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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781009/electrically-controlled-drug-release-using-ph-sensitive-polymer-films
#1
S Ephraim Neumann, Christian F Chamberlayne, Richard N Zare
Drug delivery systems (DDS) that allow spatially and temporally controlled release of drugs are of particular interest in the field of drug delivery. These systems create opportunities for individually tailored doses of drugs to be administered as well as reduce side effects by localizing the initial drug dose to the organ of interest. We present an electroresponsive DDS in the form of a bioresorbable nanocomposite film which operates at low voltages (<-2 V). The method is based on electrochemically generating local pH changes at an electrode surface to induce dissolution of a pH-sensitive polymer, which is used as the carrier material...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778763/oscillation-patterns-of-local-field-potentials-in-the-dorsal-striatum-and-sensorimotor-cortex-during-the-encoding-maintenance-and-decision-stages-for-the-ordinal-comparison-of-sub-and-supra-second-signal-durations
#2
REVIEW
Bon-Mi Gu, Keshav Kukreja, Warren H Meck
Ordinal comparison of successively presented signal durations requires a) the encoding of the first signal duration (standard), b) maintenance of temporal information specific to the standard duration in memory, and c) timing of the second signal duration (comparison) during which a comparison is made of the first and second durations. Rats were first trained to make ordinal comparisons of signal durations within three time ranges using 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0-s standard durations. Local field potentials were then recorded from the dorsal striatum and sensorimotor cortex in order to investigate the pattern of neural oscillations during each phase of the ordinal-comparison process...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775943/air-pollutant-emissions-and-mitigation-potential-through-the-adoption-of-semi-coke-coals-and-improved-heating-stoves-field-evaluation-of-a-pilot-intervention-program-in-rural-china
#3
Yafei Liu, You Zhang, Chuang Li, Yun Bai, Daoming Zhang, Chunyu Xue, Guangqing Liu
Pollutant emissions from incomplete combustion of raw coal in low-efficiency residential heating stoves greatly contribute to winter haze in China. Semi-coke coals and improved heating stoves are expected to lower air pollutant emissions and are vigorously promoted by the Chinese government in many national and local plans. In this study, the thermal performance and air pollutant emissions from semi-coke combustion in improved heating stoves were measured in a pilot rural county and compared to the baseline of burning raw coal to quantify the mitigation potential of air pollutant emissions...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775854/a-wavelength-modulated-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-lspr-optical-fiber-sensor-for-sensitive-detection-of-mercury-ii-ion-by-gold-nanoparticles-dna-conjugates
#4
Shuo Jia, Chao Bian, Jizhou Sun, Jianhua Tong, Shanhong Xia
The study presented herein investigated an easy preparation, high performance, wavelength-modulated LSPR optical fiber chemosensor coated by gold nanospheres(AuNS) for Hg2+ detection based on thymine-Hg2+ -thymine base pair mismatches and the coupled plasmonic resonance effect.Utilizing electrostatic self-assembly method, the high density and dispersivity monolayer AuNS coated LSPR fiber sensor had the near field refractive index sensitivity up to 2016 nm/RIU. The single-strand probe DNA served as a binding element for free AuNS labelled-target DNA conjugates was attached to the monolayer AuNS by Au-S bond...
May 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775702/abnormal-sleep-architecture-and-hippocampal-circuit-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775397/receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-in-cancer-radiotherapy-and-its-targeting-for-tumor-radiosensitization
#6
Poushali Bhattacharya, Neena G Shetake, Badri N Pandey, Amit Kumar
PURPOSE: One of the most important implications of 'Radiation Biology' research is to improve cancer radiotherapy with minimum side effects. In this regard, combination of chemotherapy with radiation has significantly improved tumor control as well as overall survival in a variety of cancers. However, this has been achieved at the cost of significant normal tissue toxicity, due to the lack of specificity of chemotherapy. Membrane-localized receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been found to play a driving role in various hallmarks of cancer...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774535/physiology-and-molecular-biology-of-barrier-mechanisms-in-the-fetal-and-neonatal-brain
#7
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Kjeld Møllgård, Mark D Habgood
Properties of the local internal environment of the adult brain are tightly controlled providing a stable milieu essential for its normal function. The mechanisms involved in this complex control are structural, molecular and physiological (influx and efflux transporters) frequently referred to as the "blood-brain barrier". These mechanisms include regulation of ion levels in brain interstitial fluid essential for normal neuronal function, supply of nutrients, removal of metabolic products and prevention of entry or elimination of toxic agents...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772691/periodontal-tissues-maxillary-jaw-bone-and-tooth-regeneration-approaches-from-animal-models-analyses-to-clinical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Fareeha Batool, Marion Strub, Catherine Petit, Isaac Maximiliano Bugueno, Fabien Bornert, François Clauss, Olivier Huck, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel
This review encompasses different pre-clinical bioengineering approaches for periodontal tissues, maxillary jaw bone, and the entire tooth. Moreover, it sheds light on their potential clinical therapeutic applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Herein, the electrospinning method for the synthesis of polycaprolactone (PCL) membranes, that are capable of mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM), has been described. Furthermore, their functionalization with cyclosporine A (CsA), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), or anti-inflammatory drugs' nanoreservoirs has been demonstrated to induce a localized and targeted action of these molecules after implantation in the maxillary jaw bone...
