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Local field potential

Magdalena Syrkiewicz-S Witała, Piotr Romaniuk, Agnieszka Strzelecka, Katarzyna Lar, Tomasz Holecki
Purpose: To investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion. Methodology: 14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed. Findings: The number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Zahra Rostami, Sajad Jafari
Complex anatomical and physiological structure of an excitable tissue (e.g., cardiac tissue) in the body can represent different electrical activities through normal or abnormal behavior. Abnormalities of the excitable tissue coming from different biological reasons can lead to formation of some defects. Such defects can cause some successive waves that may end up to some additional reorganizing beating behaviors like spiral waves or target waves. In this study, formation of defects and the resulting emitted waves in an excitable tissue are investigated...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Xin Liu, Yichen Lu, Ege Iseri, Yuhan Shi, Duygu Kuzum
Electrophysiology is a decades-old technique widely used for monitoring activity of individual neurons and local field potentials. Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience studies by offering selective and fast control of targeted neurons and neuron populations. The combination of these two techniques is crucial for causal investigation of neural circuits and understanding their functional connectivity. However, electrical artifacts generated by light stimulation interfere with neural recordings and hinder the development of compact closed-loop systems for precise control of neural activity...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Serena Monti, Roberto Pacelli, Laura Cella, Giuseppe Palma
Radiation therapy (RT) technological advances call for a comprehensive reconsideration of the definition of dose features leading to radiation induced morbidity (RIM). In this context, the voxel-based approach (VBA) to dose distribution analysis in RT offers a radically new philosophy to evaluate local dose response patterns, as an alternative to dose-volume-histograms for identifying dose sensitive regions of normal tissue. The VBA relies on mapping patient dose distributions into a single reference case anatomy which serves as anchor for local dosimetric evaluations...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ján Antolík, Andrew P Davison
Two trends have been unfolding in computational neuroscience during the last decade. First, a shift of focus to increasingly complex and heterogeneous neural network models, with a concomitant increase in the level of collaboration within the field (whether direct or in the form of building on top of existing tools and results). Second, a general trend in science toward more open communication, both internally, with other potential scientific collaborators, and externally, with the wider public. This multi-faceted development toward more integrative approaches and more intense communication within and outside of the field poses major new challenges for modelers, as currently there is a severe lack of tools to help with automatic communication and sharing of all aspects of a simulation workflow to the rest of the community...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Jianming Lu, Oleksandr Zheliuk, Qihong Chen, Inge Leermakers, Nigel E Hussey, Uli Zeitler, Jianting Ye
Many recent studies show that superconductivity not only exists in atomically thin monolayers but can exhibit enhanced properties such as a higher transition temperature and a stronger critical field. Nevertheless, besides being unstable in air, the weak tunability in these intrinsically metallic monolayers has limited the exploration of monolayer superconductivity, hindering their potential in electronic applications (e.g., superconductor-semiconductor hybrid devices). Here we show that using field effect gating, we can induce superconductivity in monolayer WS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition, a typical ambient-stable semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD), and we are able to access a complete set of competing electronic phases over an unprecedented doping range from band insulator, superconductor, to a reentrant insulator at high doping...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
N A Wardrop, W C Jochem, T J Bird, H R Chamberlain, D Clarke, D Kerr, L Bengtsson, S Juran, V Seaman, A J Tatem
Population numbers at local levels are fundamental data for many applications, including the delivery and planning of services, election preparation, and response to disasters. In resource-poor settings, recent and reliable demographic data at subnational scales can often be lacking. National population and housing census data can be outdated, inaccurate, or missing key groups or areas, while registry data are generally lacking or incomplete. Moreover, at local scales accurate boundary data are often limited, and high rates of migration and urban growth make existing data quickly outdated...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jin Qu, Xin Zhao, Peter X Ma, Baolin Guo
Injectable hydrogels with multistimuli responsiveness to electrical field and pH as a drug delivery system have been rarely reported. Herein, we developed a series of injectable conductive hydrogels as "smart" drug carrier with the properties of electro-responsiveness, pH-sensitivity, and inherent antibacterial activity. The hydrogels were prepared by mixing chitosan-graft-polyaniline (CP) copolymer and oxidized dextran (OD) as a cross-linker. The chemical structures, morphologies, electrochemical property, swelling ratio, conductivity, rheological property, in vitro and in vivo biodegradation, and gelation time of hydrogels were characterized...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Michael G Walsh, Cameron Webb
BACKGROUND: The current understanding of the landscape epidemiology of Ross River virus (RRV), Australia's most common arthropod-borne pathogen, is fragmented due to gaps in surveillance programs and the relatively narrow focus of the research conducted to date. This leaves public health agencies with an incomplete understanding of the spectrum of infection risk across the diverse geography of the Australian continent. The current investigation sought to assess the risk of RRV epidemics based on abiotic and biotic landscape features in anthropogenic landscapes, with a particular focus on the influence of water and wildlife hosts...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sarah Schnitzler, Christian Johannes Hartmann, Stefan Jun Groiss, Lars Wojtecki, Alfons Schnitzler, Jan Vesper, Jan Hirschmann
