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skin stem cell

Zhenping Wang, Nicholas Mascarenhas, Lars Eckmann, Yukiko Miyamoto, Xiaojun Sun, Toshiaki Kawakami, Anna Di Nardo
BACKGROUND: Mast cell (MC) progenitors leave the bone marrow, enter the circulation, and settle in the skin and other tissues. Their maturation in tissues is influenced by the surrounding microenvironment. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that environmental factors play a role in MC maturation in the skin. METHODS: MCs were numerically, phenotypically, and functionally compared between germ-free (GF), SPF, and GF mice reconstituted with microbiota...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Guillermo C Rivera-Gonzalez, Brett A Shook, Johanna Andrae, Brandon Holtrup, Katherine Bollag, Christer Betsholtz, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Valerie Horsley
Tissue growth and maintenance requires stem cell populations that self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate. Maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) requires the proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte stem cells (ASCs) to form postmitotic, lipid-filled mature adipocytes. Here we use the dynamic adipogenic program that occurs during hair growth to uncover an unrecognized regulator of ASC self-renewal and proliferation, PDGFA, which activates AKT signaling to drive and maintain the adipogenic program in the skin...
October 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Francesco De Francesco, Antonio Graziano, Letizia Trovato, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Maurizio Romano, Marco Marcarelli, Gabriella Maria Casella De Angelis, Umberto Cillo, Michele Riccio, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro
BACKGROUND: The etiology of non-healing ulcers depends on both systemic and local factors. The introduction of advanced dressing, negative wound therapy and compression therapy have undoubtedly improved clinical outcomes. The principal aim of study was to demonstrate the efficacy of dermal micrografts in the treatment of ulcers with different etiologies. The second aim was to investigate in vitro the action of micrografts in the regenerative process. METHODS: The dermal micro-grafts were obtained from mechanical disaggregation of small pieces of skin tissue through a medical device called Rigeneracons...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Denada Dibra, Abhisek Mitra, Melissa Newman, Xueqing Xia, Camille Keenan, Jeffry J Cutrera, J Michael Mathis, Xiao-Jing Wang, Jeffrey Myers, Shulin Li
Establishment of a permissive pre-malignant niche in concert with mutant stem are key triggers to initiate skin carcinogenesis. An understudied area of research is finding upstream regulators of both these triggers. IL27, a pleiotropic cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, was found to be a key regulator of both. Two step skin carcinogenesis model and K15-KRASG12D mouse model were used to understand the role of IL27 in skin tumors. CD11b-/- mice and small-molecule of ETAR signaling (ZD4054) inhibitor were used in vivo to understand mechanistically how IL27 promotes skin carcinogenesis...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Ayman Grada, Vincent Falanga
The number of individuals with chronic cutaneous wounds has been increasing worldwide due to an aging population, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. In the United States, almost seven million Americans have chronic skin ulcers. Many therapeutic approaches have been used. However, the treatment outcomes are not always ideal because of failure to achieve complete wound closure in around 60% of cases, scarring, and high rate of recurrence. Therefore, there is a need for more effective therapies. Stem cells offer promising possibilities...
October 6, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Christos C Zouboulis, Mauro Picardo, Qiang Ju, Ichiro Kurokawa, Dániel Törőcsik, Tamás Bíró, Marlon R Schneider
The sebaceous gland is most commonly found in association with a hair follicle. Its traditional function is the holocrine production of sebum, a complex mixture of lipids, cell debris, and other rather poorly characterized substances. Due to the gland's central role in acne pathogenesis, early research had focused on its lipogenic activity. Less studied aspects of the sebaceous gland, such as stem cell biology, the regulation of cellular differentiation by transcription factors, the significance of specific lipid fractions, the endocrine and specially the neuroendocrine role of the sebaceous gland, and its contribution to the innate immunity, the detoxification of the skin, and skin aging have only recently attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines...
