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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706191/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-positive-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-fibers-exhibit-distinct-projection-pattern-and-dopamine-release-dynamics-at-mouse-dorsal-striatum
#1
Carmelo Sgobio, Junbing Wu, Wang Zheng, Xi Chen, Jing Pan, Armando G Salinas, Margaret I Davis, David M Lovinger, Huaibin Cai
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1)-positive dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the ventral substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) preferentially degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). Their projection pattern and dopamine release properties, however, remains uncharacterized. Here we show that ALDH1A1-positive axons project predominantly to the rostral two-thirds of dorsal striatum. A portion of these axons converge on a small fraction of striosome compartments restricted to the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), where less dopamine release was measured compared to the adjacent matrix enriched with the ALDH1A1-negative axons...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698628/%C3%AE-synuclein-control-of-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-human-derived-neurons-is-disrupted-by-mutations-associated-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Victorio Martin Pozo Devoto, Nicolas Dimopoulos, Matías Alloatti, María Belén Pardi, Trinidad M Saez, María Gabriela Otero, Lucas Eneas Cromberg, Antonia Marín-Burgin, Maria Elida Scassa, Gorazd B Stokin, Alejandro F Schinder, Gustavo Sevlever, Tomás Luis Falzone
The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) converges on a common pathogenic pathway of mitochondrial defects in which α-Synuclein (αSyn) is thought to play a role. However, the mechanisms by which αSyn and its disease-associated allelic variants cause mitochondrial dysfunction remain unknown. Here, we analyzed mitochondrial axonal transport and morphology in human-derived neurons overexpressing wild-type (WT) αSyn or the mutated variants A30P or A53T, which are known to have differential lipid affinities...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689993/mapt-genetic-variation-and-neuronal-maturity-alter-isoform-expression-affecting-axonal-transport-in-ipsc-derived-dopamine-neurons
#3
Joel E Beevers, Mang Ching Lai, Emma Collins, Heather D E Booth, Federico Zambon, Laura Parkkinen, Jane Vowles, Sally A Cowley, Richard Wade-Martins, Tara M Caffrey
The H1 haplotype of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) locus is genetically associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and affects gene expression and splicing. However, the functional impact on neurons of such expression differences has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we employ extended maturation phases during differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures to obtain cultures expressing all six adult tau protein isoforms...
July 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673590/parkinson-s-disease-the-hibernating-spore-hypothesis
#4
Ketil Berstad, Johanna E R Berstad
The authors support the hypothesis that a causative agent in Parkinson's disease (PD) might be either fungus or bacteria with fungus-like properties - Actinobacteria, and that their spores may serve as 'infectious agents'. Updated research and the epidemiology of PD suggest that the disease might be induced by environmental factor(s), possibly with genetic susceptibility, and that α-synuclein probably should be regarded as part of the body's own defense mechanism. To explain the dual-hit theory with stage 1 involvement of the olfactory structures and the 'gut-brain'-axis, the environmental factor is probably airborne and quite 'robust' entering the body via the nose/mouth, then to be swallowed reaching the enteric nervous system with retained pathogenicity...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649615/imaging-parkinson-s-disease-below-the-neck
#5
Per Borghammer, Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, David J Brooks
Parkinson's disease is a systemic disorder with widespread and early α-synuclein pathology in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, which is present throughout the gastrointestinal canal prior to diagnosis. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms often predate clinical diagnosis by several years. It has been hypothesized that progressive α-synuclein aggregation is initiated in hyperbranched, non-myelinated neuron terminals, and may subsequently spread via retrograde axonal transport. This would explain why autonomic nerves are so prone to formation of α-synuclein pathology...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625595/dctn1-related-neurodegeneration-perry-syndrome-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Takuya Konno, Owen A Ross, Hélio A G Teive, Jarosław Sławek, Dennis W Dickson, Zbigniew K Wszolek
Perry syndrome (PS) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease characterized by autosomal dominant parkinsonism, psychiatric symptoms, weight loss, central hypoventilation, and distinct TDP-43 pathology. The mutated causative gene for PS is DCTN1, which encodes the dynactin subunit p150(Glued). Dynactin is a motor protein involved in axonal transport; the p150(Glued) subunit has a critical role in the overall function. Since the discovery of DCTN1 in PS, it has been increasingly recognized that DCTN1 mutations can exhibit more diverse phenotypes than previously thought...