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >150 Hz), known to occur in basal ganglia nuclei, can be observed in the thalamus. METHODS: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials from the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) of the thalamus in patients with Essential Tremor (N = 16), Parkinsonian Tremor (3), Holmes Tremor (2) and Dystonic Tremor (1) during implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation. Recordings were performed with up to five micro/macro-electrodes that were simultaneously advanced to the stereotactic target...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Pia Lau, Andreas Wollbrink, Robert Wunderlich, Alva Engell, Alwina Löhe, Markus Junghöfer, Christo Pantev
Tinnitus is a prevalent phenomenon and bothersome for people affected by it. Its occurrence and maintenance have a clear neuroscientific tie and one aspect are differences in the neuronal oscillatory pattern, especially in auditory cortical areas. As studies in this field come to different results, the aim of this study was to analyze a large number of participants to achieve more stable results. Furthermore, we expanded our analysis to two variables of potential influence, namely being a novice to neuroscientific measurements and the exclusion of psychological comorbidities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel Ramirez-Gordillo, Ming Ma, Diego Restrepo
Neuromodulators such as noradrenaline appear to play a crucial role in learning and memory. The goal of this study was to determine the role of norepinephrine in representation of odorant identity and value by olfactory bulb oscillations in an olfactory learning task. We wanted to determine whether the different bandwidths of olfactory bulb oscillations encode information involved in associating the odor with the value, and whether norepinephrine is involved in modulating this association. To this end mice expressing halorhodopsin under the dopamine-beta-hydrolase (DBH) promoter received an optetrode implant targeted to the olfactory bulb...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Julia C Quindlen-Hotek, Victor H Barocas
The Pacinian corpuscle (PC) is the cutaneous mechanoreceptor responsible for sensation of high-frequency (20-1000 Hz) vibrations. PCs lie deep within the skin, often in multicorpuscle clusters with overlapping receptive fields. We developed a finite-element mechanical model of one or two PCs embedded within human skin, coupled to a multiphysics PC model to simulate action potentials elicited by each PC. A vibration was applied to the skin surface, and the resulting mechanical signal was analyzed using two metrics: the deformation amplitude ratio ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and the phase shift of the vibration ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] between the stimulus and the PC...
March 17, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Keri E Lunsford, Milind Javle, Kirk Heyne, Rachna T Shroff, Reham Abdel-Wahab, Nakul Gupta, Constance M Mobley, Ashish Saharia, David W Victor, Duc T Nguyen, Edward A Graviss, Ahmed O Kaseb, Robert S McFadden, Thomas A Aloia, Claudius Conrad, Xian C Li, Howard P Monsour, A Osama Gaber, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, R Mark Ghobrial
BACKGROUND: At present, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a contraindication for liver transplantation. However, previous studies in this field did not preselect patients on the basis of chemosensitivity or disease trajectory after neoadjuvant therapy. Experience with hilar cholangiocarcinoma has indicated that neoadjuvant therapy followed by liver transplantation in patients without disease progression results in a long-term survival benefit. We aimed to establish the potential efficacy of liver transplantation in patients with biologically responsive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who have had sustained tumour stability or regression with neoadjuvant therapy...
March 13, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Aldo Berti, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
A case of an extremely healthy, active, 96-year-old patient, nonsmoker, is reviewed. He was initially treated for left V1, V2, and V3 trigeminal neuralgia in 2001, at age 80, with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with a dose of 80 Gy to the left retrogasserian trigeminal nerve. He remained asymptomatic for nine years until his trigeminal pain recurred in 2010. He was first treated medically but was intolerant to increasing doses of carbamazepine and gabapentin. He underwent a second SRS in 2012 with a dose of 65...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Justine Marchand, Parisa Heydarizadeh, Benoît Schoefs, Cornelia Spetea
Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast subcompartments. In secondarily evolved algae, three or four envelope membranes surround the chloroplast, making more complex the exchange of ions and metabolites...
March 14, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Dror Cohen, Bruno van Swinderen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Hierarchically organized brains communicate through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. In mammals, FF and FB are mediated by higher and lower frequencies during wakefulness. FB is preferentially impaired by general anesthetics in multiple mammalian species. This suggests FB serves critical functions in waking brains. The brain of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is also hierarchically organized, but the presence of FB in these brains is not established. Here, we studied FB in the fly brain, by simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) from low-order peripheral structures and higher-order central structures...
January 2018: ENeuro
Nguyen Van Diep, Masuo Sueyoshi, Junzo Norimine, Takuya Hirai, Ohnmar Myint, Angeline Ping Ping Teh, Uda Zahli Izzati, Naoyuki Fuke, Ryoji Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Since late 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has reemerged in Japan and caused severe economic losses to the swine industry. Although PEDV vaccines have been used widely, the disease has swept rapidly across the county, and is commonly observed in PED-vaccinated farms, and has recurred in domestic herds. To better understand PEDVs responsible for the reemerging outbreaks in Japan, full-length spike (S), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) genes of 45 PEDVs collected in Japan during 2013-2016, were sequenced and analyzed...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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