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Lorenzo Fortuna, Elena Baracchini, Gianpiero Adami, Mauro Tretiach
Lichens belonging to Parmeliaceae are highly diversified, but most of them share an extremely conserved morpho-chemical trait: the lower cortex is heavily melanized. The adaptive value of this character is still uncertain. Melanins are ubiquitous compounds found in most organisms since they fulfil several biological functions including defense against UV radiation, oxidizing agents, microbial stress, and metal complexation. This work aims to establish whether melanization can affect the elemental content of lichen thalli...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Hong-Bo Xu, Tong-Hua Yang, Pei Xie, Shi-Jun Liu, Yan-Ni Liang, Yu Zhang, Zhong-Xing Song, Zhi-Shu Tang
A new pheophytin, (13(2)S, 17S, 18S)-13(2)-hydroxy-20-chloro-ethylpheophorbide a (3), along with two known analogues (1-2) were isolated from the lichen Usnea diffracta Vainio (Parmeliaceae). Among them, compound 3 was a rare C-20-chloro type pheophytin obtained from lichens. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and all the compounds were obtained for the first time from U. diffracta. Compounds (1-3) were evaluated for their xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities in vitro, and the results showed that 1-3 possessed significant enzyme inhibitory actions with IC50 values of 46...
November 2, 2017: Natural Product Research
Alfredo Torres-Benítez, María Rivera-Montalvo, Beatriz Sepúlveda, Olivio N Castro, Edgar Nagles, Mario J Simirgiotis, Olimpo García-Beltrán, Carlos Areche
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Lichens belonging to the Parmeliaceae family comprise 2700 species of lichens, including the Parmotrema genus which is composed of 300 species. The metabolites of this genus include depsides, depsidones, phenolics, polysaccharides, lipids, diphenylethers and dibenzofurans, which are responsible for the biological activities reported including antidiabetic, antihelmintic, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimitotic, antitumoral, antifungal, and antioxidant enzyme inhibitory...
October 30, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Elisa Lagostina, Francesco Dal Grande, Sieglinde Ott, Christian Printzen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Usnea antarctica and U. aurantiacoatra (Parmeliaceae) are common lichens in the maritime Antarctic. These species share the same habitats on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) and are distinguishable based on reproductive strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed 23 fungus-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that cross-amplify between the two species. We used a low-coverage genome-skimming approach on one sample of each species to identify SSR repeats in the two species...
September 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Maonian Xu, Starri Heidmarsson, Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Sesselja Omarsdottir, Elin S Olafsdottir
Taxa in the genus Melanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) belong to a group of saxicolous lichens with brown to black foliose thalli, which have recently undergone extensive changes in circumscription. Taxa belonging to Parmeliaceae are prolific producers of bioactive compounds, which have also been traditionally used for chemotaxonomic purposes. However, the chemical diversity of the genus Melanelia and the use of chemical data for species discrimination in this genus are largely unexplored. In addition, identification based on morphological characters is challenging due to few taxonomically informative characters...
2017: PloS One
Ekaphan Kraichak, Ana Crespo, Pradeep K Divakar, Steven D Leavitt, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Comparable taxonomic ranks within clades can facilitate more consistent classifications and objective comparisons among taxa. Here we use a temporal approach to identify taxonomic ranks. This is an extension of the temporal banding approach including a Temporal Error Score that finds an objective cut-off for each taxonomic rank using information for the current classification. We illustrate this method using a data set of the lichenized fungal family Parmeliaceae. To assess its performance, we simulated the effect of taxon sampling and compared our method with the other temporal banding method...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carlos Fernández-Moriano, Pradeep Kumar Divakar, Ana Crespo, M Pilar Gómez-Serranillos
Lichens species produce unique secondary metabolites that attract increasing pharmacological interest, including their redox modulatory activities. Current work evaluated for the first time the in vitro cytoprotective properties, based on the antioxidant activities, of the Parmeliaceae lichens Evernia prunastri and Usnea ghattensis and the mechanism of action of their major phenolic constituents: the evernic and usnic acids, respectively. In two models of central nervous system-like cells (U373-MG and SH-SY5Y cell lines), exogenous H2O2 induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity...
July 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Shiva Devkota, Ram Prasad Chaudhary, Silke Werth, Christoph Scheidegger
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to document the prevailing indigenous knowledge and various uses of lichens among the lichenophilic communities in the hills and mountainous settlements of Nepal. METHODS: Ethnic uses were recorded during twelve field trips, each of roughly 15 days in three consecutive years, through direct questionnaires administered to 190 respondents. Lichen samples were identified applying microscopic observation and thin layer chromatography (TLC)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
L Ezra, L Paquin, A Sauvager, S Tomasi, D A Mulholland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
Xinli Wei, Bruce McCune, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Hui Li, Steven Leavitt, Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Svetlana Tchabanenko, Jiangchun Wei
Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae). In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H...