October 11, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
F Vand-Rajabpour, N Sadeghipour, S Saee-Rad, H Fathi, P Noormohammadpour, M Yaseri, K K Hesari, Z Bagherpour, M Tabrizi
PURPOSE: Melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can be used as a unique model to identify molecular mechanisms to distinguish rarely metastatic (BCC), often metastatic (SCC) and most metastatic (melanoma) cancer. It is known that epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness transcription factors (TWIST1, SNAI2/SLUG, and BMI1) play an important role in metastasis and their dysregulation has been demonstrated in metastatic cancers. We hypothesized that this spectrum of cutaneous cancers (BCC, SCC, and melanoma) would be a unique cancer model system to elucidate steps toward cancer invasion and metastasis...
October 7, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Hang Yao, Priti Azad, Huiwen W Zhao, Juan Wang, Orit Poulsen, Beatriz C Freitas, Alysson R Muotri, Gabriel G Haddad
The sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (NBC) is the major bicarbonate-dependent acid-base transporter in mammalian astrocytes and has been implicated in ischemic brain injury. A malfunction of astrocytes could have great impact on the outcome of stroke due to their participation in the formation of blood-brain barrier, synaptic transmission, and electrolyte balance in the human brain. Nevertheless, the role of NBC in the ischemic astrocyte death has not been well understood. In this work, we obtained skin biopsies from healthy human subjects and had their fibroblasts grown in culture and reprogrammed into human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience
James C Chen, Angela M Christiano
Mammalian skin is a complex and heterogeneous tissue with several distinct compartments and stem cell populations. Joost et al. (2016) now use single-cell RNaseq to comprehensively reconstruct this complexity, revealing spatial and pseudotemporal differences between transcriptional programs in distinct compartments and a common basal program in skin stem cell populations.
October 6, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Ying Wang, George L Sen
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Rinaldi et al. (2016) find an unexpected role for the de novo DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b in the regulation of enhancers. Their findings provide new insight into how regulation of enhancer activity through DNA methylation can have dramatic consequences on epidermal stem cell fate decisions.
October 6, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Koki Fujimori, Toshiki Tezuka, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Jun Mitsui, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Hirobumi Tada, Takuya Matsumoto, Miho Isoda, Ryota Hashimoto, Nubutaka Hattori, Takuya Takahashi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) facilitate understanding of the etiology of diseases, discovery of new drugs and development of novel therapeutic interventions. A frequently used starting source of cells for generating iPSCs has been dermal fibroblasts (DFs) isolated from skin biopsies. However, there are also numerous repositories containing lymphoblastoid B-cell lines (LCLs) generated from a variety of patients. To date, this rich bioresource of LCLs has been underused for generating iPSCs, and its use would greatly expand the range of targeted diseases that could be studied by using patient-specific iPSCs...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Brain
Kimihiko Sugaya, Tomohisa Hirobe, Yoshie Ishihara, Sonoe Inoue
To determine whether the effects of low-dose-rate gamma (γ) irradiation are identifiable in the regeneration of murine hair follicles, we irradiated whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the first telogen phase of the hair cycle with (137)Cs γ-rays. The mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including number, morphology, and pigmentation in the second anagen phase. Effects of γ-radiation on melanocyte stem cells were also investigated by the indirect immunolabeling of tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Clotilde Costa, Mirentxu Santos, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Corina Lorz, Sara Lázaro, Jesús M Paramio
E2F/RB activity is altered in most human tumors. The retinoblastoma family of proteins plays a key role in regulating the progression of the cell cycle from the G1 to S phases. This is achieved through negative regulation of E2F transcription factors, important positive regulators of cell cycle entry. E2F family members are divided into two groups: activators (E2F1-E2F3a) and repressors (E2F3b-E2F8). E2F4 accounts for a large part of the E2F activity and is a main E2F repressor member in vivo. Perturbations in the balance from quiescence towards proliferation contribute to increased mitotic gene expression levels frequently observed in cancer...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Suelen Martins Perobelli, Ana Carolina Terra Mercadante, Rômulo Gonçalves Galvani, Triciana Gonçalves-Silva, Ana Paula Gregório Alves, Antonio Pereira-Neves, Marlene Benchimol, Alberto Nóbrega, Adriana Bonomo
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the main complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and many efforts have been made to overcome this important limitation. We showed previously that G-CSF treatment generates low-density splenic granulocytes that inhibit experimental aGVHD. In this article, we show that aGVHD protection relies on incoming IL-10(+) neutrophils from G-CSF-treated donor spleen (G-Neutrophils). These G-Neutrophils have high phagocytic capacity, high peroxide production, low myeloperoxidase activity, and low cytoplasmic granule content, which accounts for their low density...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Hidekazu Itamura, Takero Shindo, Isao Tawara, Yasushi Kubota, Ryusho Kariya, Seiji Okada, Krishna V Komanduri, Shinya Kimura
The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies is limited by the difficulty in suppressing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without compromising graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. We previously showed that RAS/MEK/ERK signaling depends on memory differentiation in human T cells, which confers susceptibility to selective inhibition of naive T cells. Actually, antineoplastic MEK inhibitors selectively suppress alloreactive T cells, sparing virus-specific T cells in vitro...
