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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332087/adaptive-brain-stimulation-for-movement-disorders
#1
Martijn Beudel, Hayriye Cagnan, Simon Little
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has markedly changed how we treat movement disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET). However, despite its demonstrable clinical benefit, DBS is often limited by side effects and partial efficacy. These limitations may be due in part to the fact that DBS interferes with both pathological and physiological neural activities. DBS could, therefore, be potentially improved were it applied selectively and only at times of enhanced pathological activity...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#2
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330326/loss-of-balance-between-striatal-feedforward-inhibition-and-corticostriatal-excitation-leads-to-tremor
#3
Yael Oran, Izhar Bar-Gad
Fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert powerful inhibitory control over the striatum and are hypothesized to balance the massive excitatory cortical and thalamic input to this structure. We recorded neuronal activity in the dorsolateral striatum and globus pallidus (GP) concurrently with the detailed movement kinematics of freely behaving female rats prior to and following selective inhibition of FSI activity using IEM-1460 microinjections. The inhibition led to the appearance of episodic rest tremor in the body part that depended on the somatotopic location of the injection within the striatum...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329375/heterogeneous-redistribution-of-facial-subcategory-information-within-and-outside-the-face-selective-domain-in-primate-inferior-temporal-cortex
#4
Naohisa Miyakawa, Kei Majima, Hirohito Sawahata, Keisuke Kawasaki, Takeshi Matsuo, Naoki Kotake, Takafumi Suzuki, Yukiyasu Kamitani, Isao Hasegawa
The inferior temporal cortex (ITC) contains neurons selective to multiple levels of visual categories. However, the mechanisms by which these neurons collectively construct hierarchical category percepts remain unclear. By comparing decoding accuracy with simultaneously acquired electrocorticogram (ECoG), local field potentials (LFPs), and multi-unit activity in the macaque ITC, we show that low-frequency LFPs/ECoG in the early evoked visual response phase contain sufficient coarse category (e.g., face) information, which is homogeneous and enhanced by spatial summation of up to several millimeters...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328722/perfect-spin-filter-by-periodic-drive-of-a-ferromagnetic-quantum-barrier
#5
Daniel Thuberg, Enrique Muñoz, Sebastian Eggert, Sebastián A Reyes
We consider the problem of particle tunneling through a periodically driven ferromagnetic quantum barrier connected to two leads. The barrier is modeled by an impurity site representing a ferromagnetic layer or a quantum dot in a tight-binding Hamiltonian with a local magnetic field and an ac-driven potential, which is solved using the Floquet formalism. The repulsive interactions in the quantum barrier are also taken into account. Our results show that the time-periodic potential causes sharp resonances of perfect transmission and reflection, which can be tuned by the frequency, the driving strength, and the magnetic field...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325966/role-of-intraoperative-ultrasound-to-extend-the-application-of-minimally-invasive-surgery-for-treatment-of-recurrent-gynecological-cancer
#6
Floriana Mascilini, Lorena Quagliozzi, Francesca Moro, Maria Cristina Moruzzi, Valerio Gallotta, Salvatore Gueli Alletti, Giovanni Scambia, Antonia Carla Testa, Anna Fagotti
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the potential role of intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) in the detection and localization of recurrent disease in gynecological cancer patients during minimally invasive surgery (MIS). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force II-1). SETTING: A University hospital. PATIENTS: From November 2015 to February 2017, 51 gynecological cancer patients with isolated recurrent disease and candidate for secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) were treated by MIS...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325855/gating-of-long-term-potentiation-ltp-in-the-thalamocortical-auditory-system-of-rats-by-serotonergic-5-ht-receptors
#7
Karen K Y Lee, Chloe N Soutar, Hans C Dringenberg
The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in controlling the induction threshold and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the visual cortex and hippocampus of rodents. Serotonergic fibers also innervate the rodent primary auditory cortex (A1), but the regulation of A1 plasticity by 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) is largely uncharted. Thus, we examined the role of several, predominant 5-HT receptor classes (5-HT1ARs, 5-HT2Rs, and 5-HT3Rs) in gating in vivo LTP induction at A1 synapses of adult, urethane-anesthetized rats...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324879/localized-zinc-distribution-in-shark-vertebrae-suggests-differential-deposition-during-ontogeny-and-across-vertebral-structures
#8
Vincent Raoult, Nicholas Howell, David Zahra, Victor M Peddemors, Daryl L Howard, Martin D de Jonge, Benjamin L Buchan, Jane E Williamson
The development of shark vertebrae and the possible drivers of inter- and intra-specific differences in vertebral structure are poorly understood. Shark vertebrae are used to examine life-history traits related to trophic ecology, movement patterns, and the management of fisheries; a better understanding of their development would be beneficial to many fields of research that rely on these calcified structures. This study used Scanning X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy to observe zinc distribution within vertebrae of ten shark species from five different orders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323636/an-optimized-method-for-3d-fluorescence-co-localization-applied-to-human-kinetochore-protein-architecture
#9
Aussie Suzuki, Sarah K Long, Edward D Salmon
Two-color fluorescence co-localization in 3D (three-dimension) has the potential to achieve accurate measurements at the nanometer length scale. Here, we optimized a 3D fluorescence co-localization method that uses mean values for chromatic aberration correction to yield the mean separation with ~10 nm accuracy between green and red fluorescently labeled protein epitopes within single human kinetochores. Accuracy depended critically on achieving small standard deviations in fluorescence centroid determination, chromatic aberration across the measurement field, and coverslip thickness...