June 12, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625517/reduced-tdp-43-expression-improves-neuronal-activities-in-a-drosophila-model-of-perry-syndrome
#7
Yuka Hosaka, Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Changxu Cui, Taku Arano, Yuzuru Imai, Nobutaka Hattori
Parkinsonian Perry syndrome, involving mutations in the dynein motor component dynactin or p150(Glued), is characterized by TDP-43 pathology in affected brain regions, including the substantia nigra. However, the molecular relationship between p150(Glued) and TDP-43 is largely unknown. Here, we report that a reduction in TDP-43 protein levels alleviates the synaptic defects of neurons expressing the Perry mutant p150(G50R) in Drosophila. Dopaminergic expression of p150(G50R), which decreases dopamine release, disrupts motor ability and reduces the lifespan of Drosophila...
June 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580639/mesenchymal-stem-cells-stabilize-axonal-transports-for-autophagic-clearance-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-parkinsonian-models
#8
Se Hee Oh, Seok Cheol Lee, Dong Yeol Kim, Ha Na Kim, Jin Young Shin, Byoung Seok Ye, Phil Hyu Lee
Genome-wide association studies have identified two loci, SNCA and the microtubule (MT)-associated protein tau, as common risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). Specifically, α-synuclein directly destabilizes MT via tau phosphorylation and induces axonal transport deficits that are the primary events leading to an abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein that causes nigral dopaminergic cell loss. In the present study, we demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could modulate cytoskeletal networks and trafficking to exert neuroprotective properties in wild-type or A53T α-synuclein overexpressing cells and mice...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579939/the-role-of-co-chaperones-in-synaptic-proteostasis-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#9
REVIEW
Erica L Gorenberg, Sreeganga S Chandra
Synapses must be preserved throughout an organism's lifespan to allow for normal brain function and behavior. Synapse maintenance is challenging given the long distances between the termini and the cell body, reliance on axonal transport for delivery of newly synthesized presynaptic proteins, and high rates of synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Hence, synapses rely on efficient proteostasis mechanisms to preserve their structure and function. To this end, the synaptic compartment has specific chaperones to support its functions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534301/effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-diabetic-neuropathy-and-other-geriatric-disorders
#10
REVIEW
G Sergi, S Pizzato, F Piovesan, C Trevisan, N Veronese, E Manzato
A long history of diabetes mellitus and increasing age are associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a painful and highly disabling complication with a prevalence peaking at 50% among elderly diabetic patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from the acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria that has an essential role in energy production. It has recently been proposed as a therapy to improve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ALC is widely distributed in mammalian tissues, including the brain, blood-brain barrier, brain neurons, and astrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534083/synthetic-alpha-synuclein-fibrils-cause-mitochondrial-impairment-and-selective-dopamine-neurodegeneration-in-part-via-inos-mediated-nitric-oxide-production
#11
Victor Tapias, Xiaoping Hu, Kelvin C Luk, Laurie H Sanders, Virginia M Lee, J Timothy Greenamyre
Intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) are hallmarks of synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Exogenous addition of preformed α-syn fibrils (PFFs) into primary hippocampal neurons induced α-syn aggregation and accumulation. Likewise, intrastriatal inoculation of PFFs into mice and non-human primates generates Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites associated with PD-like neurodegeneration. Herein, we investigate the putative effects of synthetic human PFFs on cultured rat ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411118/regulation-of-motor-proteins-axonal-transport-deficits-and-adult-onset-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Scott T Brady, Gerardo A Morfini
Neurons affected in a wide variety of unrelated adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases (AONDs) typically exhibit a "dying back" pattern of degeneration, which is characterized by early deficits in synaptic function and neuritic pathology long before neuronal cell death. Consistent with this observation, multiple unrelated AONDs including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and several motor neuron diseases feature early alterations in kinase-based signaling pathways associated with deficits in axonal transport (AT), a complex cellular process involving multiple intracellular trafficking events powered by microtubule-based motor proteins...