2016: PloS One
Steven D Leavitt, Theodore L Esslinger, Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Molecular data provide unprecedented insight into diversity of lichenized fungi, although morphologically cryptic species-level lineages circumscribed from sequence data often remain undescribed even in well-studies groups. Using diagnostic characters from DNA sequence data and support from the multispecies coalescent model, we formally describe a total of eleven new species and resurrect two others in the hyperdiverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae. These include: four in the genus Melanelixia - M...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Tetiana Lutsak, Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Bastian Greshake, Francesco Dal Grande, Ingo Ebersberger, Sieglinde Ott, Christian Printzen
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the lichen species Cetraria aculeata (Parmeliaceae) to study fine-scale population diversity and phylogeographic structure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq, 15 fungus-specific microsatellite markers were developed and tested on 81 specimens from four populations from Spain. The number of alleles ranged from four to 13 alleles per locus with a mean of 7.9, and average gene diversities varied from 0...
September 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
Yanyan Wang, Yong Zheng, Xinyu Wang, Xinli Wei, Jiangchun Wei
Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
B Emsen, H Turkez, B Togar, A Aslan
It is known that lichens are utilized for the treatment of many diseases including ulcer, diabetes, and cancer for many years. Secondary metabolites in the structure of the lichens provide various activity properties for them. In the present study, cytotoxic and oxidative effects of main constituents of Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae), olivetoric acid (OA), and physodic acid (PA) were investigated on cultured human amnion fibroblasts (HAFs). OA and PA were isolated from P. furfuracea using column chromatography and their structures were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance...
April 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka, Hanna Piotrowska, Małgorzata Kucińska, Marek Murias, Wiesława Bylka
CONTEXT: Lichens produce specific secondary metabolites with different biological activity. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of physodic acid, in addition to the total phenolic content and cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of acetone extract from Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (Parmeliaceae). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity of physodic acid (0.1-100 μM) was assessed in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cell lines and a nontumorigenic MCF-10A cell line using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake and crystal violet assays during 72 h of incubation...
November 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Steven D Leavitt, Ekaphan Kraichak, Jan Vondrak, Matthew P Nelsen, Mohammad Sohrabi, Sergio Perez-Ortega, Larry L St Clair, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity...
June 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
David Alors, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Pradeep K Divakar, Steven D Leavitt, Ana Crespo
High levels of cryptic diversity have been documented in lichenized fungi, especially in Parmeliaceae, and integrating various lines of evidence, including coalescent-based species delimitation approaches, help establish more robust species circumscriptions. In this study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to delimit species in the lichen-forming fungal genus Punctelia (Parmeliaceae), with a particular focus on the cosmopolitan species P. rudecta. Nuclear, mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and protein-coding DNA sequences were analyzed in phylogenetic and coalescence-based frameworks...
2016: PloS One
Vertika Shukla, D K Patel, Rajesh Bajpai, Manoj Semwal, D K Upreti
Lichens are known to synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Two common lichen extrolites, atranorin and salazinic acid, are known to afford antioxidant as well as photoprotectant nature depending on the abiotic/biotic stress. The present investigation aims to study the influence of altitudinal gradient on the quantitative profile of atranorin and salazinic acid in three lichen species, Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr...
January 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bui Linh Chi Huynh, Duy Hoang Le, Yukiko Takenaka, Takao Tanahashi, Kim Phi Phung Nguyen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Pradeep K Divakar, Ana Crespo, Mats Wedin, Steven D Leavitt, David L Hawksworth, Leena Myllys, Bruce McCune, Tiina Randlane, Jarle W Bjerke, Yoshihito Ohmura, Imke Schmitt, Carlos G Boluda, David Alors, Beatriz Roca-Valiente, Ruth Del-Prado, Constantino Ruibal, Kawinnat Buaruang, Jano Núñez-Zapata, Guillermo Amo de Paz, Víctor J Rico, M Carmen Molina, John A Elix, Theodore L Esslinger, Inger Kristin K Tronstad, Hanna Lindgren, Damien Ertz, Cécile Gueidan, Lauri Saag, Kristiina Mark, Garima Singh, Francesco Dal Grande, Sittiporn Parnmen, Andreas Beck, Michel Navarro Benatti, Dan Blanchon, Mehmet Candan, Philippe Clerc, Trevor Goward, Martin Grube, Brendan P Hodkinson, Jae-Seoun Hur, Gintaras Kantvilas, Paul M Kirika, James Lendemer, Jan-Eric Mattsson, María Inés Messuti, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Matthew Nelsen, Jan I Ohlson, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, Andres Saag, Harrie J M Sipman, Mohammad Sohrabi, Arne Thell, Göran Thor, Camille Truong, Rebecca Yahr, Dalip K Upreti, Paloma Cubas, H Thorsten Lumbsch
We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi...
December 2015: New Phytologist
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