May 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772345/autologous-liquid-platelet-rich-fibrin-a-novel-drug-delivery-system
#9
REVIEW
Richard J Miron, Yufeng Zhang
There is currently widespread interest within the biomaterial field to locally deliver biomolecules for bone and cartilage regeneration. Substantial work to date has focused on the potential role of these biomolecules during the healing process, and the carrier system utilized is a key factor in their effectiveness. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is a naturally derived fibrin scaffold that is easily obtained from peripheral blood following centrifugation. Slower centrifugation speeds have led to the commercialization of a liquid formulation (liquid-PRF) resulting in an upper plasma layer composed of liquid fibrinogen/thrombin prior to clot formation that remains in its liquid phase for approximately 15 minutes until injected into bodily tissues...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770432/automated-mandatory-bolus-versus-basal-infusion-for-maintenance-of-epidural-analgesia-in-labour
#10
REVIEW
Ban Leong Sng, Yanzhi Zeng, Nurun Nisa A de Souza, Wan Ling Leong, Ting Ting Oh, Fahad Javaid Siddiqui, Pryseley N Assam, Nian-Lin R Han, Edwin Sy Chan, Alex T Sia
BACKGROUND: Childbirth may cause the most severe pain some women experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour and is considered to be the reference standard. Traditionally epidural analgesia has been delivered as a continuous infusion via a catheter in the epidural space, with or without the ability for the patient to supplement the analgesia received by activating a programmable pump to deliver additional top-up doses, known as patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA)...
May 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770356/nonvolatile-infrared-memory-in-mos-2-pbs-van-der-waals-heterostructures
#11
Qisheng Wang, Yao Wen, Kaiming Cai, Ruiqing Cheng, Lei Yin, Yu Zhang, Jie Li, Zhenxing Wang, Feng Wang, Fengmei Wang, Tofik Ahmed Shifa, Chao Jiang, Hyunsoo Yang, Jun He
Optoelectronic devices for information storage and processing are at the heart of optical communication technology due to their significant applications in optical recording and computing. The infrared radiations of 850, 1310, and 1550 nm with low energy dissipation in optical fibers are typical optical communication wavebands. However, optoelectronic devices that could convert and store the infrared data into electrical signals, thereby enabling optical data communications, have not yet been realized. We report an infrared memory device using MoS2 /PbS van der Waals heterostructures, in which the infrared pulse intrigues a persistent resistance state that hardly relaxes within our experimental time scales (more than 104 s)...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769758/mean-field-limits-for-interacting-diffusions-in-a-two-scale-potential
#12
S N Gomes, G A Pavliotis
In this paper, we study the combined mean field and homogenization limits for a system of weakly interacting diffusions moving in a two-scale, locally periodic confining potential, of the form considered in Duncan et al. (Brownian motion in an N-scale periodic potential, arXiv:1605.05854, 2016b). We show that, although the mean field and homogenization limits commute for finite times, they do not, in general, commute in the long time limit. In particular, the bifurcation diagrams for the stationary states can be different depending on the order with which we take the two limits...