July 7, 2016: JCI Insight
Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Guzide Aksu, Ezgi Ulusoy, Serap Aksoylar, Salih Gozmen, Ferah Genel, Sanem Akarcan, Nesrin Gulez, Tatjana Hirschmugl, Savas Kansoy, Kaan Boztug, Necil Kutukculer
Alterations of immune homeostasis in the gut may result in development of inflammatory bowel disease. A five-month-old girl was referred for recurrent respiratory and genitourinary tract infections, sepsis in neonatal period, chronic diarrhea, perianal abscess, rectovaginal fistula, and hyperemic skin lesions. She was born to second-degree consanguineous, healthy parents. Her elder siblings were lost at 4 months of age due to sepsis and 1 year of age due to inflammatory bowel disease, respectively. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulin levels, and lymphocyte subsets were normal ruling out severe congenital neutropenia and classic severe combined immunodeficiencies...
2016: Case Reports in Immunology
Elena Cantone, Michele Cavaliere, Antonella Miriam Di Lullo, Elia Guadagno, Maurizio Iengo
Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare extramedullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). GS may develop simultaneously to AML or as a relapse of leukemia, particularly following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Subperiosteal bone, lymph nodes and skin are commonly involved, whereas rhinopharyngeal involvement is less common, with only 14 cases reported in the literature. Due to its rarity, rhinopharyngeal GS may lead to diagnostic pitfalls, particularly when it is poorly differentiated or is without concomitant marrow involvement...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Alisa P Domnina, Polina V Novikova, Olga G Lyublinskaya, Valeriy V Zenin, Irina I Fridlyanskaya, Vyacheslav M Mikhailov, Nikolay N Nikolsky
Stem cell transplantation, which is based on the application of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), is a rapidly developing approach to the regenerative therapy of various degenerative disorders characterized by brain and heart failure, as well as skin lesions. In comparison, the use of stem cell transplantations to treat infertility has received less attention. One of the causes of miscarriages and fetal growth delay is the loss of the decidual reaction of endometrial cells. The present study modeled decidualization processes in pseudopregnant rats...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Alina Tanase, Anca Colita, Gabriel Ianosi, Daniela Neagoe, Daciana Elena Branisteanu, Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Simona Laura Ianosi
Fusarium infection is a severe fungal infection caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. It most commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients with malignant hematological comorbidities or secondary to hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The classical route of contamination is through inhalation but infection may also occur through contiguity with a skin lesion. This report describes the case of a 24-year-old woman who developed graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) at 220 days after receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplant from a sibling donor for Hodgkin disease...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Raffaella Greco, Lara Crucitti, Maddalena Noviello, Sara Racca, Daniele Mannina, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Veronica Valtolina, Serena Rolla, Roee Dvir, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Chiara Oltolini, Luca Vago, Paolo Scarpellini, Andrea Assanelli, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Massimo Bernardi, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Jacopo Peccatori, Chiara Bonini, Fabio Ciceri
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients...
September 30, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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