January 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322780/signal-and-noise-in-fet-nanopore-devices
#10
William M Parkin, Marija Drndic
The combination of a nanopore with a local field-effect transistor (FET-nanopore), like a nanoribbon, nanotube, or nanowire, in order to sense single molecules translocating through the pore is promising for DNA sequencing at megahertz bandwidths. Previously, it was experimentally determined that the detection mechanism was due to local potential fluctuations that arise when an analyte enters a nanopore and constricts ion flow through it, rather than the theoretically proposed mechanism of direct charge coupling between the DNA and nanowire...
January 11, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319706/dendritic-polyelectrolytes-revisited-through-the-poisson-boltzmann-flory-theory-and-the-debye-h%C3%A3-ckel-approximation
#11
J S Kłos
The properties of a dendritic polyelectrolyte in equilibrium with a reservoir of monovalent salts are investigated using the cell model and the Poisson-Boltzmann-Flory theory. Within this approach we use the Debye-Hückel approximation to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and minimize the semi-grand potential of the system with respect to the size of the molecule which enables us to inspect its conformations as well as the electric field, the ionic density profile, the overall charge density, the effective charge of the dendrimer and the osmotic pressure based on their response to the salt concentration and the dendrimer charge...
January 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318972/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reverses-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-dysfunction-in-gamma-oscillation-during-working-memory
#12
Wenwen Bai, Tiaotiao Liu, Mengmeng Dou, Mi Xia, Jun Lu, Xin Tian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that gradually induces cognitive deficits in the elderly and working memory impairment is typically observed in AD. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a causative factor for the cognitive impairments in AD. Gamma oscillations have been recognized to play important roles in various cognitive functions including working memory. Previous study reported that Aβ induces gamma oscillation dysfunction in working memory. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a technique for noninvasive stimulation to induce cortical activity and excitability changes and has been accepted for increasing brain excitability and regulating cognitive behavior...
January 9, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315429/impact-of-oxygen-status-on-10b-bpa-uptake-into-human-glioblastoma-cells-referring-to-significance-in-boron-neutron-capture-therapy
#13
Yuki Wada, Katsumi Hirose, Takaomi Harada, Mariko Sato, Tsubasa Watanabe, Akira Anbai, Manabu Hashimoto, Yoshihiro Takai
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can potentially deliver high linear energy transfer particles to tumor cells without causing severe damage to surrounding normal tissue, and may thus be beneficial for cases with characteristics of infiltrative growth, which need a wider irradiation field, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Hypoxia is an important factor contributing to resistance to anticancer therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the impact of oxygen status on 10B uptake in glioblastoma cells in vitro in order to evaluate the potential impact of local hypoxia on BNCT...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313473/1-5-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-investigate-potential-etiologies-of-brain-swelling-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#14
Michael J Potchen, Samuel D Kampondeni, Karl B Seydel, E Mark Haacke, Sylvester S Sinyangwe, Musaku Mwenechanya, Simon J Glover, Danny A Milner, Eric Zeli, Colleen A Hammond, David Utriainen, Kennedy Lishimpi, Terrie E Taylor, Gretchen L Birbeck
The hallmark of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM) is sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature. Malawi-based research using 0.35 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) established that severe brain swelling is associated with fatal CM, but swelling etiology remains unclear. Autopsy and clinical studies suggest several potential etiologies, but limitations of 0.35 T MRI precluded optimal investigations into swelling pathophysiology. A 1.5 T MRI in Zambia allowed for further investigations including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305336/circulating-osteogentic-precursor-cells-in-non-hereditary-heterotopic-ossification
#15
REVIEW
Kevin P Egan, Gustavo Duque, Mary Ann Keenan, Robert J Pignolo
Non-hereditary heterotopic ossification (NHHO) may occur after musculoskeletal trauma, central nervous system (CNS) injury, or surgery. We previously described circulating osteogenic precursor (COP) cells as a bone marrow-derived type 1 collagen+CD45+subpopulation of mononuclear adherent cells that are able of producing extraskeletal ossification in a murine in vivo implantation assay. In the current study, we performed a tissue analysis of COP cells in NHHO secondary to defined conditions, including traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, cerebrovascular accident, trauma without neurologic injury, and joint arthroplasty...
