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L Ezra, L Paquin, A Sauvager, S Tomasi, D A Mulholland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
Xinli Wei, Bruce McCune, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Hui Li, Steven Leavitt, Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Svetlana Tchabanenko, Jiangchun Wei
Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae). In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H...
2016: PloS One
Steven D Leavitt, Theodore L Esslinger, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Molecular data provide unprecedented insight into diversity of lichenized fungi, although morphologically cryptic species-level lineages circumscribed from sequence data often remain undescribed even in well-studies groups. Using diagnostic characters from DNA sequence data and support from the multispecies coalescent model, we formally describe a total of eleven new species and resurrect two others in the hyperdiverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae. These include: four in the genus Melanelixia - M...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Tetiana Lutsak, Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Bastian Greshake, Francesco Dal Grande, Ingo Ebersberger, Sieglinde Ott, Christian Printzen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the lichen species Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae) to study fine-scale population diversity and phylogeographic structure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq, 15 fungus-specific microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 81 specimens from four populations from Spain. The number of alleles ranged from four to 13 alleles per locus with a mean of 7.9, and average gene diversities varied from 0...
September 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
Yanyan Wang, Yong Zheng, Xinyu Wang, Xinli Wei, Jiangchun Wei
Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
B Emsen, H Turkez, B Togar, A Aslan
It is known that lichens are utilized for the treatment of many diseases including ulcer, diabetes, and cancer for many years. Secondary metabolites in the structure of the lichens provide various activity properties for them. In the present study, cytotoxic and oxidative effects of main constituents of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae), olivetoric acid (OA), and physodic acid (PA) were investigated on cultured human amnion fibroblasts (HAFs). OA and PA were isolated from P. furfuracea using column chromatography and their structures were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance...
May 20, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka, Hanna Piotrowska, Małgorzata Kucińska, Marek Murias, Wiesława Bylka
CONTEXT: Lichens produce specific secondary metabolites with different biological activity. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of physodic acid, in addition to the total phenolic content and cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of acetone extract from Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (Parmeliaceae). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity of physodic acid (0.1-100 μM) was assessed in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cell lines and a nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake and crystal violet assays during 72 h of incubation...
November 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Steven D Leavitt, Ekaphan Kraichak, Jan Vondrak, Matthew P Nelsen, Mohammad Sohrabi, Sergio Perez-Ortega, Larry L St Clair, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity...
June 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
David Alors, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Pradeep K Divakar, Steven D Leavitt, Ana Crespo
High levels of cryptic diversity have been documented in lichenized fungi, especially in Parmeliaceae, and integrating various lines of evidence, including coalescent-based species delimitation approaches, help establish more robust species circumscriptions. In this study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to delimit species in the lichen-forming fungal genus Punctelia (Parmeliaceae), with a particular focus on the cosmopolitan species P. rudecta. Nuclear, mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and protein-coding DNA sequences were analyzed in phylogenetic and coalescence-based frameworks...
2016: PloS One
Vertika Shukla, D K Patel, Rajesh Bajpai, Manoj Semwal, D K Upreti
Lichens are known to synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Two common lichen extrolites, atranorin and salazinic acid, are known to afford antioxidant as well as photoprotectant nature depending on the abiotic/biotic stress. The present investigation aims to study the influence of altitudinal gradient on the quantitative profile of atranorin and salazinic acid in three lichen species, Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr...
January 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bui Linh Chi Huynh, Duy Hoang Le, Yukiko Takenaka, Takao Tanahashi, Kim Phi Phung Nguyen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, Mats Wedin, Steven D Leavitt, David L Hawksworth, Leena Myllys, Bruce McCune, Tiina Randlane, Jarle W Bjerke, Yoshihito Ohmura, Imke Schmitt, Carlos G Boluda, David Alors, Beatriz Roca-Valiente, Ruth Del-Prado, Constantino Ruibal, Kawinnat Buaruang, Jano Núñez-Zapata, Guillermo Amo de Paz, Víctor J Rico, M Carmen Molina, John A Elix, Theodore L Esslinger, Inger Kristin K Tronstad, Hanna Lindgren, Damien Ertz, Cécile Gueidan, Lauri Saag, Kristiina Mark, Garima Singh, Francesco Dal Grande, Sittiporn Parnmen, Andreas Beck, Michel Navarro Benatti, Dan Blanchon, Mehmet Candan, Philippe Clerc, Trevor Goward, Martin Grube, Brendan P Hodkinson, Jae-Seoun Hur, Gintaras Kantvilas, Paul M Kirika, James Lendemer, Jan-Eric Mattsson, María Inés Messuti, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Matthew Nelsen, Jan I Ohlson, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, Andres Saag, Harrie J M Sipman, Mohammad Sohrabi, Arne Thell, Göran Thor, Camille Truong, Rebecca Yahr, Dalip K Upreti, Paloma Cubas, H Thorsten Lumbsch
We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi...