2018: Journal of Nonlinear Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769630/locally-induced-neuronal-synchrony-precisely-propagates-to-specific-cortical-areas-without-rhythm-distortion
#13
Haruo Toda, Keisuke Kawasaki, Sho Sato, Masao Horie, Kiyoshi Nakahara, Asim K Bepari, Hirohito Sawahata, Takafumi Suzuki, Haruo Okado, Hirohide Takebayashi, Isao Hasegawa
Propagation of oscillatory spike firing activity at specific frequencies plays an important role in distributed cortical networks. However, there is limited evidence for how such frequency-specific signals are induced or how the signal spectra of the propagating signals are modulated during across-layer (radial) and inter-areal (tangential) neuronal interactions. To directly evaluate the direction specificity of spectral changes in a spiking cortical network, we selectively photostimulated infragranular excitatory neurons in the rat primary visual cortex (V1) at a supra-threshold level with various frequencies, and recorded local field potentials (LFPs) at the infragranular stimulation site, the cortical surface site immediately above the stimulation site in V1, and cortical surface sites outside V1...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769137/laboratory-studies-on-the-oviposition-stimuli-of-culicoides-stellifer-diptera-ceratopogonidae-a-suspected-vector-of-orbiviruses-in-the-united-states
#14
Dinesh Erram, Nathan Burkett-Cadena
BACKGROUND: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) exert a significant impact on animal agriculture worldwide because they transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) to ruminants. Without effective vaccines, BTV/EHDV vector management strategies are needed, particularly in commercial white-tailed deer (WTD) facilities. However, detailed information on the ecology of midge immatures in/around cervid operations is currently lacking...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767966/recent-advances-and-perspectives-on-nonadiabatic-mixed-quantum-classical-dynamics
#15
Rachel Crespo-Otero, Mario Barbatti
Nonadiabatic mixed quantum-classical (NA-MQC) dynamics methods form a class of computational theoretical approaches in quantum chemistry tailored to investigate the time evolution of nonadiabatic phenomena in molecules and supramolecular assemblies. NA-MQC is characterized by a partition of the molecular system into two subsystems: one to be treated quantum mechanically (usually but not restricted to electrons) and another to be dealt with classically (nuclei). The two subsystems are connected through nonadiabatic couplings terms to enforce self-consistency...
May 16, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767428/photonic-crystal-enhanced-fluorescence-immunoassay-on-diatom-biosilica
#16
Kenneth Squire, Xianming Kong, Paul LeDuff, Gregory L Rorrer, Alan X Wang
Fluorescence biosensing is one of the most established biosensing methods, particularly fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. These are two highly sensitive techniques but require high grade electronics and optics to achieve the desired sensitivity. Efforts have been made to implement these methods using consumer grade electronics and simple optical setups for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, but the sensitivity inherently suffers. Sensing substrates, capable of enhancing fluorescence are thus needed to achieve high sensitivity for such applications...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766764/local-cortical-activity-of-distant-brain-areas-can-phase-lock-to-the-olfactory-bulb-s-respiratory-rhythm-in-the-freely-behaving-rat
#17
Daniel Rojas-Líbano, Jonathan Wimmer Del Solar, Marcelo Aguilar-Rivera, Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Pedro Esteban Maldonado
An important unresolved question about neural processing is the mechanism by which distant brain areas coordinate their activities and relate their local processing to global neural events. A potential candidate for the local-global integration are slow rhythms such as respiration. In this article, we asked if there are modulations of local cortical processing which are phase-locked to (peripheral) sensory-motor exploratory rhythms. We studied rats on an elevated platform where they would spontaneously display exploratory and rest behaviors...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765800/surface-characterization-of-nanoparticles-using-near-field-light-scattering
#18
Eunsoo Yoo, Yizhong Liu, Chukwuazam A Nwasike, Sebastian R Freeman, Brian C DiPaolo, Bernardo Cordovez, Amber L Doiron
The effect of nanoparticle surface coating characteristics on colloidal stability in solution is a critical parameter in understanding the potential applications of nanoparticles, especially in biomedicine. Here we explored the modification of the surface of poly(ethylene glycol)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-SPIOs) with the synthetic pseudotannin polygallol via interpolymer complexation (IPC). Changes in particle size and zeta potential were indirectly assessed via differences between PEG-SPIOs and IPC-SPIOs in particle velocity and scattering intensity using near-field light scattering...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765603/three-dimensional-ultrastructural-imaging-reveals-the-nanoscale-architecture-of-mammalian-cells
#19
Shengkun Yao, Jiadong Fan, Zhiyun Chen, Yunbing Zong, Jianhua Zhang, Zhibin Sun, Lijuan Zhang, Renzhong Tai, Zhi Liu, Chunying Chen, Huaidong Jiang
Knowledge of the interactions between nanomaterials and large-size mammalian cells, including cellular uptake, intracellular localization and translocation, has greatly advanced nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. Imaging techniques that can locate nanomaterials within the structures of intact large-size cells at nanoscale resolution play crucial roles in acquiring this knowledge. Here, the quantitative imaging of intracellular nanomaterials in three dimensions was performed by combining dual-energy contrast X-ray microscopy and an iterative tomographic algorithm termed equally sloped tomography (EST)...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764160/combinatorial-strategies-of-radiotherapy-and-immunotherapy-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#20
Eugenia L L Yeo, You Quan Li, Khee-Chee Soo, Joseph T S Wee, Melvin L K Chua
Immunotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) have each demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) when utilized independently. Several characteristics of NPC make it particularly well suited for immunotherapeutic strategies, such as the association with viral infections like EBV and human papilloma virus (HPV), upregulation of PD-L1 expression, and the high number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Immune checkpoint blockade is one such immunotherapeutic strategy that is gaining popularity rapidly...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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