January 2, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303554/a-serological-point-of-care-test-for-the-detection-of-igg-antibodies-against-ebola-virus-in-human-survivors
#16
Polina Brangel, Ariel Sobarzo, Claudio Parolo, Benjamin S Miller, Philip D Howes, Sigal Gelkop, Julius J Lutwama, John M Dye, Rachel A McKendry, Leslie Lobel, Molly M Stevens
Ebola virus disease causes widespread and highly fatal epidemics in human populations. Today, there is still great need for point-of-care tests for diagnosis, patient management and surveillance, both during and post outbreaks. We present a point-of-care test comprising an immunochromatographic strip and a smartphone reader, which detects and semiquantifies Ebola-specific antibodies in human survivors. We developed a Sudan virus glycoprotein monoplex platform and validated it using sera from 90 human survivors and 31 local noninfected controls...
January 5, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303335/light-ring-stability-for-ultracompact-objects
#17
Pedro V P Cunha, Emanuele Berti, Carlos A R Herdeiro
We prove the following theorem: axisymmetric, stationary solutions of the Einstein field equations formed from classical gravitational collapse of matter obeying the null energy condition, that are everywhere smooth and ultracompact (i.e., they have a light ring) must have at least two light rings, and one of them is stable. It has been argued that stable light rings generally lead to nonlinear spacetime instabilities. Our result implies that smooth, physically and dynamically reasonable ultracompact objects are not viable as observational alternatives to black holes whenever these instabilities occur on astrophysically short time scales...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302203/a-novel-visualization-method-for-sleep-spindles-based-on-source-localization-of-high-density-eeg
#18
Soohyun Lee, Seunghwan Kim, Jee Hyun Choi
Equivalent dipole source localization is a well-established approach to localizing the electrical activity in electroencephalogram (EEG). So far, source localization has been used primarily in localizing the epileptic source in human epileptic patients. Currently, source localization techniques have been applied to account for localizing epileptic source among the epileptic patients. Here, we present the first application of source localization in the field of sleep spindle in mouse brain. The spatial distribution of cortical potential was obtained by high density EEG and then the anterior and posterior sleep spindles were classified based on the K-mean clustering algorithm...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299235/the-role-of-habitat-choice-in-micro-evolutionary-dynamics-an-experimental-study-on-the-mediterranean-killifish-aphanius-fasciatus-cyprinodontidae
#19
Dario Angeletti, Claudia Sebbio, Alessandro Carlini, Claudia Strinati, Giuseppe Nascetti, Claudio Carere, Roberta Cimmaruta
Habitat choice is defined as a nonrandom distribution of genotypes in different microhabitats. Therefore, it could exert a great impact on the genetic variance of natural populations by promoting genetic divergence, local adaptation, and may even lead to sympatric speciation. Despite this potential role in micro- and macro-evolutionary processes, there is little empirical evidence that the various genotypes within a population may differ in habitat choice-related behaviors. Here, we tested whether habitat choice may have contributed to genetic divergence within a local population of the Mediterranean killifish Aphanius fasciatus, which emerged between groups inhabiting microhabitats with different oxygen concentrations during previous field studies...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298379/atomic-scale-lightning-rod-effect-in-plasmonic-picocavities-a-classical-view-to-a-quantum-effect
#20
Mattin Urbieta, Marc Barbry, Yao Zhang, Peter Koval, Daniel Sanchez-Portal, Nerea Zabala, Javier Aizpurua
Plasmonic gaps are known to produce nanoscale localization and enhancement of optical fields, providing small effective mode volumes of about a few hundreds of nm$^3$. Atomistic quantum calculations based on Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) reveal the effect of subnanometric localization of electromagnetic fields due to the presence of atomic-scale features at the interfaces of plasmonic gaps. Using a classical model, we explain this effect as a non-resonant lightning rod effect at the atomic scale that produces an extra enhancement over that of the plasmonic background...
January 3, 2018: ACS Nano
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