December 2015: New Phytologist
Carlos Fernández-Moriano, Pradeep Kumar Divakar, Ana Crespo, M Pilar Gómez-Serranillos
BACKGROUND: Lichens are symbiotic organisms capable of producing unique secondary metabolites, whose pharmacological activities are attracting much interest. PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro neuroprotective effects and anticancer potential of methanol extracts of two Parmeliaceae lichens: Cetraria islandica and Vulpicida canadensis. The chemical composition of the two lichens was also determined. METHODS: Neuroprotective activity was studied with respect to the antioxidant properties of the extracts; radical scavenging tests (ORAC and DPPH assays) were performed and oxidative stress markers (intracellular ROS production, caspase-3 activity, MDA and glutathione levels) were assessed in a hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress model in astrocytes...
August 15, 2015: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Steven D Leavitt, Ekaphan Kraichak, Matthew P Nelsen, Susanne Altermann, Pradeep K Divakar, David Alors, Theodore L Esslinger, Ana Crespo, Thorsten Lumbsch
Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date...
July 2015: Molecular Ecology
Ulla Kaasalainen, Jochen Heinrichs, Michael Krings, Leena Myllys, Heinrich Grabenhorst, Jouko Rikkinen, Alexander R Schmidt
One of the most important issues in molecular dating studies concerns the incorporation of reliable fossil taxa into the phylogenies reconstructed from DNA sequence variation in extant taxa. Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Several lichen fossils have been used as minimum age constraints in recent studies concerning the diversification of the Ascomycota. Recent evolutionary studies of Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-forming class in the Ascomycota, have utilized the Eocene amber inclusion Alectoria succinic as a minimum age constraint...
2015: PloS One
Steven D Leavitt, Pradeep K Divakar, Yoshihito Ohmura, Li-Song Wang, Theodore L Esslinger, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions...
September 2015: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jano Núñez-Zapata, Paloma Cubas, David L Hawksworth, Ana Crespo
The genetic diversity and population structure of the foliose lichenized fungus Parmelina tiliacea has been analyzed through its geographical range, including samples from Macaronesia (Canary Islands), the Mediterranean, and Eurosiberia. DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α were used as molecular markers. The haplotypes of the three markers and the molecular variance analyses of multilocus haplotypes showed the highest diversity in the Canary Islands, while restricted haplotypes occurred at high frequencies in Mediterranean coastal samples...
2015: PloS One
Ekaphan Kraichak, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, Steven D Leavitt, Matthew P Nelsen, Robert Lücking, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Renewed interests in macroevolutionary dynamics have led to the proliferation of studies on diversification processes in large taxonomic groups, such as angiosperms, mammals, and birds. However, such a study has yet to be conducted in lichenized fungi--an extremely successful and diverse group of fungi. Analysing the most comprehensive time-calibrated phylogenies with a new analytical method, we illustrated drastically different diversification dynamics between two hyper-diverse families of lichenized fungi, Graphidaceae and Parmeliaceae, which represent more than a fourth of the total species diversity of lichenized fungi...
2015: Scientific Reports
Gajendra Shrestha, Andrew Thompson, Richard Robison, Larry L St Clair
CONTEXT: Antibiotic resistance in humans is a major concern. Drugs that target traditional sites and pathways are becoming obsolete; thus, compounds affecting novel targets are needed. Screening lichen metabolites for antimicrobials has yielded promising antimicrobial compounds, yet their mode of action is poorly understood. Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue (Parmeliaceae) has traditionally been used to poison predators, and treat stomach disorders; more recently L. vulpina extracts have demonstrated promising antimicrobial properties...
2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
A A Burkin, G P Kononenko
Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species...
May 2014: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia
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