinaki Sengupta
We study the Kondo lattice Shastry-Sutherland model with additional Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya~(DM) interactions, exploring the possible magnetic phases in its multi-dimensional parameter space. Treating the local moments as classical spins and using a variational ansatz, we identify the parameter ranges over which various common magnetic orderings are potentially stabilized. Our results reveal that the competing interactions result in a heightened susceptibility towards a wide range of spin configurations including longitudinal ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order, coplanar flux configurations and most interestingly, multiple non-coplanar configurations including a novel canted flux state as the different Hamiltonian parameters like electron density, interaction strengths and degree of frustration are varied...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507824/non-invasive-radiofrequency-field-treatment-to-produce-hepatic-hyperthermia-efficacy-and-safety-in-swine
#16
Jason C Ho, Lam Nguyen, Justin J Law, Matthew J Ware, V Keshishian, N C Lara, Trac Nguyen, Steven A Curley, Stuart J Corr
The Kanzius non-invasive radio-frequency hyperthermia system (KNiRFH) has been investigated as a treatment option for hepatic hyperthermia cancer therapy. The treatment involves exposing the patient to an external high-power RF (13.56 MHz) electric field, whereby the propagating waves penetrate deep into the tumor causing targeted heating based on differential tissue dielectric properties. However, a comprehensive examination of the Kanzius system alongside any associated toxicities and its ability to induce hepatic hyperthermia in larger animal models, such as swine, are the subjects of the work herein...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507160/emergent-magnetism-at-transition-metal-nanocarbon-interfaces
#17
Fatma Al Ma'Mari, Matthew Rogers, Shoug Alghamdi, Timothy Moorsom, Stephen Lee, Thomas Prokscha, Hubertus Luetkens, Manuel Valvidares, Gilberto Teobaldi, Machiel Flokstra, Rhea Stewart, Pierluigi Gargiani, Mannan Ali, Gavin Burnell, B J Hickey, Oscar Cespedes
Charge transfer at metallo-molecular interfaces may be used to design multifunctional hybrids with an emergent magnetization that may offer an eco-friendly and tunable alternative to conventional magnets and devices. Here, we investigate the origin of the magnetism arising at these interfaces by using different techniques to probe 3d and 5d metal films such as Sc, Mn, Cu, and Pt in contact with fullerenes and rf-sputtered carbon layers. These systems exhibit small anisotropy and coercivity together with a high Curie point...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506117/efficiency-of-locally-designed-pilot-scale-trickling-biofilter-tbf-system-in-natural-environment-for-the-treatment-of-domestic-wastewater
#18
Tabassum Rasool, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Rahat Ullah, Safia Ahmed
In the present study, a cost effective and simple stone media pilot scale trickling biofilter (TBF) was designed, constructed and operated in continuous recirculation mode for wastewater treatment with a hydraulic flow rate of 1.2 L/min (Q = 0.072 m(3)/hr) and hydraulic loading (Q/A) of 0.147 m(3)/day for 15 weeks at temperature range of 14.5-36°C. A substantial reduction in the average concentration of different pollution indicators, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85.6%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) (85...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504196/human-subthalamic-nucleus-automatic-auditory-change-detection-as-a-basis-for-action-selection
#19
Marcus Heldmann, Thomas F Münte, Lejla Paracka, Frederike Beyer, Norbert Brüggemann, Assel Saryyeva, Dirk Rasche, Joachim K Krauss, Volker M Tronnier
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) shapes motor behavior and is important for the initiation and termination of movements. Here we ask whether the STN takes aggregated sensory information into account, in order to exert this function. To this end, local field potentials (LFP) were recorded in eight patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and receiving deep-brain stimulation of the STN bilaterally. Bipolar recordings were obtained postoperatively from the externalized electrode leads. Patients were passively exposed to trains of auditory stimuli containing global deviants, local deviants or combined global/local deviants...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501498/the-role-of-sleep-in-the-plasticity-of-the-olfactory-system
#20
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
The central olfactory system mediates a variety of odor-guided behaviors crucial for maintenance of animal life. The olfactory neural circuit must be highly plastic to ensure that it responds appropriately to changing odor circumstances. Recent studies have revealed that the processing of odor information changes drastically during waking and sleep and that neural activity during sleep plays pivotal roles in the structural reorganization and functional plasticity of the olfactory system. While olfactory information from the external world is efficiently transferred to the olfactory cortex (OC) via the olfactory bulb (OB) during waking, this information flow is attenuated during slow-wave sleep: during slow-wave sleep, the OC neurons exhibit synchronous discharges without odor input under the entrainment of sharp waves in the local field potential recording...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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