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Blood restriction

Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Ruchita Dixit, Sowmya Nettem, Simerjit S Madan, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Leah D Vance, Patrick J Stover
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of disorders that affects haemoglobin, which causes distorted sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. It is characterized by anaemia, increased susceptibility to infections and episodes of pain. The disease is acquired by inheriting abnormal genes from both parents, the combination giving rise to different forms of the disease. Due to increased erythropoiesis in people with SCD, it is hypothesized that they are at an increased risk for folate deficiency...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Naoaki Rikihisa, Mai Tominaga, Shoji Watanabe, Nobuyuki Mitsukawa, Yoshiaki Saito, Hiromi Sakai
Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Carolina Ribeiro, Rosa Quinta, Ana Raposo, Ana Valentim, José Albuquerque, Manuela Grazina
Objective: Prospective observational study to analyze CYP2D6 pharmacogenetics in 55 Portuguese adult parturients undergoing elective cesarean section and to investigate the association between CYP2D6 alleles and pain score. Methods: DNA was extracted from peripheral blood by standard methods. Genetic analysis included allelic discrimination (CYP2D6*1, *2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *10, *17, and *41) and copy number determination with TaqMan probes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
March 12, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Kasper Meidahl Petersen, Søren Bøgevig, Jens Juul Holst, Filip Krag Knop, Mikkel Bring Christensen
Context: Glucagon's effects on hemodynamic parameters - most notably heart rate and cardiac contractility - are overlooked. The glucagon receptor is a central target in novel and anticipated type 2 diabetes therapies and hemodynamic consequences of glucagon signaling have therefore become increasingly important. In this review we summarize and evaluate published studies on glucagon pharmacology with focus on clinical hemodynamic effects in humans. Evidence acquisition: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched for clinical studies concerning hemodynamic effects of glucagon (no year restriction)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hassan Al Moussawi, Michael Krzyzak, Zainab Awada, Jean M Chalhoub
A brain abscess is defined as a focal intracerebral infection consisting of an encapsulated collection of pus, which can be a life-threatening complication of infections, trauma, or surgery. While immunocompromised patients can have a wide array of causative organisms, bacterial species represent the most common etiology in immunocompetent individuals. The incidence of brain abscesses ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 per 100,000, with a high predisposition among immunocompromised patients and in those with disruption of the blood-brain barrier...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Shu Meng, Qilin Gu, Xiaojie Yang, Jie Lv, Iris Owusu, Gianfranco Matrone, Kaifu Chen, John P Cooke, Longhou Fang
Background -Angiogenesis is integral for embryogenesis, and targeting angiogenesis improves the outcome of many pathological conditions in patients. TBX20 is a crucial transcription factor for embryonic development, and its deficiency is associated with congenital heart disease. However, the role of TBX20 in angiogenesis has not been described. Methods -Loss- and gain-of-function approaches were used to explore the role of TBX20 in angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo Angiogenesis gene array was used to identify key downstream targets of TBX20...
March 15, 2018: Circulation
Aida Kamišalić, David Riaño, Tatjana Welzer
BACKGROUND: In medical practice, long term interventions are common and they require timely planning of the involved processes. Unfortunately, evidence-based statements about time are hard to find in Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) and in other sources of medical knowledge. At the same time, health care centers use medical records and information systems to register data about clinical processes and patients, including time information about the encounters, prescriptions, and other clinical actions...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Theodore W Kurtz, Stephen E DiCarlo, Michal Pravenec, R Curtis Morris
High salt intake is one of the major dietary determinants of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Japan and throughout the world. Although dietary salt restriction may be of clinical benefit in salt-sensitive individuals, many individuals may not wish, or be able to, reduce their intake of salt. Thus, identification of functional foods that can help protect against mechanistic abnormalities mediating salt-induced hypertension is an issue of considerable medical and scientific interest. According to the "vasodysfunction" theory of salt-induced hypertension, the hemodynamic abnormality initiating salt-induced increases in blood pressure usually involves subnormal vasodilation and abnormally increased vascular resistance in response to increased salt intake...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Yu-Ri Kang, Hwang-Yong Choi, Jung-Yun Lee, Soo In Jang, Hanna Kang, Jung-Bae Oh, Hae-Dong Jang, Young-In Kwon
Onion ( Allium cepa L.) is widely consumed as food or medicinal plant due to its well-defined health benefits. The antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of onion and its extracts have been reported well. However, very limited information on anti-hyperglycemic effect is available in processed onion extracts. In our previous study, we reported that Amadori rearrangement compounds (ARCs) produced by heat-processing in Korean ginseng can reduce carbohydrate absorption by inhibiting intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in both in vitro and in vivo animal models...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael J Diamond
Manifestations of failures in both symbolic and actual flesh-and-blood fathering reveal the inescapable role played by the father's unconscious transmissions in the ever present triadic matrix. Perelberg's crucial distinction between the murdered narcissistic father and the dead symbolic father suggests the problematic internalizations that fail to uphold the paternal law required for oedipal resolution. Three father-child narratives derived from classical literature and mythology are presented in order to elucidate significant unconscious paternal fantasies pertaining to lethal rivalry and neglect of the child's otherness...