April 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409113/axonal-damage-and-loss-of-connectivity-in-nigrostriatal-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-pathways-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Silvia Paola Caminiti, Luca Presotto, Damiano Baroncini, Valentina Garibotto, Rosa Maria Moresco, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Antonietta Volonté, Angelo Antonini, Daniela Perani
A progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is considered the main feature of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent neuropathological evidence however suggests that the axons of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system are the earliest target of α-synuclein accumulation in PD, thus the principal site for vulnerability. Whether this applies to in vivo PD, and also to the mesolimbic system has not been investigated yet. We used [(11)C]FeCIT PET to measure presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) activity in both nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems, in 36 early PD patients (mean disease duration in months ± SD 21...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405636/when-transporters-fail-to-be-transported-how-to-rescue-folding-deficient-slc6-transporters
#14
Sonja Sucic, Ameya Kasture, H M Mazhar Asjad, Carina Kern, Ali El-Kasaby, Michael Freissmuth
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) belongs to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family. Point mutations in hDAT (SLC6A3) have been linked to a syndrome of dopamine transporter deficiency or infantile dystonia/parkinsonism. The mutations impair DAT folding, causing retention of variant DATs in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently impair transport activity. The folding trajectory of DAT itself is not understood, though many insights have been gained from studies of folding-deficient mutants of the closely related serotonin transporter (SERT); i...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341600/metabolic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-bioenergetics-redox-homeostasis-and-central-carbon-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Annadurai Anandhan, Maria S Jacome, Shulei Lei, Pablo Hernandez-Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Robert Powers, Rodrigo Franco
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic processes in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival...
March 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332488/parkinson-disease
#16
REVIEW
Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi, Caroline M Tanner, Glenda M Halliday, Patrik Brundin, Jens Volkmann, Anette-Eleonore Schrag, Anthony E Lang
Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324489/monitoring-mitochondrial-changes-by-alteration-of-the-pink1-parkin-signaling-in-drosophila
#17
Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Hongrui Meng, Nobutaka Hattori, Yuzuru Imai
Mitochondrial quality control is a key process in tissues with high energy demands, such as the brain and muscles. Recent studies using Drosophila have revealed that the genes responsible for familial forms of juvenile Parkinson's disease (PD), PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial function and motility. Cell biological analysis using mammalian cultured cells suggests that the dysregulation of mitophagy by PINK1 and Parkin leads to neurodegeneration in PD. In this chapter, we describe the methods to monitor mitochondrial morphology in the indirect flight muscles of adult Drosophila and Drosophila primary cultured neurons and the methods to analyze the motility of mitochondria in the axonal transport of living larval motor neurons...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323023/internalization-axonal-transport-and-release-of-fibrillar-forms-of-alpha-synuclein
#18
Gregor Bieri, Aaron D Gitler, Michel Brahic
Intra-neuronal protein aggregates made of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) are the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). With time, these aggregates spread through the brain following axonal projections. Understanding the mechanism of this spread is central to the study of the progressive nature of PD. Here we review data relevant to the uptake, transport and release of α-syn fibrils. We summarize several cell surface receptors that regulate the uptake of α-syn fibrils by neurons. The aggregates are then transported along axons, both in the anterograde and retrograde direction...
March 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283599/dopamine-transporter-imaging-does-not-predict-the-number-of-nigral-neurons-in-parkinson-disease
#19
Laura Saari, Katri Kivinen, Maria Gardberg, Juho Joutsa, Tommi Noponen, Valtteri Kaasinen
OBJECTIVE: To examine possible associations between in vivo brain dopamine transporter SPECT imaging and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neuronal survival in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Nigral neuron numbers were calculated for 18 patients (11 patients with neuropathologically confirmed PD) who had been examined with dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT before death. Correlation analyses between SNc tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive and neuromelanin-containing neuron counts and DAT striatal specific binding ratios (SBRs) were performed with semiquantitative region of interest-based and voxel-based analyses...
April 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086964/anti-%C3%AE-synuclein-immunotherapy-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-propagation-in-the-axon-and-degeneration-in-a-combined-viral-vector-and-transgenic-model-of-synucleinopathy
#20
Brian Spencer, Elvira Valera, Edward Rockenstein, Cassia Overk, Michael Mante, Anthony Adame, Wagner Zago, Peter Seubert, Robin Barbour, Dale Schenk, Dora Games, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), PD dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons. Recent studies have proposed that neuron-to-neuron propagation of α-syn plays a role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. We have previously shown that antibodies against the C-terminus of α-syn reduce the intra-neuronal accumulation of α-syn and related deficits in transgenic models of synucleinopathy, probably by abrogating the axonal transport and accumulation of α-syn in in vivo models...
January 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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