February 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, complex instruments, and skilled personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Michael A Mazzeffi, John M See, Brittney Williams, Justin Richards, Darin Zimmerman, Samuel Galvagno, Magali Fontaine, Kenichi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion can be life-saving; however, the risks of RBC transfusion have been increasingly recognized, and current guidelines recommend restrictive transfusion in most patients. We hypothesized that RBC transfusions are decreasing in surgical patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was performed from 2011 to 2015. Index cases in five surgical specialties were studied: neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, gynecologic surgery, orthopedic surgery, and vascular surgery...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Alicia J McLuckie, Vanessa R Barrs, Scott Lindsay, Mahdis Aghazadeh, Cheryl Sangster, Julia A Beatty
The pathogenicity of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), a common infection of domestic cats, is unknown. To explore an association between FcaGHV1 detection and feline lymphoma, a retrospective, cross-sectional, disease-association study was conducted. The infection status of all cats for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus was determined. Neither a molecular diagnosis of FcaGHV1 nor whole-blood FcaGHV1 load was related to outcome in 122 lymphoma cases compared with 71 controls matched for age and sex...
March 14, 2018: Viruses
Summer B Cook, Brendan R Scott, Katherine L Hayes, Bethany G Murphy
Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise has been suggested to be as effective as moderate and high-load resistance training for increasing muscle size and strength. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of HL or low-load BFR resistance training on neuromuscular function, strength, and hypertrophy of the knee extensors. Eighteen participants aged 18-22 years old were randomized to one of three training groups: moderate load (ML: 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]); BFR (20% 1-RM with a vascular restriction set to ~180 mmHg); and a control group (CON) that did not exercise...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Josef Davidsson, Andreas Puschmann, Ulf Tedgård, David Bryder, Lars Nilsson, Jörg Cammenga
Germline mutations in the SAMD9 and SAMD9L genes, located in tandem on chromosome 7, are associated with a clinical spectrum of disorders including the MIRAGE syndrome, ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome and myelodysplasia and leukemia syndrome with monosomy 7 syndrome. Germline gain-of-function mutations increase SAMD9 or SAMD9L's normal antiproliferative effect. This causes pancytopenia and generally restricted growth and/or specific organ hypoplasia in non-hematopoietic tissues. In blood cells, additional somatic aberrations that reverse the germline mutation's effect, and give rise to the clonal expansion of cells with reduced or no antiproliferative effect of SAMD9 or SAMD9L include complete or partial chromosome 7 loss or loss-of-function mutations in SAMD9 or SAMD9L...
February 25, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Adam J Pelzek, Bo Shopsin, Emily E Radke, Kayan Tam, Beatrix M Ueberheide, David Fenyö, Stuart M Brown, Qianhao Li, Ada Rubin, Yi Fulmer, William K Chiang, David N Hernandez, Hanane El Bannoudi, William E Sause, Alexis Sommerfield, Isaac P Thomsen, Andy O Miller, Victor J Torres, Gregg J Silverman
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and invasive infections in the hospital and community. High mortality from infection emphasizes the need for improved methods for prevention and treatment. Although S. aureus possesses an arsenal of virulence factors that contribute to evasion of host defenses, few studies have examined long-term humoral and B-cell responses. Adults with acute-phase skin and soft tissue infections were recruited; blood samples were obtained; and S...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Maha Saber-Ayad, Shaista Manzoor, Ahmed El-Serafy, Ibrahim Mahmoud, Salah Abusnana, Nabil Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Statin-induced myopathy has been linked to the C allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs4149056) of SLCO1B1 gene. This effect is more significant, but not restricted to simvastatin. Many studies have included European, American, African and Southeast Asian ancestries, but few were carried out on Middle Eastern population. AIM: To detect the prevalence of SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (521T>C) in Emirati population. METHOD: We recruited 282 Emiratis through the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Project...
March 10, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Hee Kyoung Joo, Sunga Choi, Yu Ran Lee, Eun Ok Lee, Myoung Soo Park, Kyu Been Park, Cuk-Seong Kim, Yong Pyo Lim, Jong-Tae Park, Byeong Hwa Jeon
Anthocyanins, the most prevalent flavonoids in red/purple fruits and vegetables, are known to improve immune responses and reduce chronic disease risks. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich extract from red Chinese cabbage (ArCC) were shown based on its inhibitory effects in cultured endothelial cells and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E -deficient mice. ArCC treatment suppressed monocyte adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated endothelial cells. This was validated by ArCC's ability to downregulate the expression and transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules, determined by immunoblot and luciferase promoter assays, respectively...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Patricia G Rosenstein, Brett S Tennent-Brown, Dez Hughes
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature pertaining to the use of lactate as a prognostic indicator and therapeutic guide, the utility of measuring lactate concentrations in body fluids other than blood or plasma, and the clinical management of hyperlactatemia in dogs, cats, and horses. DATA SOURCES: Articles were retrieved without date restrictions primarily via PubMed, Scopus, and CAB Abstracts as well as by manual selection. HUMAN AND VETERINARY DATA SYNTHESIS: Increased plasma lactate concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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